Slaves & Freepersons
Columbian Museum & Savannah Advertiser;
Tuesday 19 April 1796
Pg. 3 col. 4
25 DOLLARS REWARD—Ran away from the Subscriber's plantation, on Savannah Back River, a few days
ago, the following NEGROES, viz: A Negro Man, named SAMPSON, lately
purchased of Capt. John Dilworth, of Camden County, in this State; he is
full 6 feet high, very black, his head pretty grey, walks upright, is supposed
to be between 40 and 50 years of age, and formerly belonged to the estate of the
late Henry Sourby; he is well known in the southern parts of this State,
being used to go between St. Mary's and Savannah, in a boat with Mr. Dilworth,
and its supposed to be gone to St. Mary's, Beaufort, or some of the Sea Islands,
as he went away in a small Canoe.--Also, from the same Plantation about the same
time, a Young Negro Fellow, named SIMON, also very black, active and
artful; about twenty years of age, near six feet tall, very likely, strong and
well made, is apt to flutter a little, if surprized or sharply spoken to, born
in South Carolina, and purchased by me, together with his mother, brother and
sisters, of the estate of Col. Joseph Maybank of St. Thomas's Parish in
that State, where it is probable he may attempt to go; it is said he has a wife
either at Mr. Campbell's plantation, adjoining mine, or at Dr.
Channings on Savannah River. A Reward of Twenty DOLLARS, will be paid
for apprehending and delivering Sampson to me in Savannah, and Five
Dollars for Simon. If either of them are harboured, the person so
doing may expect to be prosecuted.
JOHN GLEN. Savannah, April 18th.
Georgia Gazette; Friday 12 January 1798
Pg. 2 col. 1
WILL BE SOLD, at the Courthouse in the Town of St. Mary, County of Camden,
between the hours of 10 and 3 o'clock, on Tuesday the 6th day of March next,
A Negro Fellow, named Will, seized under execution as the property of
John Dilworth, at the suit of Gen. James Jackson. Conditions
cath. The property pointed out by the Plaintiff Agent.
J.M. LINDSAY, S.C.C. Sheriff's Office, November 30, 1797.
The Darien Gazette; Monday 2 November 1818
Pg. 1 col. 4
FIFTY DOLLARS' REWARD—Eloped about three months ago, from
the undersigned a remarkably good looking negro [torn] named Scipio,
about 22 or 23 years old and feet nine or teen inches high. He is well known in
Milledgeville, on Turtle river and in Savannah, where he has been occasionally
hired out, and in the latter place has several relations. He was seen in the
company of two negroes, with a dog and gun. It is supposed he will make for
Savannah, and endeavor to get on board some vessel bound to the northern states
or to Europe, as he before attempted to accomplish that object. Any person
apprehending and delivering him to Messrs. Carnochan & Mitchel in
Savannah, or to James H. Giekie in Darien, or to the subscriber at the
Thicket McIntosh county, shall receive the above reward and [torn] reasonable
expenses paid. William Carnochan
N.B. Captains of vessels and others are cautioned against
harboring, employing, or taking him from the state, as the law will be rigidly
enforced against offenders.
The Darien Gazette; Monday 2 November
Pg. 2 col. 1
SHERIFF'S SALES—On the first Tuesday in December next, will be sold at the
Court-house in this county, between the usual hours of 10 and 3 o'clock, the
following property, viz.—One Cow and Calf, as she runs on the commons of Darien;
one bay Horse and one old Sulky, returned by James Hamilton in his
schedule of insolvency, as his property, and levied on to satisfy (so far as
they will go) sundry executions against said Hamilton.
Also, two Negro men, Paul and Boston, levied on as the
property of James Derenges, deceased, to satisfy an execution obtained in
favor of John Bolton, survivor of John Jackson vs. John Wallace,
administrator James Derenges. James Pelot, D.S.M.C.
AN ORDINANCE—[article is torn away] Concerning Free Negroes
and Persons of Color, Settling in the Town of Darien Passed the 14th September
1818.—Be it ordained, that all free Negroes, Mullattoes, or Mustezoes, or
any free person of color, residing in the town of Darien, shall pay tax as
follows, viz: for every male person as aforesaid, from the age of 15 to the age
of 50 years, shall pay a town tax of ten dollars [a] year; and all females as
aforesaid of and between [torn] ages, shall pay a yearly tax of five dollars;
and [torn] Negro, Mullato, Mustezo, or free person of color [torn] come to
reside within the limits of Darien, after [torn] passing of this ordinance,
without first paying a [torn] the said town of fifty dollars, after ten day's
notice [torn] failure of which, they shall be imprisoned for thirty [torn] at
expiration of which time, their persons shall [torn] posed to public sale to pay
the above mentioned [torn] and all incidental expenses. James Troup,
Int[torn] Attest, James Burnett, C.C.
The Darien Gazette; Monday 9 November
Pg. 2 col. 3
three weeks ago, two negro men, well known in this place and St. Mary's, by the
names of Nosko and Chance, formerly the property of John
Holzendorf, sen. A reward of ten dollars each, will be paid by delivering
them to Scott Cray in Darien. A.H. Powell
Gazette; Monday 23 November 1818
Pg. 1 col. 3
REWARD—Ranaway on the 10th instant, from the office of the Darien
Gazette, a Negro boy named Smart, about 12 years old, four feet six
inches height, stoutly built, the countenance pleasing though full and flat
nosed. He carried with him two round jackets; one of dark woolen, and the other
of blue homespun; two checked shirts; osnaburgs trowsers and a pair of negro
shoes. He is supposed to have obtained a passage on board some vessel bound to
New York, or in one going to Savannah, where his parents reside. The above
reward will be given for proof to conviction of such person as may have
inveigled him away, or harbored or now harbors or may harbor him, and ten
dollars [torn] all reasonable expenses for his deliver to Mr. [torn] Gugel
in Savannah, or at the office of the Darien Gazette. McIntyre &
Gazette; Monday 30 November 1818
Pg. 3 col. 4
SHERIFF'S SALE—On the first Tuesday in February next, will be sold at the
Court-house in this county, between the usual hours of 10 and 3 o'clock, the
following two negroes, viz: Cate and her son Joe, levied on as the
property of Green B. Tillman, under a foreclosure of mortgage from said
Green B. Tillman to William Craig. James Pelot D.S.M.C.
The Darien Gazette; Monday 21 December 1818
Pg. 1 col. 3
A LARGE ESTATE FOR SALE—That extensive and well known property belonging to
Pierce Butler, esq. situated on the waters of the Alatamaha [sic], in the
counties of Glynn and M'Intosh, consisting of about 15,000 acres of land of
various kinds, and 535 negroes.
Among the negroes are about forty-five mechanics, viz: Blacksmiths,
House and Ship Carpenters, Bricklayers, Coopers, &c. Of the prime land, there
is about 1600 acres fit for immediate cultivation, viz: 800 acres of tide swamp
on Butler's Island, one mile from Darien, suitable for rice, cotton or sugar;
300 acres of brackish marsh, and excellent cotton land, on Experiment, on Little
St. Simon's, and 500 acres on Hampton, St. Simon's Island, consisting of old
fields that have not been in cultivation for three years.
The estate is amply provided with buildings of every description,
requisite in an extensive culture of rice, cotton and sugar.
A further description is considered unnecessary, as it is presumed
no person would become purchaser, without a previous examination of the
Butler's Island, containing 1498 acres (875 of which are banked in)
is offered for sale in one lot, together with all the negroes, excepting a few
families, that will be kept until the other property be disposed of. The St.
Simon's lands may be divided into several tracts to suit purchasers. The
payment will be accommodating; 20 per cent only will be required to be paid in
hand; and 7 per cent interest on the balance. Any person desirous of purchasing
will please apply to the subscriber. Roswell King
The editors of the Georgian in Savannah, and of the City Gazette in
Charleston are desired to insert the above 8 times weekly, and forward their
accounts to this office for payment.
The Darien Gazette; Monday 21 December 1818
Pg. 2 col. 4
RANAWAY—From the subscriber, on the 12th instant, a very [torn] Negro
Fellow named Jim, about twenty-two or three years old, five feet eight or
nine inches high, stout made, full face, dark complection, lisps a little when
speaking; had on when he went away, a negro cloth jacket and pantaloons, of
white. He was formerly the property of James Thomas, of Burke
county; he was not long since taken out of Darien gaol; he will make for
Savannah or Darien, in order to get on board some vessel, as he worked some time
on board of one when he was out before. He may try to get on board of an
Augusta Boat; and make his way for that place, as he worked there some time at
the bricklayer's trade. A reward of twenty dollars will be paid to any person
who will deliver him to the subscriber in M'Intosh county, or lodge him in any
safe gaol in the state so that I can get hold of him. Jonathan Thomas
N.B. Captains of vessels and others, are cautioned against
harboring, employing or taking him out of the state, as the law will be rigidly
enforced against them.
Gazette; Monday 28 December 1818
Pg. 4 col. 3
ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS' REWARD—Ranaway, on the 7th inst. the
subscriber's negro woman Rose, about five feet four or five inches high,
mild appearance, of easy disposition and apparently forty years of age. As she
carried away with her a good supply of clothes, it is impossible to describe her
dress. She is well known in Savannah, having lived there in the family of the
late Levi Sheftall, esq. and owned latterly by Mr. Elias Wallen.
As her connections reside in that city, it is believed she will endeavor to
reach it. Twenty dollars will be given on securing her in the gaol at Savannah,
or delivering her to her owner at Darien; and one hundred dollars for proof to
conviction of her being harbored by any white person. John Holzendorf,
N.B. If Rose return[s] of her own accord, she will be
Gazette; Monday 11 January 1819
4 col. 4
NOTICE—On the 15th of February next, will be hired, at public outcry
on the farm of John Granham[?], Wayne county, between the usual hours,
Four Negroes (Stepney, Jess, Simon and Dina) and the said
Plantation, the dwelling house excepted. The terms will be made known on the
day of hire. Mary Granham ex'rx. A. M'Donald ex'or.
Gazette; Monday 18 January 1819
Pg. 3 col. 4
RANAWAY—From the plantation of Mr. Archibald M’Larin,
on Savannah river, three negro fellows, viz: FOX, a yellow fellow, had
on irons when he went off. TONEY, of the Angola nation, about five feet
six inches high; and ARCHY, about five feet six inches high, forty-five
years old and very flat footed. A liberal reward will be given for securing
them in gaol, or application to their master; Mr. John M’Nish, Savannah,
or in Darien to B. King & Co.
Gazette; Monday 18 January 1819
Pg. 4 col. 4
TWENTY DOLLARS’ REWARD—Ranaway on the 10th
instant from the plantation belonging to the estate of major Edward White,
in Jones county, and African fellow named TOM, lately purchases at the
sale of Africans in Milledgeville, about 22 years of age, five feet and a half
high, stoutly built, of a very pleasant countenance, his face and back covered
with country marks, the latter very remarkable, meeting on the middle and
running downwards towards the sides. He will probably be unable to mention his
owner’s name. Had on when he went away, a jacket and trowsers of white plains.
It is conjectured that he may attempt to find his way to Darien, Savannah or the
Indian nation. The above reward will be paid to any person who will deliver the
negro thus described, at the plantation from which he absconded, or confine him
in any gaol, so that he may be recovered. Benjamin A. White, ex’or.
The editors of the Darien Gazette will please to give the above six
weekly insertions, and forward their bill to the Journal office for payment.
Milledgeville, December 14—A—12.
The Darien Gazette; Monday 25 January
Pg. 1 col. 1
FOUND—A fifty dollar bank bill by a negro in this city.
The owner can have it again by paying for this advertisement and giving the
finder five dollars for his honesty. Inquire at this office.
The Darien Gazette; Monday 15 February
Pg. 3 col. 4
TWO HUNDRED DOLLARS' REWARD—Absented from the plantation of
James Moore, last, a Negro Wench, named CELIA, and on the 11th
January following, a Negro man, named JACK, both belonging to the estate
of Mrs. Martha Powell, deceased. Fifty dollar's reward will be given for
the apprehension of each or either of said Negroes on delivery to one of the
subscribers and all reasonable expenses paid. As it is believed said Negroes
have been inveigled or stolen from the premises aforesaid, further proof to
conviction of the offender.
Celia is about thirty-five years of age, African born, speaks
rather bad English, and in a very peculiar manner; but is otherwise smart and
shrewd. On being spoken to, she has the singular habit of throwing up her head
with a disdainful air. Jack, her husband, between forty and forty-five
years of age, about five feet eight inches high, steady and sedate in his
manners, one upper tooth lost, and some country marks. Both of said Negroes, it
is believed, are branded on the breast with the letter M.
JAMES MOORE Executors on estate
GEO. ABBOTT Mrs. Powell
Glynn County, February 7, 1819—-17
[Read slave inventory of estate for
Martha Powell and
Glynn County Deed Book G pgs. 305 & 306 regarding Celia and her
husband Jack. Note by Amy Lyn Hedrick]
The Darien Gazette; Tuesday 5 October
Pg. 3 cols. 2 & 3
EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM A GENTLEMAN ON ST. SIMON’S ISLAND
TO THE EDITOR, DATED SEPTEMBER 15, 1824—"I congratulate you on the preservation
of your life and concerns from the horrible devastation and ruin that has cast a
general gloom on our land, desolated our cities, despoiled our homes &
disappointed our hopes. Every carriage house on the Island is crushed with all
the carriages, many carts and wagons and several valuable horses; almost every
Negro house on the Island is down or uninhabitable. Mr. Matthews'
dwelling house, pigeon and store-house alone sustained the shock. My gin-house
unroofed, carriage house, carriage and one horse crushed some of the Negro
houses swept off by the violence of the waves, as the water was three and four
feet deep over the whole point. Not a building in Frederica remains uninjured,
and Mr. Blounts is entirely carried off and the inhabitants forced into
the open field to preserve their lives. The village I understand is quite a
wreck; the large barn, carriage-house and other out buildings being crushed; St.
Clair was less injured, Dr. Grant has suffered great loss in buildings,
and had his carriage and one horse crushed. At Hampton, the loss of Barns,
Negro houses and many out-buildings is, I understand almost general. At
Cannon's Point the loss is incalculable, as the sea broke in and deluged the
whole Point, sweeping away buildings, undoing the labor of years, and despoiling
the ornamental improvements of a cultivated taste. A partial description now
directs me to the South End of our ruin-clad Island, where more melancholy
events have occurred. Capt. Demere has suffered great loss in buildings,
but experienced the still more distressing affliction of having the lifeless
corpse of his grandson RAYMOND, with five Negroes brought to him after a
search of several days. The Messrs. Wrights have suffered very severely
in buildings, but understand Mr. Cater has not been so seriously
injured. At the Light-house, that building and the dwelling-house were the only
ones that remained. At Retreat, our esteemed friend Mrs. Page and her
family must have suffered more in mind, than their pecuniary interest has
sustained by their great losses, as the sea dashed around them with all the fury
of a raging and unparalleled tempest, until it had leveled to the earth the
hospital, store house, carriage, cotton and corn-house, with many out buildings,
crushing their carriage, carts and wagons, drowning their cattle another stock,
and spreading "wild confusion" through their beautiful and interesting
improvements. Such is the scene that will be presented to the visitor of our
once cheerful Island; such the condition of our once comfortable homes, now
alas! wrapped in desolation and ruin! Gracious God! "How mysterious are thy
ways, how deep they thoughts!" As to our crops, if we realize one-third as much
as we expected, we ought not to be dissatisfied.
(Storm happened on 8 September 1824) Further on in this
paper it lists the dead, one being: "Mr. Raymond Demere, 3d, of St.
Simon's and 4 Negroes—they were overtaken by the gale on their way from this
city (Darien)—Mr. D. was in his 29th year. "Mr. Gould
on Sapelo Island, had two of his children dashed from his arms by the waves and
The Darien Gazette; Tuesday 12 October
Pg. 3 col. 5
FIFTY DOLLARS REWARD—Ran away from Pykes Bluff, St. Simons
Island, (Ga) three Negroes, viz. ANDREW and his wife CELIA, and
ISRAEL. Andrew is a tall fellow, deficient of his right eye, and 45
years of age. Celia is a tall mulatto woman, about 45 years of age.
Israel is a short thick fellow, about 45 years of age; he is an artful
fellow, and speaks good English. The above reward will be paid on their being
apprehended and secured in some gaol so that I get them. JOSHUA W. MATTHEWS
Georgian (Savannah, GA); Tuesday 21 August 1827
3 col. 4
RANAWAY from on board the sloop Favourite in Savannah, on the 4th day
of August, instant, a small pock marked negro man named Solomon, about 40
years of age. It is believed that he is lurking in and about Savannah, and is
probably harbored there by some person of colour. The above reward will be paid
to any person, who will apprehend the said Solomon and lodge him in Jail
in that place, by Elias Fort, Esq.
JAS. A.D. LAWRENCE
James Athelston Dawson Lawrence was a resident of St. Simons Island and
Elias Fort was a residence of Eastern Wayne County and Western Glynn County—ALH]
(Savannah, GA); Saturday 15 October 1831
1 col. 5
On the first Tuesday in November next,
WILL be sold in the Town of Brunswick, Glynn County, between the
usual hours of sale, the following slave Dick, levied on as the property
of James A.D. Lawrence, to satisfy the foreclosure of a mortgage in favor
of Samuel M. Burnett.
11 W. MABRY, S.G.C.
(Savannah, GA); Friday 05 July 1832
4 col. 2
months after date application will be made to the Honourable the Justices of the
Inferior Court of Chatham County, when sitting for Ordinary purposes, for leave
to sell the interest of Charles A.F. Irvine, Martha A. Irvine,
Caroline A.F. Irvine and James E. Irvine, being one undivided seventh
part each, in and to a tract of land containing 202 ½ acres, being numbered 13
in the 21st District of the 1st section in the County of
Lee in this State, as also in and to a tract of land containing 202 ½ acres,
being number [sic] 244 in the 19th district of the 2d section in the
County of Muscogee in said state, as also in and to five negroes named Flora,
Jane, Titus, Clarinda and Jonah—the said tracts
drawn by Alexander Irvin’s [sic] orphans, and the said property to be
sold for the benefit of said orphans.
ANN E. STEWART,
(Savannah, GA); Saturday 6 October 1832
4 col. 1
On the first Tuesday in November next,
WILL be sold in the town of Brunswick, Glynn Co., between the usual
hours of sale, two negroes, named Simon and Cloey levied on to
satisfy an execution in favour of Smith & Dean against Mary
Abbott, and one in favor of John Anderson and John Franklin
vs. Mary Abbott.
Also, three tracts of land, one containing two hundred and
eighty-five and a quarter (285 ¼) acres, bounded on the south-east by
Parrott’s lands, on the south-west by Paynes and on the north-east by
Robert Wall’s land, and on all other sides by unknown lands, one other
tract containing four hundred and forty three (443) acres, bounded on the
north-west by marshes of the St. Tilla and on the north-east, by old survey of
Wanes, by the south-east by Walls Land. One other tract
containing two hundred (200) acres, bounded on the north-west and south-west by
vacant land, on the north-east by Hazzard’s land, and on all other sides
by vacant land—all levied on as the property of Solomon Moody to satisfy
an execution in favor of Ann M’Nish, Executrix of William M’Nish,
against Solomon Moody.
A.G. BURNETT, D.S.C.
On the first Tuesday in November next,
WILL be sold in the town of Brunswick, Glynn county, between the
usual hours of sale—
One negro woman named Sary, levied on as the property of
James Jones, under an attachment issued out of a Justices Court in favour of
J.A.D. Lawrence, levy made and returned to one by a Constable. Also, one
black nae [sic], levied on as the property of Jacob Moore to satisfy an
execution in favor of John Andus.
A.G. BURNETT, D.S.G.C.
The Brunswick Advocate; Thursday 8 June 1837
Pg. 3 col. 6
RUNAWAY--FROM Gowin Swamp on Monday night, two negro fellows,--DICK, a stout
black fellow, about six feet high 45 years of age. NED, stout yellow complected
[sic] about five feet ten inches high 27 years of age. As they both have
relatives on the Brunswick Canal it is very likely they may be in that vicinity.
Ten dollars will be given for the apprehension of each, on application to the
F.M. SCARLETT Oak Grove, Glynn Co. June 5, 1837.
The Brunswick Advocate; Thursday 15 June 1837
Pg. 3 col. 5
WANTED TO PURCHASE--A GANG of ONE HUNDRED NEGROES, for which the Cash
will be paid. F.M. SCARLETT, Oak Grove, Glynn Co., June 15, 1837.
The Daily Chronicle & Sentinel (Augusta, GA); Monday 7 July 1862
Pg. 1 cols. 1 & 2
From the Savannah News, 5th.
A CONTRABAND RETURNED FROM THE YANKEES
We saw yesterday, at the office of Messrs.
Blount & Dawson a negro man named Robert belonging to Mr.
Francis M. Scarlett, of Glynn county, who has just returned from a visit to
his friends at Hilton Head, James Island and other Yankee localities. He ran
away from his master’s place, near Waynesville, in March last, took a boat and
went to St. Simon’s Island. He discovered three gunboats off St. Simon’s, one
of which hailed him. He approached the steamer, and received from them a
countersign. He was then told to go to another one of the gunboats, and when
hailed, to give the word “Contraband.” He then approached the steamer
indicated—the Pocahontas—gave the countersign, and was taken on board.
He remained on board the Pocahontas eight days, during which time he
was kept steadily at work, scouring decks, &c. While on board the gunboat, she
attempted to go up the Altamaha river, but was prevented from going as far as
Darien in consequence of pilings, which they were unable to remove. While on
this trip she sent a boat with eight or nine men ashore to procure fresh meat
and other pickings. The boat was fired into by Confederate pickets, killing
three and wounding two others. The survivors immediately returned to the
Pocahontas, and the dead were subsequently buried on St. Simon’s Island.
From the Pocahontas he was transferred to a steamer, the name of
which he does not remember, and taken down on the Florida coast. Here he was
placed on board the Wabash, and shortly afterwards taken to Port Royal. While
at the last named place, he worked on the wharf in loading and unloading Yankee
steamers, for which he was promised $8 per month. He worked two months but
received pay for only one. He afterwards worked a short time in a saw-mill and
received no pay. He was then employed by Major White of Massachusetts,
as a body servant. The Major promised to pay $10 a month, but after
repeated application for pay, stated that he had no money. He asked Robert
how he would like to go to Massachusetts, who replied “very well,” but says he
had then determined to come back home as soon as an opportunity offered.
From Hilton Head Robert followed the Yankee troops to North
Edisto, and finally to James Island. He remained on the last named Island three
weeks, during which time the battle of Secessionville [sic] was fought. A few
days after the battle he succeeded in eluding the Federal pickets, and passed
into our lines. He was subsequently sent to Charleston and afterwards turned
over to his master.
Robert states that the Yankees are organizing companies of
contrabands, at a place called “Fish Hall,” or Hilton Head, and that it is their
intention to form them into a regiment. He explains the modus operandi
by which the negroes are induced to enter the service. Religious meetings are
held, at stated periods, at which a Rev. Mr. Wilson officiates. At these
meetings an “enrolling officer” was always present, who proceeded to take the
names of the able-bodied men present. These were asked to volunteer, and those
who refused—by far the greater number—were forcibly sent to Fish Hall and
mustered into service. He attended one meeting, which was addressed by a
colored brother from the North. A sentinel stood at the door, (as was the
invariable custom) while the colored brother harangued his audience in behalf of
a church in Canada, and a forced contribution was taken up at the expense of the
imprisoned contrabands. This was the last meeting Robert attended, and
he reports that the audience were at last accounts growing distressingly thin,
the general impression being that their colored orator pocketed the money, and
allowed the church in Canada to look after itself.
Robert reports the negroes on Hilton Head dissatisfied, and
many of them anxious to escape. The island is closely guarded, and escape is
next to impossible. A negro attempted to get away, while he was on the island,
and was shot. The negroes are worked from daylight until eight and nine o’clock
at night. They are allowed no privileges, and are very cruelly treated, and on
very slight offences, they are closely confined and put on bread and water.
Robert’s experience has given him a very unfavorable
impression of the Yankeedoodles generally, and of their military colony on
Hilton Head particularly. From his own report he has good reasons for
preferring to live in Dixie.
The Burlington Weekly Hawkeye (Burlington, Iowa); Saturday 22 November 1862
Pg. 6 cols. 4-6
BRILLIANT SUCCESS OF NEGRO TROOPS—REBEL SALT WORKS DESTROYED. LARGE CAPTURES
OF PRISONERS AND STORES
Correspondence of the New York Tribune.
On Board Steamer From Ft. Monroe to Baltimore, Nov. 14, 1862.
Events of no ordinary interest
have just occurred in the department of the South. The negro troops have been
tested, and to their great joy, though not contrary to their own expectations,
they have triumphed, not only over enemies armed with muskets and swords, but
over what the black man dreads most, sharp and cruel prejudices.
Gen. Saxton, on the 28th of
October, sent the captured steamer Darlington, Capt. Crandell, down the
coast of Georgia, and to Fernandina, Florida, to obtain recruits for the 1st
Regiment South Carolina Volunteers. Lieut. Col. O.T. Beard of the 48th
New York volunteers, was given the command of the expedition. In addition to
obtaining recruits, the condition and wants of the recent refugees from slavery
along the coast were to be looked into, and if, occasion should offer, it was
permitted to “feel the enemy.” At. St. Simons, Ga., Capt. Trowbridge,
with thirty-five men of the “Hunter Regiment of 1st South Carolina volunteers”
who had been stationed there for three months, together with twenty-seven more
men, were received on board. With this company of sixty-two men, the Darlington
proceeded to Fernandina.
On arriving a meeting of the colored
men was called to obtain enlistments. The large church was crowded. After
addresses had been made by the write and Col. Beard, 100 men volunteered
at once, and the number soon reached about 125. Such, however, were the demands
of Fort Clinch and the quarter-master’s department for labors, that Col. Rich,
commanding the port, consented to only twenty-five men leaving. This was a sad
disappointment, and one which some determined to not bear. The twenty five men
were carefully selected from among those not employed, either on the fort, or in
the quarter-master’s department, and put on board. Amid the farewells and
benedictions of hundreds of their friends on shore they took their departure, to
prove the truth or falsity of the charge. “The black man can never fight.” On
calling the roll, a few miles from port, it was found our twenty-five men had
increased to fifty-four. Determined not to be foiled in their purpose of being a
soldier, it was found that thirty men had quietly found their way on board, just
at break of day, and had concealed themselves in the hold of the ship. When
asked why they did so their reply was.
“Oh, we want to fight for our liberty
and for the liberty of our wives and children.”
“But would your dare to face your old
“Yes, yes, yes; why, we would fight
to death to get our families,” was the quick response,--No one doubted their
sincerity. Muskets were soon in their hands, and not time was lost in drilling
them. Our steamer, a very frail one, had been barricaded around the bow and
stern, and also provided with two twelve-pounder Parrott guns. These guns had to
be worked by black men, under the direction of the captain of the steamer. Our
fighting men numbered only about 110 and 50 of them were raw recruits. The
expedition was not a very formidable one, still all seemed to have an unusual
degree of confidence to its success.
What had been done the day previous,
and what had been accomplished on the day of sailing, is described as follows by
Lieut. Col. Beard in his report to Gen. Saxton.
“On Monday, Nov. 3, with the steamer
Darlington, having on board Captain Trowbridge’s company, colored troops
(62,) I proceeded up Bell River, Florida, drove in the rebel pickets below
Cooper’s, destroyed their place of rendezvous, thence proceeded and destroyed
the saltworks, and all the salt, corn and wagons which we could not carry away,
besides killing the horses. Thence we proceeded to Jolly river and destroyed two
saltworks, with a large amount of salt and corn. Thence we proceeded to St.
Mary’s and brought off two families of contrabands, after driving in the enemy’s
“On Tuesday, Nov. 4, proceeded to
King’s Bay, Georgia, destroyed a large saltwork in a creek about a mile from the
landing, together with all the property on the place. Here we were attacked by
about eighty of the enemy, of whom we killed two.”
This was the first place where the
troops were brought under fire. They had all (about thirty in number) just got
into the small boats, when the enemy suddenly rushed out of the thick woods and
fired upon them. Their condition was a perilous one, the enemy being not over
ten rods distant, and the steamer still further off. Nothing daunted, the men
loaded and fired coolly and incessantly, till safe on board. A warm fire was
opened at once by the men from the steamer, and one of our Parrotts played well
its part. It was marvelous that under so heavy a shower of bullets, not a man
was wounded, though many balls were lodged in the steamer and barricades.
Nov. 6—The first landing this day was
on Butler’s Island, from which the troops brought off quite a quantity of rice.
The next landing was at Darien, Ga., where two prisoners and some arms were
taken. The pickets fled at the approach of our troops. Lieut. Walker, of
Captain Trowbridge’s company, who had been left in charge of part of the
company on St. Simons Island, accompanied by twenty-five men, had crossed over
in small boats a few days before our arrival, and had captured, in Darien, the
Assistant Provost Marshal. One of our new prisoners stoutly objected to being
marched to the small boats by his negro captors. He swore a white man was
entitled to more respect; but the overjoyed negroes could not see the force of
his argument or profanity.
The women and children (about fifty)
taken from St. Simons on the day previous were now landed for safety at St. Catherines as a more hazardous work was to be undertaken. Much of the night was
spent in getting wood and cooking meats, rice and corn for our women and
children on shore, and for the troops. The men for the steamer, killing beeves
needed no “driver’s lash” to incite them to labor. Sleep and rest were almost
unwelcome, for they were preparing to go up Sapelo River, along whose banks on
the beautiful plantations, were their fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, wives
and children—Weeks and months before some of the men had left those loved ones,
with a promise to return, “If de good Lord jis open de way.”
At 5 o’clock on Friday morning, Nov.
7, we were under way. Capt. Budd, of the gunboat Potomska, had kindly
promised the evening before to accompany us past the most dangerous places. On
reaching his station in Sapelo Sound, we found him in readiness. Our little
fleet, led by the Potomska, and followed by the Darlington, sailed proudly up
the winding Sapelo, now through marshes, and then past large and beautiful
plantations. It was very affecting to see our soldiers watching intensely the
colored forms on land, on saying in the agony of deepest anxiety, “Oh, masir, my
wife and chillen lib dere,” and another singing out, “dere, dere my brodder,” or
“my sister.” The earnest longings of their poor, anguish-riven hearts for
landings, and then the sad, inexpressible (except by sighs) regrets as the
steamer passed, must be imagined—they cannot be described.
The first intelligence was made at a
picket station on Charles Hopkins’ plantation. The enemy was driven back;
a few guns and a sword only captured. The Potomska came to anchorage, for lack
of sufficient water, a few miles above, at Reuben King’s plantation. Here
we witnessed a rich scene. Some fifty negroes appeared on the banks, about
thirty rods distant from their master’s house, and the same distance from the
Darlington. They gazed upon us with intense feeling, ultimately turning their
eyes toward their master who was watching them from his piazza, and toward our
steamer, which as yet, had given them no assurance of landing.—The moment she
headed to the shore, their doubts were dispersed, and they gave us such a bowing
welcome as angels would be satisfied with. Some of the women were so filled with
joy that they ran, leaped, clapped their hands, and cried, “Glory to God! Glory
The Darlington rested directly in
front of the old planter’s door. About eighty men were formed in line of battle
in the front yard, and some thirty were employed as scouts. The men were not all
landed before the dark subjects of the patriarchal institution were rushing for
the boat. It only required about fifteen minutes to gather their liberal supply
of “old duds.” As they were coming with bundles on their heads, children in
their arms and on their shoulders, loaded also with pigeons, pots, trays,
chickens, ducks, and squealing little pigs, I ventured my unhallowed feet upon
the piazza, when I met the planter and a widowed daughter, who was joint owner
of the fleeing “chattels.” Salutations being exchanged, I remarked to the lady,
“This is a sad morning to you.”
“Yes,” said she, “this seems hard.”
You may consider yourself fortunate
in being thus providentially relieved of the responsibility of going to the
judgment with the blood of these people upon you.
“If it were the wish of Providence,
then let him take them by death,” replied she. But their life is worth more than
their death. “It is a divine institution.”
If it were divine, we replied, it
would relieve them of their rags and filth, renovate their dark and loathsome
cabins, open the school house to their children, and cease to sell husbands and
wives, parents and children. You see how eagerly they rush to us, with a
thousand benedictions, while they express no kind regards to you. The good lady
had no reply, except that the negroes were all their dependence.
After relieving the old planter and
daughter of $20,000 worth of humanity, i.e., fifty-two slaves, and the leather
of his tannery, we re-embarked. Our boats were sent once and again however, to
the shore for men, who, having heard the steam whistle, came in great haste fro
As the Potomska could go no further,
Capt. Budd kindly offered to accompany us with one gun’s crew. We were
glad to have his company and the service of the crew, as we had only one gun’s
crew of colored men. Above us was a bend in the river, and a high bluff covered
with thick woods. There we apprehended danger, for the rebels had had ample time
to collect their forces. The men were carefully posted, fully instructed as to
their duties and dangers by Col. Beard. Our Parrotts were manned, and
everything was in readiness. No sooner were we within rifle-shot than the enemy
opened on us a heavy fire from behind the bank and trees, and also from the tops
of trees. Our speed being slow and the river’s bend quite large, we were within
range of the enemy’s guns for some time. How well our troops bore themselves
will be seen by Capt. Budd’s testimony.
Our next landing was made at
Daniel McDonald’s plantation. His extensive and valuable salt works were
demolished, and he himself taken prisoner. By documents captured, it was
ascertained that he was a rebel of the tallest kind.—We took only a few of his
slaves, as he drove back into the woods about ninety of them just before our
arrival. One fine looking man came hobbling down on a crutch. McDonald
had shot off one of his legs about eighteen months before. The next plantation
had some 500 slaves on it; several of our troops had come down from it, and also
had relatives there, but the lateness of the hour and the dangerous points to be
passed on our return admonished us to retreat.
Our next attack was expected at the
bluff.—The enemy had improved the time since we parted them in gathering
reinforcements. Col. Beard prepared the men for a warm fire. While
everything was in readiness, and the steamer dropping down hard upon the enemy,
the write passed around among the men, who were waiting coolly for the moment of
attack, asked them if they found their courage failing. “Oh, no mas’r, our trust
be in the Lord. We only want a fair chance at ‘em,” was the unanimous cry.
The fire was immediately opened upon
us by the enemy, numbering from 80 to 100 men.—Our troops returned the fire with
effect. Two of the enemy soon fell headlong from the trees, and several on the
ground soon fell. Only three of our men were wounded, and they ceased not firing
till the enemy had, yet the blood completely covered the face of one who had
been struck by a ball in the forehead.
Most people have doubted the courage
of negroes and their ability to stand a warm fire of the enemy. The engagements
of this day were not an open field fight to be sure, but he circumstance were
peculiar. They were taken by surprise, the enemy concealed, his force not known,
and some of the troops had been enlisted only two days. Capt. Budd, a
brave and experienced officer, and yet witness of both engagements, has kindly
given his opinion, which we are sure will vindicate the policy, as well as
justness, of arming the colored man for his own freedom at least.
U.S. Steamer Potomska, Sapelo River, Ga.; Nov. 7
SIR,--It gives me pleasure to testify
to the admirable conduct of the negro troops (1st S.C. Volunteers,) under the
command of Lieut. Col. Beard, 48th N.Y. Volunteers, during this day’s
operation. They behaved splendidly under the warm and galling fire we were
exposed to, in the two skirmishes with the enemy. I did not see a man flinch,
contrary to my expectations.
One of them particularly came under
my notice, who, although badly wounded in the face, continued to load and fire,
in the coolest manner imaginable.
Every one of them acted like
Wm. Budd, Acting Lieut. Com’g Potomska.
To the Rev. M. French, Chaplain, U.S.A.
On reaching his ship, Capt. Budd
led our retreat. It had been agreed, after full consultation on the subject,
that, in our descent down the river it was best to burn the buildings of
Capt. Hopkins and Col. Bailsford. Both of these places were strong
picket stations, particularly the latter. Bailsford had been down with a
small force a few days before our arrival at St. Catherine’s and shot one of our
contrabands, wounded mortally, as was supposed, another, and carried off four
women and three men. He had whipped to death three weeks before, a slave for
attempting to make his escape. We had on board Sam Miller, former slave,
who had received over 300 lashes for refusing to inform on a few of his fellows
who had escaped. He had been the owner of several of our troops and of their
The troops landed in these places
under the guns of the Potomska, and quickly did their work. The first place a
magazine was blown up. At the latter was a strong force, but the shells were too
much for them. The sun had gone down when the troops landed, and the enemy had
the advantage of darkness. Still our men went back half a mile, firing cabins,
outhouses, and finally the splendidly furnished mansion of Col. B.,
sparing only his sword and saddle. All this work was done in the very face and
eyes of the enemy, and yet such was their terror of black men armed that they
dare not make an attack. The en all reached the steamer by the small boats
I would here remark that the men were
not allowed to take any article for their own use, nor indeed did they seem
anxious to do so. To damage the rebels, rescue their friends, and show that they
could be “sogers,” seemed the one desire of their hearts. It was truly
surprising to see how rapidly and expeditiously they could land; after leaping
from the small boats into the water knee-deep, and climbing up the banks, then
would rush into the woods as fearlessly as a dog after a fox. They felt
perfectly at home, scouting in the woods, and were an awful terror, as we had
reason to know, to the enemy. Their intimate knowledge of the rivers made them
invaluable as pilots.
On passing among the men as we were
leaving the scenes of action, I inquired if they had grown any to-day. Many
“Oh yes, massa, we have grown a’most
three inches,” said Sam; “I feel a heap more of a man.”
With the lurid flames still lighting
up all the region behind, and the bright rays of the smiling moon before them,
they formed a circle on the lower deck, and around the hatchway leading to the
hold, where were the women and children captured during the day, and on bended
knees they offered up sincere and heartfelt thanksgivings to the Almighty God
for the mercies of the day. Such fervent prayers for the president, for the
hearing of his proclamation by all in bonds, and for the ending of the war and
slavery, were seldom, if ever, heard before. About one hour was spent in singing
and prayer. Those waters surely never echoed with such sounds before.—It really
seemed, sometimes, as if we could almost hear the angels chanting over us, the
old son of Judes, “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, and good
will to men.”
We refer again to Col. Beard’s
report. He says: “The colored men fought with astonishing coolness and bravery.
For alacrity in effecting landings; for determination, for “bush” fighting, I
found them all I could desire, more than I had hoped. They behaved bravely,
gloriously, and deserved all praise.”
Our steamer left Beaufort without a
soldier, and returned after an absence of twelve days with one hundred and
fifty-six fighting colored men, some of whom dropped hoe, took a musket, and
were at once soldiers, ready to fight for the freedom of others. The troops made
thirteen landings on the main between Fernandina and Fort Pulaski, destroying
nine large salt works, together with some $20,000 worth of salt, corn, rice,
horses, &c., which could not be brought away. About seventy slaves were taken
from their rebel masters, while our steamers brought back the scars of 150 of
the enemy’s balls. The men entered Beaufort singing the John Brown song
more heartily, I venture to say, than it was ever sang before. The negroes now
think they will be ready when the brigade is completed, to take the job of
putting down the rebellion.
Bangor Daily Whig & Courier (Bangor, Maine); 23 June 1863
Pg. 3 col. 2
A Hilton Head letter of the 17th
states that Montgomery’s expedition, consisting of the 54th Mass., the 2d
South Carolina and Brayton’s R.I. battery, proceeded up St. Simons Sound,
Ga., and Tuttle [Turtle] River, above Brunswick, on the 8th, and destroyed a
railroad bridge over Buffalo Creek.
The expedition also ascended Attahama
[Altamaha] river on the 11th above Darien, and captured a schooner laden with 40
bales of cotton and brought her away. The expedition then returned to St. Simons
Island, without the loss of a man, and awaited orders from General Gilmore[?]
and the supply of certain defects of what was found necessary to its work.
The Weekly Gazette & Free Press (Janesville, Wisconsin); 26 June 1863
Fort Monroe, June 21.
Richmond papers of the 20th say that
the city of Darien, Ga., was burned by the federals on the 11th inst., and is
now one plain of ashes and blackened chimneys. Seven iron-clads and were at
Brunswick, Ga., and large forces had landed from transports. Vallandigham
has run the blockade from Wilmington. He is going to Nassau and thence to
The Weekly Gazette & Free Press (Janesville, Wisconsin); 3 July 1863
CORRESPONDENCE OF THE N.Y. TRIBUNE—INVASION OF GEORGIA BY COLONEL MONTGOMERY
Hilton Head, June 17, 1863
Early on the morning of the 11th
inst., Col. Montgomery left St. Simons Island, where his brigade is now
encamped, to present his compliments to the rebels of Georgia, having the week
before sent them to those of South Carolina.
This force consisted of five
companies of the 2d South Carolina, eight companies of the 54th Massachusetts,
Col. Shaw, all negro, and the 3d Rhode Island battery, Capt. Brayton,
and the transports Sentinel and Harriet A. Wood, constituted the fleet.
The expedition ready, the order was
given to sail through Doboie [Doboy] Sound and up the Altamaha river, the
largest stream in Georgia, to the village of Darien, which is said to have
contained before the war some 2,000 inhabitants, most of whom were wedded to the
As the John Adams approached the
village she poured a constant shower of shot and shell into the woods, along the
shore and into the town, as she came up to the wharf. The few “crackers” and
paupers remaining in the place ran frightened and terror stricken in every
direction, and when Col. Montgomery landed his troops, he found not a
single armed inhabitant to dispute his right. Through the activity of some of
the negro soldiers, a few of these poor “white-trash” were caught, who told the
story of there being a strong cavalry force within five miles of the place,
which may or may not have been true. At any rate, Col. Montgomery, from
the information obtained from them, did not desist from his original purpose,
but marched nearly his whole force into the town, posted his sentries and
prepared to do his work.
In a few hours all the valuable
property he could find, of a movable character, was transferred to his boats. A
large class of second-class furniture, considerable livestock, horses, cows, and
sheep, and rice and corn sufficient to feed his command for at least a month,
was thus disposed of.
The inhabitant driven out and the
town sacked, the nest step in Col. Montgomery’s programme was to burn and
destroy everything he could not carry off with him. In a few moments the
principal buildings were all in flames, and, a strong south-west wind prevailing
at the time, the whole village was soon enshrouded in flame and smoke, and
before the expedition returned not a single tenantable habitation remained.
Darien destroyed, Major Corwin
of the 2d South Carolina took the Harriet A. Wood and proceeded up the river in
search of a rebel craft he had heard of through some negroes. When four miles up
the stream he found the report to be correct, and overhauled and captured a
copper-bottomed schooner, a large flat-boat, and 80[?] bales of long staple
cotton, estimated to be worth $30,000. Major Corwin was absent from
Darien two hours, and when he returned with his prize, was received by the
Massachusetts and South Carolina negro soldiers with nine tremendous cheers.
These bold, rapid and successful
expeditions of Col. Montgomery are spreading terror throughout the entire
coast, and are compelling the rebels to abandon their rice and cotton fields,
and all the smaller villages which would be at all likely to be visited by him.
The New York Times; Sunday 28 August
Pg. 1 col. 4
CAPTURE OF THE BLOCKADE RUNNER LILLIAN.
Boston, Sunday, Aug. 27.
An officer of the United States transport
Massachusetts, arrived here today, reports that the blockade-runner
Lillian, for Nassau, N.P., was captured on the 25th inst. off Wilmington by
the gunboats Gettysburgh and Keystone State and transport
Massachusetts. Several shots were fired at her before she surrendered, one
of which took effect two feet below the water line, producing a bad leak, and
another cutting off a man’s hand. The leak was stopped, and the prize taken
into Beaufort, N.C. [sic]. She will be sent to Boston. Her cargo consisted of
721 bales cotton, 50 of which were thrown overboard. The Lillian is an
iron vessel, and very fast. Her Commander is said to be Capt. MAFFITT,
formerly of the pirate Florida.
[Another article states the capture happened on the 24th
ult. This event involved one of Brunswick's newly freedmen, Columbus
The Macon Weekly Telegraph; Tuesday 22
Pg. 8 col. 5
A GRAND JURY IN LIMBO
We stated yesterday that the Grand Jury of
Glynn county had been fined by the Judge of the Brunswick Circuit, twenty-five
dollars for contempt of Court in their General Presentment, or in default of
payment, sentenced to twenty-five days’ imprisonment. They had chosen the
latter, and there being no jail in Brunswick the sheriff had incarcerated them
in the jail at Savannah, where the intended to sue out a writ of habeas corpus
before Judge Schley, of the Eastern Circuit.
As this case is likely to attract some attention we append the facts
more in detail, as gleaned from the Brunswick Appeal, of the 11th
instant. The following was the Grand Jury Presentment:
GRAND JURY ROOM, GLYNN COUNTY}
February 8, 1879}
We, the Grand Jury of the adjourned February term, make these, our
While we congratulate our citizens that every convicted colored
offender found guilty by a legal jury has been sentenced by the Court, and they
are now undergoing the penalty due their crimes, and are prevented for a time at
least the opportunity of repeating or renewing their offences, we regret that a
white criminal found guilty by the same jury of a far more heinous offence than
any alleged to have been committed by those who are now paying the penalty of
their misdeeds, should, under the administration of our laws or the
interpretation of them, be permitted to go at large; and while w are placed
without our seeking, in a position that requires us to diligently inquire into,
and true presentments make, of all offences, we feel we are engaged in a solemn
farce, and mockery of law and we have no encouragement to offer our people that
the present enforcement of law affords them any adequate protection against the
commission of crime.
We are painfully alive to the fact how futile all our efforts for
the establishment of law and order have been rendered by the action of the Court
I admitting to bail one convicted of assault with intent to murder, against whom
an indictment is standing for murder in the first degree.
We have the honor to be,
Hamilton A. Kenrick, Chm’n.
Frances E. Kemp
Edward L. Harvey
Horace B. Robinson
James T. Blain
Alex. B. Forrester
William A. Couper
Benjamin M. Cargyle
Joseph W. Roberts
John B. Habersham
Sylvester C. Littlefield
Geo. W. Aymar
Roland B. Hall
Upon the conclusion of the reading of the
presentments, the Judge rebuked and discharged the Jury. He then ordered the
Clerk not to spread the presentments upon the records of the Court. After
discharging the Jury, he issued the annexed order:
It is ordered and adjudged that each of said Grand Jurors, having
used such disrespectful and contemptuous language in regard to the action of
this Court, be and he is hereby adjudged in contempt of the Court in the
premises, and that they and each of them pay a fine for such contempt in the sum
of twenty-five dollars each, or in default thereof be confined in the county
jail of said county, or in such other jail as the Ordinary of said county of
Glynn may direct, for the full term and period of twenty-five days; and it is
further ordered, that the sheriff of said county be and is hereby commanded and
directed to execute this order.
W.M. SESSIONS, J.S.C.B.C.
The appeal declines to express an opinion about the affair. The
presentment is evidently in contempt, but we are unable to say how much or how
little it might have been merited by the Court.
Advertiser & Appeal; Wednesday 7 August 1878
Pg. 3 col. 1
In an encounter between Mr. Thornton Sharpe, former
conductor of the M. & B. R.R., and a colored man, at No. 1 on the above road,
the former was cut in the breast with a razor. His wound, we learn, is
healing. The negro has left for parts unknown.
The Brunswick Advertiser & Appeal;
Saturday 10 May 1884
Pg. 3 col. 2
BRUNSWICK, GA., MAY 9, 1884.
MR. EDITOR: On Sunday night, the 4th inst., certain
unknown parties tore down a large portion of the fence of the Risley school
house. Their action was a wanton and malicious attempt to injure the property,
and a reward of ten dollars will be paid for information which will lead to the
discovery of the guilty parties. JAMES BLUE.
Pg. 3 col. 4
Horace Cadone, colored, has been found
guilty of burglary, and sentenced to six years in penitentiary.
Jake Brown, colored, has been found guilty of larceny, and
sentenced to six years in the penitentiary.
Isaac Williams, the witness, who would not answer promptly,
and was put in jail, on being searched was found with a pistol in his pocket.
The grand jury at once found a true bill against him, and he has been arraigned
and plead guilty.
Rube Peyton, who killed Watt Russell on the Island a
few weeks since, has been found guilty of murder in the first degree, and
sentenced to be hung on the 20th of June.
Wm. Lewis, who shot Manny Williams, on St. Simons,
whilst working roads, recently, has been acquitted.
Pg. 6 col. 2
If Rube Peyton is hung it will be the
first hanging in Glynn county in sixty-five years.
The Atlanta Constitution; Tuesday 19
Pg. 2 col. 1
GEORGIA GOSSIP—SHORT TALKS WITH THE SCRIBES OF THE COUNTRY
PRESS—A Negro Man Tied to the Track of a Railroad – Homicide in Doughtery County
– The Rice Crop in a Splendid Condition – A Riot in Brunswick – Other Items of
The Brunswick Herald says that a negro man was
securely tied across the railroad track about four miles north of Eastman on
Friday night; the train came thundering along and cut his head from his body.
The train stopped and immediately the vicinity was alive with negroes who had
doubtless bound the man to the track, and were hypocritically lamenting the
occurrence of the tragedy.
[Paragraphs omitted as they dealt with other counties—ALH]
Darien complains of the regularity of Saturday night tragedies among
the colored people. The knife and the razor are its favorable weapon.
James Maxwell, a colored man living in the neighborhood of
Carnaghan bridge, McIntosh county, was bitten on both ankles, by a large
rattlesnake on Saturday afternoon last, while looking for his cow.
Brunswick Herald: About noon yesterday a report reached this city
that a riot was in progress at the upper wharf. The police went promptly to the
scene. It was found that the affair had been greatly exaggerated, but that an
affray between three colored men, Paul Austin, Massey Scarlett,
and Hampton Scarlett, Massey Scarlett had been stabbed in the
shoulder with a knife, the blade of which had been so deeply embedded in his
body that the point could not be pulled out. Scarlett was brought to
Brunswick and Dr. Burford tried to extract the blade, but it resisted all
efforts at extrication. Austin is in jail. H. Scarlett escaped
The Brunswick Advertiser & Appeal;
Saturday 4 April 1885
Pg. 6 col. 5
There lives in this county an aged colored man,
King Heppard [sic], Sr., by name, who is indeed a patriarch. He
is 85 years old and still strong and vigorous. His wife, Matilda, is 59
King Heppard is the father of six sons and five daughters.
Unto these have been born forty-eight children. Of these latter several ware
married, and among them have twenty-seven children. Counting the old man and
his wife, their children and grand children, and great-grandchildren, we have an
aggregate of 88 people in one family.
Old man Hippard [sic, this is the commonly known spelling]
certainly deserves the name of patriarch, but we naturally imagine that in this
day of free American ideas, that the patriarch hardly has the same control of
this immense family that the patriarch of old had.
Weekly Advertiser &
Appeal; 1888 no date or page number
NINE IN ONE FAMILY—“Nigger for luck and poor man for
children” is an old adage that the school census taker has been verified in a
single house. He found one colored family with nine children between the school
ages 6 and 18. Among the whites the greatest number found in any one family has
been seven. Several have run up to 5 and 6 but only one as high as seven.
ST. MARYS—A Youthful Murderer—A Vigilant Grand Jury.
ST. MARYS, GA., April 27, ’87—ED’S ADVERTISER-APPEAL
Last Monday, in company with the Court,
Judge Atkinson, and various members of the bar, your correspondent boarded
the steamer City of Brunswick on our way to this place, together with a goodly
number of our Baptist brethren with their wives and daughters, on their way to
Jacksonville and St. Augustine. The weather was beautiful, the sun shone
brightly, and with fine breeze and in such pleasant company the trip could not
fail to be pleasant. Among the visitors who did much to make the trip enjoyable
were Dr. Walker, who entertained us while stuck in the mud at “the
dividings” by description of his life and work among the Chinese. Mrs. W.J.
Northern and her accomplished daughter, Miss Anna Belle, of Sparta,
We reached Fernandina in safety although behind time, and spent the
afternoon in seeing the town, driving to the beach, taking a surf bath, etc.
But all things changed, and especially April weather. By night the wind is
blowing almost a gale, and Tuesday morning when we re-cross Amelia Sound on a
tug boat it does not resemble the placid waters that we glided across so easily
the day before, for now the waves are rolling and pitching and it is with
difficulty that we get across, but St. Marys is safely reached at last. There
is nothing new to be said about the town. It is just the same, “grand, gloomy
and peculiar; grand in the beauty of its trees, shrubs and flowers, gloomy in
its wealth of vacant houses and deserted streets, and peculiar when we remember
what it once was, and now is, and one is led to exclaim, “Lo, how the might have
Camden Superior Court opened last Tuesday morning, and a faithful
and diligent grand jury have brought many offenders to justice and under the
able management of Judge Atkinson, a large amount of business has been
disposed of. One case tried is peculiar in its nature in that the defendant,
James Williams, Jr., was a little colored boy, 15 years of age, who was
indicted and tried for the murder of his little play mate, Arthur Sullivan,
about eleven years old. They two, with Arthur’s brother, Frank,
13 years old, were playing, and from play got into a boyish fight, with sticks
and knives, during which Jimmie drove a knife into Arthur’s head.
The jury very properly convicted him of voluntary manslaughter, and
the Judge, exercising the discretion vested in him by law, tempered justice with
mercy, and sentenced him to one year in the penitentiary. Three young colored
men were convicted for riot, and sentenced each to 12 months or $50. They paid
London Gibbs was convicted of hog stealing and paid his $50
The Court adjourned to-night, and we leave for home to-morrow
The Brunswick Weekly
Advertiser & Appeal; Friday 12 October 1888
Pg. 6 cols. 2 & 3
There will be one colored man in the next session of the
Georgia Legislature—the Representative from Liberty county, Sam McIver by
name, known before the war as “Estate of Stevens’ Sam.” He is a regular
Chesterfield in manners and address.
THE COUNTY COURT—Judge A.J. Crovatt opened court on
Thursday and forthwith proceeded to “do up” evil doers. As we sat and listened
to his mild words to each offender, we naturally thought “can this be the
terrors of the law” that we read about? But the scene suddenly changes when he
announces to some poor wretch that the law demands that he serve his country for
6, 8, 10 or 12 months on the chain gang. The tone is the same, but the result
is different. His Honor disposed of a large number of cases. Whilst present we
picked up the following:
Judge—Peter Cooper, you are charged with
larceny—guilty or not guilty?
Peter—Guilty Mr. Jedge, an’ I trows de mercy on de court—make
em’ as light as yer kin.”
The Judge took “de mercy” thus bestowed, and in view of Peter’s
crime—stealing a barrel of flour out of Lott’s store in open day time,
and trucking it down the street to his home—gave Peter six months on the
chain gang with privileges of $50 and costs instead.
Otto Martine, a white man, had stolen some clothing from his
employer, tailor Isaacs, and was up before His Honor. He plead guilty,
and being a white man the Judge first thought of giving him eight months or $60
and costs, but finally let him off the same as his colored brother, inasmuch as
he way [sic] a foreigner and not well posted in our ways.
Renty Cohen was told to stand up and say what he had to say
about his guilt or innocence in stealing a pair of pants from Mr. Willie
Miller in Hancock’s bakery. Of course he was guilty, for he was
caught with the pants on (put there by mistake, he said). He plead guilty, and
shared the same fate as the others.
Gen. Fluker, the big eater, was next called up. He is the
man who ate twenty loaves of bread, four pounds of raw bacon and three pints of
syrup and quarreled because he was stopped from eating more. As the gaunt giant
stood up before the court, Judge Symmes arose and begged His Honor that
he make special allowance for the feed of Fluker if he should be
convicted, for Sheriff Berrie could not possibly feed him on forty cents
per day, the amount allowed by law. The General was not ready for trial, so his
case was postponed.
Daily Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 26 October 1888
Pg. 3 col. 3
M. Agee, a section boss on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia road,
knocked on the head and seriously hurt Charlie Tresvant, one of the hands
belonging to another section. It occurred about 10 o’clock yesterday, and
produced concussion of the brain, that may result in death. It was caused by a
dispute having arisen as to some tools that the colored man claimed were in the
care of the section boss. Tresvant went in to take possession of what he
claimed was his own tools, when Mr. Agee picked up a shovel and struck
him on the head. A warrant was sworn out before Judge Lambright
yesterday for Mr. Agee, but up to last night no arrest had been made.
The Brunswick Times; Tuesday, 3 September 1889
Before Justice Coker, yesterday, the negroes
arrested by Constable Levison Sunday (Sept. 1, 1889) had their trial.
They were Alex Roberts, Sandy and Grace Berien, Tom
and Charlotte Roberts. They were charged with having stolen a drove of
turkeys from Mr. Stafford Burney, who resides near Sterling.
Justice Coker bound over Alex Roberts and
Grace Berien to the next term of the county court. The other
two were dismissed.
Broke his leg
Simon Ellis, colored, who works at one of the docks in
the city, had his left leg broken yesterday. Ellis was engaged in
moving some lumber, when the pile fell down on him, crushing his leg quite badly
and breaking it just above the knee. Ellis was taken to his home
near Dixville and a physician was called in who set the fracture and left the
man doing as well as could be expected under the circumstances.
The Augusta Chronicle; Tuesday 24 September 1889
Pg. 1 col. 2
CHASED BY A BLACK MOB—A Brunswick White Man Narrowly
Escapes Negro Lynchers.
BRUNSWICK, Sept. 23.—[Special.]—A sensational
shooting scrape occurred yesterday morning about 2 o’clock, in which J.H.
Minehan (white) shot and probably fatally wounded Frank Golden
Minehan, by instructions of his lawyers, refused to talk.
Golden says that the shooting was without provocation. It occurred in front
of Golden’s saloon, on Mansfield street.
As soon as the shot was fired a crowd of negroes gathered, and
Minehan ran, the crowd following, yelling:
Catch him! Catch him! Kill him! Kill him!
The town was aroused, and as Minehan ran up Bay street
several came down Monk street to join him.
Arriving at the Ocean hotel he saw it was useless to continue
farther, as he would be overtaken and probably killed. He stepped in the front
door and held the mob of infuriated blacks at bay with his pistol.
Officer Goodbread arrived on the scene at the same time
warning his pursuers to leave. They seemed loathe to leave, and followed both
Minehan and Goodbread to jail.
Fearing serious trouble, orders were again given to this crowd to
disperse, and the words this time had their effect, as one by one they left from
around the jail.
Enquirer-Sun; Saturday 1 August 1891
Pg. 1 col. 7
GENERAL FLUKER KILLED—A NOTORIOUS NEGRO SHOT DOWN WHILE
RESISTING AN OFFICER.
BRUNSWICK, Ga., July 31.—At Jessup today
Marshal Goodbread killed General Fluker (col.), an escaped
murderer from Brunswick, while attempting to arrest him. The verdict of the
coroner’s jury was justifiable homicide.
Enquirer-Sun; Thursday 10 September 1891
Pg. 1 col. 4
A BRUNSWICK SHOOTING—THE MYSTERIOUS WOUNDING OF A COLORED
BRUNSWICK, September 9.—[Special.]—Alice
Westmoreland, a mulatto woman in the employ of G.A. Hanson, white,
who keeps a restaurant on Oglethorpe street, was shot between 11 and 12 o’clock
last night in Hanson’s restaurant. The shooting, according to the
statement of the woman and Hanson was accidental. The latter says that
he threw his pistol on a table, when it was discharged, the ball entering the
left ear of the woman, ploughing through the fleshy portion of the base of the
head, coming out three inches in the rear of the ear and making a scalp wound on
his head. The wound on Hanson was examined by your correspondent and it
was evident that it could only have been made by some blunt instrument, and not
by a bullet. According to the statement of Mr. S.T. Goodbread, who rents
the building in which the restaurant is located, and runs a bar in an adjoining
room, and others, the woman is a paramour of Hanson’s. She was found
lying on a pallet in a closet adjoining the restaurant. When questioned she
confirmed the story as told by Hanson. She told Mr. Goodbread,
however, this morning that the shooting was intentional, Hanson married a
sister of Goodbread about two years ago, and deserted his wife and two
children in Boston. The woman is not seriously wounded.
Friday 14 June 1895
Pg. 4 col. 3
BADLY BEATEN—Barber Charles Clark the victim of a
A sensational side scene of the bankers’
banquet at Hotel St. Simon [sic] last night, came to public notice this morning
when Charlie Clark; the popular colored barber, and member of the firm of
Shaw & Clark, was brought home on the Pope Catlin, beaten into
semi-insensibility and with his head and face in a state of decided pulpiness.
Two conflicting stories are told of the affair which terminated thus
unfortunately for the tonsorial artist.
The one which Clark himself tells is that he went to St.
Simon [sic] under appointment from Colonel Kay to attend to and serve the
wine for the Bankers’ banquet. When he took his place in the hotel he was
ordered out by the head-waiter and told that the regular force of the hotel
would attend to serving the wine. Clark refused to evacuate, and a fight
was imminent then and there, but was averted by the interposition of a
peacemaker. Clark stuck to his post and saw that the bankers got their
refreshments in proper shape.
This morning at about daybreak, when he started to board the boat
for home, Clark says the force of hotel waiters mobbed him and beat him
cruelly and savagely into the aspect of annihilation he now presents.
Another story, which comes from the hotel, is that Clark
himself was belligerent and intoxicated, and brought on the fight by cursing the
Tom Floyd, the cook on the Pope Catlin, saw the fight, and
says six waiters ‘ganged” Clark, overpowered him and beat him as stated.
Clark is now at his home, receiving medical attention. He is
delirious and generally regarded as in a pretty bad fix.
G.A. Shaw, Clark’s partner, will take the matter
before the grand jury, where the whole truth of the fracas will doubtless be
Times-Advertiser; Wednesday 19 June
Pg. 4 col. 1
Barber Charles Clark is at his post
again, after several days’ confinement from the severe treatment he received at
the hands of the mob of St. Simons waiters.
The Brunswick Times; Tuesday Morning, 8 February 1898
Criminals Sent to the Gang: City Court Disposes of a Number of Cases, All
Against Negroes Yesterday
Judge Sam Atkinson convened a term of city court
yesterday for the purpose of disposing of criminal cases.
The following were the cases tried and adjudged:
George West, larceny from the house, not guilty.
George Simpson, simple larceny, guilty.
Charlie Stewart, simple larceny, discharged.
Fred Cooper, assault and battery, discharged.
Jim Polite, larceny from the person, not guilty.
W.N. Thomas, misdemeanor, nolle prosequl.
Jerry Hayward, larceny from the person, accusation changed.
The Brunswick Call; Saturday 12 February 1898
Pg. 1 col. 6
UNREQUITED LOVE CAUSED A MURDER—A Tragedy on St. Simon Island Yesterday—LOVE
AFFAIR CAUSES THE DEATH—John Currie, Colored, Loses His Temper and Shoots Venus
Jones, the Woman He Loves.
St. Simon [sic] was yesterday the scene of a very cowardly and a
very cold hearted murder.
It seems that John Currie, a negro laborer formerly
employed by the Hilton & Dodge Lumber co. has for several months been enamored
of Venus Jones, a servant in the employ of Rev. D. Watson Winn.
Unfortunately for Currie the love was not reciprocated on the part of
Venus and his oft repeated offer of matrimony was each time declined by her.
Suffering the pangs of unrequited affection, Currie became
desperate and vowed a month ago and later only a week since, that he would kill
the woman he loved if she again scorned his proposal of marriage.
Venus did not think Currie really meant what he said
and consequently, did not close her doors against him.
Yesterday afternoon Currie called on Venus, told her
his love story and once again sought her hand in marriage, only to be refused
Now completely desperate the man drew his revolver and fired upon
the woman five times two of the balls struck the woman in the head, the other
three taking effect in various portions of the body.
The woman suffered intensely, and though physicians summoned said
death was certain, up to the departure of the Egmont she still lived but death
is sure to come.
After the crime Currie jumped in a boat and started towards
Brunswick. Mr. Bruce McCaskill and other(s) followed but
the fleeing murderer was not overtaken.
Officers here received word to watch all landings but up to a late
hour last night Currie was still at large.
The Brunswick Call; Sunday 13 February 1898
Pg. 1 col. 1
CURRIE BEHIND THE STEEL CAGE—The St. Simon Negro Captured Yesterday—HE WAS
CAUGHT IN BROOKLYN—Brunswick Officers do a Good Piece of Detective Service—A
Call Representative Present.
John Currie, the negro who on Friday shot Venus Jones
at St. Simon [sic] Island and made his escape to this city, was yesterday
arrested and placed in jail by officers of the law.
Currie, it seems, had an awful time reaching Brunswick and
only succeeded by swimming several miles and that too under disadvantages of
When Currie reached the city he went to a small negro hut on
“Red Row,” Brooklyn, and sent down town for a pair of trousers to take the place
of the muddy ones he had on. His friend visited Kaiser’s to get the
pants and here stated that they were for a friend of his who was too muddy to
come down town. This remark was heard by several and reached the ears of Chief
Beach who, together with a CALL representative, did some find detective
work, finally locating the man in “Red Row.” Sheriff Berrie, Chief
Beach, Constable Gaskins, Policeman Gordon and a CALL man left
town at three o’clock, all armed with Winchesters, and went directly to the
house in “Red Row,” where Currie was found. He yielded without
resistance and was placed in the county jail.
To a CALL reporter who had helped to bring about his capture,
Currie said the Jones woman had threatened his life and shot at him
before he fired upon her. This however is untrue.
The injured woman is not dead and advices from St. Simon [sic] say
she is on the road to recovery.
The Darien Gazette; Saturday 2 April
Pg. 3 col. 4
BRIEF LOCALS—Items Taken in on the Fly—Odds and Ends.
[Other articles were omitted but are copied elsewhere—ALH]
On Monday last Justice Way committed John Davis,
colored, charged with carrying concealed weapons, and Preston Dardsen,
colored, charged with wife beating.
The Brunswick Call; Sunday 5 March
Pg. 1 col. 3
ATTEMPTED MURDER—Dangerous Negro’s Rash Act
Yesterday—Attempted to Kill Capt. Tom Foley and Was Jailed by Two Active
Adam Denegall, a well known and dangerous negro, was yesterday placed in
jail by Officers Lamb [and] Scarlett on the very serious charge of
assault with intent to murder.
Denegall was in the saloon of Capt. Tom Foley on Bay
street, on Friday night and insisted on playing cards in the place. Mr.
Foley refused to allow him to do so and finally ordered him out of the bar.
When Denegall reached the sidewalk he picked up a whole brick
and hurled it at Mr. Foley, only missing him an inch.
The police deparment was notified and yesterday morning Officers
Lamb and Scarlett located the negro on a vessel, nabbed him and
placed him in jail.
He will probable [sic] be severely dealt with and should be.
The Brunswick Times; Friday Morning, 5 May 1899
Horrible Crime in Glynn County; One Man Badly Beaten, His Assailant Killed
and Two Women Driven to the Swamps; The Horror is yet to be Investigated;
John Alden, white , and John Bird, colored, Fight. Bird Beats Alden
and Then Drives Alden’s Family From Home-Later, Bird is Found Dead
From Gun Shot Wound Through Head
A horrible crime has been committed in Glynn county within
the past week. One man has been badly beaten, two women have been driven
to the swamps for days and one man has been killed.
The story, as it reached The Times yesterday, is as follow:
John Alden, a white man living at Bellvista, who works at J.A. Sapp’s
saw mill, and John Bird, a Negro who lived near by, went to Everett on
Saturday last. Both drank heavily and commenced to fight. Alden
was badly beaten by Bird and to save his life, Alden was taken
away from Bird’s terrific assaults and locked up out of harm’s way. Bird
then returned to Bellvista, swearing vengeance against Alden. On
reaching Alden’s home, Bird drove Alden’s wife and a young
lady visitor out of the house with threats. The terrified women ran to the
swamps pursued by Bird, but escaped from him. They remained in the
swamps from Saturday night until Monday. On Monday morning Alden
reached home and began a search for his family. He found them and brought
them home. On Tuesday morning Bird, the Negro assailant was found
in the woods dead with a gun shot wound through his head. No further
particulars were received last night. An investigation will probably be
The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 24
Pg. 3 cols. 1-2
TROOPS WERE SENT TO DARIEN—Negro Mob Objects to Removal of
Prisoner—IS CHARGED WITH ASSAULT—From Darien to the Jail at Savannah—SHERIFF
TELEGRAPHED THE GOVERNOR—Asked for Troops, Which Were Sent on Special Train from
Savannah. Negro Prisoner Brought to Chatham Jail—Quiet at Darien.
Darien, Ga., August 23—(Special)—On Monday
Henry Delegal, colored, charged with assault upon a white woman in the
country, gave himself up. The sheriff had him in the McIntosh jail, and the
colored people gathered in great crowds, fearing there would be an attempt to
lynch Delegal. The authorities attempted to remove Delegal to
Savannah, and were met by an armed mob of negroes, who said they did not want
him to be sent and that he be left here in our jail. The authorities determined
to place him in Chatham jail, and asked the governor to send troops to take him
TROOPS LEAVE SAVANNAH
Savannah, Ga., August 23—(Special)—The first
news of the trouble at Darien here came through a telegram from Governor
Candler to the commanding officer of the First Georgia volunteer regiment,
directing him to take 200 men to Darien at once by special train. Captain
P.F. Gleason, of the Irish Jasper Greens, being the senior commanding
officer in the city, at once asked Mayor Myers to have the riot call
rung, and the eleven strokes from the big fire alarm bell made the volunteers
hurry to their armories.
The Savannah Volunteer Guards also assembled, but their services
were not needed. Captain Gleason got his 200 men from the five companies
of the First regiment and completed the requisite number of twenty-five men from
the Georgia Hussars, ordered out by Major Berne Gordon, senior commanding
officer of the First Cavalry regiment here.
A special train on the Florida Central and Peninsular railroad was
secured in short order, and the troops left the city in command of Captain
Gleason at 5:30 o’clock. At 6:30 o’clock they reached Darien junction, and
within half an hour after that were in Darien.
The Savannah troops had no trouble in taking Delegal from the
jail. It was supposed that the troops had come there simply to protect the
prisoner. Judge Paul E. Seabrook had made a speech to the assembled mob,
and there was no attempt at any outbreak. The troops took the prisoner to their
special train, and at 8 o’clock left Darien to return to Savannah.
THE TROUBLE IN DARIEN—On Monday Henry Delegal, learning that
he was wanted on the charge of rape, made by his alleged victim, gave himself up
to Sheriff Black, of McIntosh county. That evening a mob of negroes
gathered around the jail. They thought he was to be lynched, and they were
there to defend him. Yesterday an effort was made to bring him to Savannah, but
the threats of the negro mob prevented it. This morning there was to be another
attempt on the part of the authorities to bring him here for safe keeping, of
which the negroes were apprised. They rang the colored Baptist church bell as a
warning signal, and the negro mob again assembled, though there was no
violence. This led to the action on the part of Mayor Kenan and
prominent citizens of Darien requesting the governor to order troops there at
As soon as the bell rang, four or five hundred negroes assembled,
many of them under arms, and there was considerable excitement all during the
day. The mob made no attack on the jail, but simply announced its intention of
preventing the negro being taken away or being lynched.
Mayor Kenan telegraphed the governor that the town was in
charge of an armed mob of negroes, and his request for troops was promptly
A telephone message from Darien tonight stated that there had been
nor disorder there at all, though it was feared on account of the threats of the
mob. Yesterday a party of Darien citizens called on Judge Seabrook here
and requested him to call a special term of court to try Delegal, fearing
that a lynching would take place unless this was done. In the event of a
lynching, a race riot was predicted. Judge Seabrook was willing to do
anything possible to prevent a disturbance, but things began to look more
ominous, and precautionary measures had to be taken.
According to the story, the alleged offense was committed nine
months ago, and it only became known when the girl in question gave birth to a
mulatto child a few days ago. Then it was she had to explain, and she named
Delegal as her assailant, stating that he had used force in accomplishing
his purpose. She said she had not told it before because Delegal had
threatened to burn her father’s house and to kill her father and herself in the
even she informed upon him.
The special train from Darien arrived tonight at 10:30 o’clock,
western time, and Delegal was taken at once to Chatham county jail, where
he will be safely kept. Captain Gleason left seventy-five men in Darien
in command of Captain Grayson, to preserve order.
ALL QUIET AT DARIEN—The latest report from Darien said the negro mob
had practically dispersed, and no further trouble was anticipated.
The name of the woman is Mrs. Matilda Ann Hope, a young woman
aged twenty-two years. Her husband left her some time ago. The alleged offense
was committed in McIntosh county, about twelve miles west of Darien.
GOVERNOR ORDERS TROOPS—Chief Executive of Georgia Promptly
Puts an End to the Riot at Darien.
Governor Candler was notified by
telegram at noon yesterday of the imminence of a riot at Darien, Ga., and was
urged to hurry troops to the McIntosh county town without delay. The dispatch
received at the executive office stated that as the result of the arrest of
Henry Delegal, a negro charged with assault, a mob of 400 negroes from the
surrounding counties had assembled at Darien and held the town at their mercy.
Governor Candler acted with his usual energy and discretion
and in five minutes after the receipt of the telegram from Darien, a dispatch
from him was on the way to Savannah to the commander of the First Georgia
regiment ordering him to Darien with 200 men. The commander of the regiment was
instructed not to lose a moment if necessary to get a special train for his
The telegram from Darien called on the governor for 500 men, but
with his recent experiences with mobs before him, Governor Candler was
satisfied in his own mind that a body of 200 troops, well officered, could quell
any negro riot that might arise.
Following is the telegram received by Governor Candler from
prominent officials of Darien and McIntosh county:
Henry Delegal, colored, charged
with rape of a white woman now confined in McIntosh county jail. Attempt was
made by officer to remove him this morning to Savannah, but was checked by armed
mob of 400 negroes; own now in hands of mob; desire to remove him to Chatham
county tonight for safekeeping; forces at command inadequate; please order here
immediately 500 troops. Send arms and ammunition for local troops; presence of
troops here tonight imperative. W.C. CLARK, Chairman County Commission.
T.B. BLOUNT, Sheriff. S. KENAN, Mayor. R.H. KNOX, Mayor
In addition to the telegram to Governor
Candler a dispatch was received by Adjutant General Byrd
from Captain B.F. Sinclair, of Troop F, First Georgia cavalry, stationed
at Darien, asking for arms and ammunition at once.
Scarcely half an hour after filing his telegram to the commander of
the First Georgia regiment ordering him to Darien, Governor Candler
received a dispatch in reply from Captain Gleason, of company B, as
Obedient to your telegram ordering 200 men of the First Georgia to Darien, I
leave in thirty minutes with that number under arms and will report promptly to
sheriff. CAPTAIN GLEASON, Company B, First Georgia.
Last night Governor Candler was notified of the safe return
of Captain Gleason to Savannah with his prisoner.
The prompt manner in which the Savannah troops responded to the call
of Governor Candler is taken as one of the signs of the thorough
reorganization of the state militia which Governor Candler determined to
bring about with the aid of his active adjutant general immediately upon his
The Darien Gazette;
Saturday 26 August 1899
Pg. 3 col. 3
A mob of several hundred negroes took charge of
McINTOSH county jail on Wednesday morning last and prevented the sheriff from
conveying Henry Delegal, a negro charged with capital offense, to the
Savannah jail for safe keeping. The sheriff intended carrying DeLegal
off on the 10:20 train but the presence of the well armed mob deterred him from
doing so. It was humiliating beyond measure to the law abiding citizens of
Darien. But as the lawless proceedings were altogether unexpected of course
they were not prepared for the immergency [sic]. The governor was telegraphed
to for troops, and at 7 in the afternoon 200 troops from Savannah, under command
of Captain Gleason, reached Darien. On arrival they proceeded at once to
the jail. The crowd of negroes were dispersed and the prisoner was carried to
the train and sent to Savannah, most of the troops going back. Captain
Grayson, with about 60 men, remained here to preserve order. During the day
and up to the time of the arrival of the troops, the negroes were absolutely in
charge of the jail, without authority and in defiance of law. It was the
intention of THE GAZETTE to give the DeLegal matter a passing notice and
nothing more but the bad negroes of the county have taken the matter out off our
hands and they will now have to suffer the consequences. We have often praised
them as law-abiding and good citizens, and it is now with a feeling of sorrow
that we are compelled to publish their outrageous proceedings of Wednesday
last. They can blame no ones [sic] but themselves and the disgrace now reals
[sic] with them.
Many arrests have been made and we understand that a special term
will be called for next week to try the law-breakers. As we go to press
everything is quiet again.
Col. A.R. Lawton came down from Savannah on Thursday night to
look over the situation. He came here at the request of Gov. Candler.
Davenport Daily Leader (Davenport,
Iowa); Sunday 27 August 1899
Pg. 1 col. 2
Darien, Ga., Aug. 26—The roundup of the riotous
negroes in McIntosh county by the military today resulted in the surrender of
Henry Delegal, the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend at the location
of Delegal’s brother and the woman directly implicated in the killing.
Delegal’s surrender was made to Lieut. Wood in charge of a
detachment of soldiers stationed fifteen miles in the country to back up the
sheriff’s posse, who were scouring the swamps. Delegal stated he
surrendered for protection as his capture was only a matter of a few hours. The
arrest of Delegal and the arrival of reinforcements for the military
seems to have broken the backbone of defiance by the negroes. There are still
several ring leaders of the blacks wanted by the officers of the law. Unless
they come in and surrender or are brought in by friends and turned over to the
authorities the troops will go after them tomorrow.
The Atlanta Constitution; Monday 28
Pg. 1 cols. 1-3
A BUSY NIGHT FOR MILITIA AT DARIEN—Quiet Day Followed by
Hours of Active Work in the Dark—NEGROES SEEMED SUBDUED—Judge Seabrook Calls a
Special Term of the Superior Court—SESSION WILL OPEN WEDNESDAY—Citizens Employ
Prominent Attorney To Take Part in the Prosecution of the Men To Be Indicted and
By C.W. Deming.
Darien, Ga., August 27—(Special)—At 10 o’clock
tonight Captain Sinclair has a detachment of the McIntosh dragoons
marching toward the Lower Bluff mill on the hill of Dodge Lumber Company. The
dispatching of these men followed reports from dragoons on the outposts’ country
districts which told of a big fire reported in that direction.
Considerable apprehension is felt, and a sweep of the country around
discloses fire reflections between Darien and Brunswick.
The negroes are thick around Hilton and Dodge’s Hill, but the fire
did not last long enough to warrant apprehension that the mills have had the
torch applied to them. The dragoons’ posse is heavily armed and well equipped
Sounds of filing in the jail have just been reported to the
dragoons’ armory, and Captain Sinclair has acted promptly. The town
marshal was hurriedly sent for and returned. With his soldiers he attempted to
open the door, but the sheriff had barricaded in on the inside. The marshal had
no key to the other doors, and the sheriff is three miles away at the ridge.
Captain Sinclair has thrown a double guard around the jail, and at the first
efforts to escape the prisoners will be fired upon. John Delegal, the
murderer of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, is one of these prisoners, and it is
thought the filing is being done by him.
LIBERTY TROOP GOES HOME—The Liberty Independent troop at Crescent
City today were given permission to return home.
Scouting parties of dragoons coming in from the country tonight
report to Captain Sinclair that thirteen heavily armed negroes are in the
swamp near the river road. These negroes hide in the swamp during the day, and
come out at night. The dragoons asked and were given permission to return to
the scene with an arrangement by which a detachment of dragoons will go forward
at daybreak to re-enforce them should they not be heard from by then.
At midnight shots near the depot called out all the troops in the
dragoons’ armory, and the entire First regiment from their camps. Captain
Sinclair, at the head of the dragoons, hurried to the depot and found the
sentinels had fired on suspicious parties.
The dragoons and sentinels where thrown out as searchers, but could
not capture the parties. Every company in the First regiment was formed and
prepared for action. Dragoons detachment from Lower Bluff mills returned at
midnight and reported Hilton Dodge mills safe.
TROOPS ARE SENT HOME—This morning Colonel Lawton returned 86
men and three officers to Savannah, and now has remaining 175 men and officers,
all told, from the First Georgia regiment and the McIntosh Light Dragoons.
Colonel Lawton states he cannot say how long all of these troops will be
kept on the scene, but says a large portion of them will be held in camp here
until the special term of McIntosh superior court is over. This special term
has been called by Judge Seabrook, of the Atlantic circuit, and will open
Wednesday next to try the thirty-five negro rioters now in jail at Savannah and
Henry Delegal, the negro about whom the trouble here originated, and
John Delegal, his son, who is in jail here now for the murder of Deputy
Sheriff Townsend, together with such others as may be arrested in the
meantime for riotous conduct.
A committee of prominent citizens acting on behalf of the whites of
this section, has formed and engaged special counsel to assist Livingston
Kenan in prosecuting the negroes. This counsel is Walter C. Hartridge,
of Savannah, and W.G. Charlton, of Savannah, who is well known as a
prosecuting attorney employed by the government in the case of Captain
Oberlin M. Carter. These attorneys are due to arrive tonight and will at
once be taken in charge by the citizens’ committee and furnished evidence on
which to base the prosecution.
MONOTONOUS FOR SOLDIERS—In military circles the day has been
monotonous, barring the departure of Captain Grayson and his men for
Savannah and the arrival of tents for Colonel Lawton’s troops. Among the
citizens of Darien quiet has been partially restored, but the people in outlying
districts are very apprehensive and occasional reports of armed bodies of
negroes being seen in the swamps keeps Darienites on the alert. Today reports
of a negro mob in King’s swamp and continual gun firing in this section resulted
in scouts being sent out and their reports on the situation is expected tonight.
It appears that at least until Wednesday the situation will not be
changed. All the negroes appear to be thoroughly overawed by the determined
action of citizens and the military. They now realize that the whites will not
tolerate their lawlessness and that the whites remain masters of the situation.
They have viewed the arrival of many rifles and much ammunition and noted the
armed men scattered throughout the country until they have come to understand
that all negroes must be peaceful. In Darien and through the country where they
military have passed the soldiers have had a wonderful quieting effect. What
the situation will develop on Wednesday when the negro rioters arrive is a
matter of conjecture, but indications do not point to an outbreak.
MILITARY WILL REMAIN FOR DAYS—Colonel Lawton says tonight
that he is here to preserve order and enough military will remain in Darien
during the special term of court to keep everything quiet, and that he considers
the county practically quiet tonight. Colonel Jacob E. Dart, the
well-known Georgia politician, is here with a party of Brunswickians, consisting
of Robert Pyles, Mason Scarlett, J.A. Clark, of Jekyl
Island; William Davenport, Clarence Leavy, Charles Morgan,
Clinton Brown. They came on a special boat in response to calls for
re-enforcements Friday night and have been doing splendid service as special
deputy sheriffs. Inspector General Obear, of the state militia, left for
Atlanta tonight, after two days here with the troops.
The credit for the part taken by the military in the search for and
surrender of Delegal was given to Lieutenant Leonard Wood. No
such named officer has been here. The military that accompanied the sheriff’s
posse was commanded by Lieutenant Edward A. Leonard, of Savannah.
Colonel Lawton and others request a correction of the error in names, and in
making the request Colonel Lawton said:
“I regret that Lieutenant Leonard’s name was not used. He is
a splendid officer and deserves fully the credit for the military part in
yesterday’s affairs. Lieutenant Leonard acted fearlessly and with a
great deal of discretion and diplomacy in securing Delegal, and I think
he deserves all the praise that can be given him.”
Robert R. Hopkins, whose brother was wounded by Delegal
at the time he killed Townsend, says of Lieutenant Leonard:
“He is a brave officer, and did his duty well as one of the
sheriff’s posse. I know of Leonard’s worth and work and wish you would
give him full measure of praise.”
I can also testify to the bravery, tact and good judgment of
Lieutenant Leonard, having been a witness to his work in the Delegal
swaps at the time of the murderer’s capture.
The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 30
Pg. 3 col. 3
DELEGAL NOW QUITE HUNGRY—McIntosh Negro Says the Wallaces
Are Persecuting Him.
Savannah, Ga., August 29—(Special)—Henry
Delegal, the negro from McIntosh county, who is in jail here, waiting to be
carried back to Darien to be tried for a criminal assault, talked quite freely
today about the recent trouble at his home in which is son killed Joseph
Townsend and shot another white man. Henry knows nothing about the
trouble except what has been told him, but he feels sure something must have
been done or said to his son to make him take the life of the deputy sheriff.
The negro gave a new version of the trouble between himself and
Troup Wallace, the father of the woman who alleges that he committed a
criminal assault upon her. He says there is malice behind the whole affair. A
nephew of Wallace tried to sell a stolen ox to Delegal several
years ago, he says, and Delegal reported the matter to the authorities.
The nephew was sent to the penitentiary for six months, he says, and the
Wallace family has been after him. They tried to get him arrested once on a
charge of cutting timber on another man’s land and failed.
Delegal says he is a pretty hungry man now, despite the fact
that he is given jail rations. He does not complain of the fare except that he
gets bakers’ bread to eat, and he has not cultivated a taste for it.
The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 2
Pg. 3 cols. 1-2
FIVE ARE CONVICTED OF RIOTING; THE TRIAL AT DARIEN
YESTERDAY—First Block of Five Negroes Found Guilt but Sentence Not Passed—FIVE
MORE BEFORE A JURY—Twenty-Seven Have Been Indicted and the Court Will Be Very
Busy—WILL TAKE A WEEK TO TRY CASES—After These Trials Have Been Concluded, the
Cases of the Murderers of Deputy Sheriff Townsend Will Be Taken Up.
Brunswick, Ga., September 1—(Special)—The first
block of five rioters were found guilty today. The jury was out only fifteen
minutes. The rioters were three men and two women who were most prominent in
the leading affair against the sheriff on Wednesday last.
The opening speech for the defense was made by Attorney Colding,
followed by Attorneys Hartridge and Charlton, for the
prosecution. The closing argument was made by Judge Twiggs, for the
defense, in a speech over one hour long. His main line of argument was that the
negro rioters were not rioters at all, but out of curiosity assembled when the
church bell began to ring.
The general sentiment in McIntosh county is that the verdict was a
Court took recess for one hour and reconvened for tonight’s
session. There are thirty-seven indictments out, but only about twenty-six
arrests have been made so far.
It took all day to try the first block of five and at that rate it
will be a week before these trials are concluded. In the meantime there are the
other arrests to be made.
Following these trials comes that of the three Delegals for
the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend. No sentences will be passed until
all riot cases are disposed of.
The rioters convicted today are Ben Dunham, James Wylly,
Marshall Dorsey, Louisa Underwood and Maria Curry. Those
on trial tonight are Jonas Green, a bad negro, Lawrence Baker,
Josephine Bird, a mean negress, Abram Green and Moses Miller.
REVIEW OF THE DARIEN ROW—Showing How Delegal Ruled the
Negroes of McIntosh County.
Darien, Ga., September 1—(Special)—There have
been many race riots reported in this country and many peculiar features
connected with them, but the Darien affair can be safely said to stand without a
parallel in the history of all the troubles. Between time spent in riding about
from one part of McIntosh county to another with military and sheriff’s posses,
and tracing down various rumors of more or less exciting nature, some of which
were veritable “hair curlers.” I have learned a great deal of what can happen
to alarm people in a county where negroes outnumber whites about four to one,
and woods are so thick a man can hardly force a horse through. To get to the
bottom of this trouble one has to review a situation of many years’ existence.
In years gone by negroes ruled the county vote and negro office holders were the
rule and not the exception. There are two here now, the postmaster and deputy
collector of customs, but President McKinley put these two where they are
and they cut no figure in the present situation except the influence their
holding such responsible and prominent offices has upon the minds of the average
negro. But to go back to the beginning is to tell of the days of the carpet
baggers and the means that intelligent whites had to employ to get rid of them
as office holders. To accomplish this end the work of negro leaders had to be
HENRY DELEGAL’S INFLUENCE—One of the negroes who became identified
with the whites in this effort was Henry Delegal, now in jail charged
with raping a white woman and about whom the present trouble originated.
Delegal worked with the whites for years and then became a rank republican
negro leader. He forsook the even peaceful tenor of white democratic ways, and
moving into a dense swamp settlement, became ruler of the inhabitants. The
settlement became known finally as the Delegal Settlement, so powerful was the
negro’s domination. Around this settlement many poor white people who had their
little property and could not afford to give it up and leave, but who viewed
year by year the domineering manner of Henry Delegal and his black
followers. To the blacks Delegal was a hero, a king, and they worshiped
him as a god, while to the whites around he was a terror and a man to be always
feared. At the infectious increase of negro lust for white women spread over
Georgia it reached the Delegal settlement and it was during that time
that Delegal began to sleep with the white woman who recently gave birth
to his black child. She was a woman of bad character, but despite that the
whites of McIntosh county, in view of their knowledge of Delegal
domination, believed her story that Delegal gratified his lust under
threats of death to herself and entire family if she told of his crimes. Not
until the black child came did the whites know that Delegal had gone so
far with his power and when the physician attending the woman reported the
facts, the blood of the whites began to boil. A citizens’ meeting was called
and conducted by fair-minded men. The consensus of opinion was that no negro
could sleep with a white woman in McIntosh county and go unpunished. With this
determination a warrant was sworn out for Delegal’s arrest and he was
jailed. There was some talk of whites from other counties harming him and the
sheriff decided to remove his prisoner to Savannah for safe keeping.
Unexpectedly and to the great astonishment of the whites the negroes arose in
arms and declared that Delegal should not be removed from jail here.
They constituted themselves protectors of Delegal from a mob which only
existed in their excited imagination and from every side came to his rescue from
a supposed danger which never existed. Every lumber boom was deserted, laborers
ran from their work at the mills or quit their work of loading vessels, while
from the country districts they flocked in overwhelming numbers. The negro
church bells rang to call them in, and then for the first time the peaceful
white citizens of this county learned that Delegal’s friends had been
arming and preparing themselves for just such an event for the past ten days.
The whites, totally unprepared for such an occurrence, and outnumbered five to
one by armed negroes, could not assist the sheriff and he returned Delegal
to his cell in the face of five hundred or more desperate blacks, who held the
streets in front of the jail. Immediately the whites began to order arms and
call for troops and re-enforcements, which came in numbers. With their arrival
came the exciting events in which the whites were victorious and Delegal
was removed to the Savannah jail. Quiet was partially restored and the
remaining troops grew tired under the monotonous strain of unexciting guard
duty, when like a thunderclap came the report Friday morning of the killing of
Deputy Sheriff Townsend and the wounding of Deputy Hopkins while
they were attempting to arrest Delegal’s sons for riot and jail them with
a few others that had been implicated in the affair with the sheriff. Like a
seething cauldron the rage of the whites then exerted itself and determination
to bring the murderers to justice and subdue the negro population was evident on
HAD CONFIDENCE IN SOLDIERS—The situation grew critical and
Governor Candler was called upon for more troops. His response with two
hundred men and the later events which followed are fresh in the public mind, as
they appeared in these dispatches and it is not necessary to review them here.
But there is connected with these events some circumstances which call for more
than passing mention, and they present a new phase to the latter days. IT is
the relation of the military to the negroes that is strikingly illustrated. To
the military only have these rioters surrendered, and to the man in uniform they
have given their unreserved confidence. When Lieutenant Leonard was
negotiating with the Delegal’s mother in the swamps of McIntosh he wore
the coat of the “U.S.V.” which had been part of his uniform while a captain in
the late Spanish-American war. This “U.S.V.” was taken by the negroes to mean
that Lieutenant Leonard was a United States soldier, and soon, throughout
all that negro settlement the news spread that the president had sent down
United States troops to protect the negroes. Lieutenant Leonard then
became the negroes’ idol and the Delegal who fired the fatal shot
surrendered to him willingly. How strongly this idea of United States troops
prevailed is best told in the fact that the first circular issued by the negro
preachers and intelligent leaders, referred to the United States troops having
protected Delegal from being lynched and calling upon all rioters to come
from their hiding places and give themselves up and rest under the protection of
these soldiers. The whites of McIntosh objected to the wording of these
circulars and it was called in and another one issued which contained no use of
the word “lynching.”
Following the issuing of this circular negro leaders visited the
swamp settlements and called their people in. Many surrenders followed and the
most important one was the surrender of Ed Delegal on Tuesday last to
Lieutenant Leonard. Delegal regarded Lieutenant Leonard as
his brother’s savior and to him only would he give up. Sixteen miles from the
soldiers’ camp, and in a lonely wood Lieutenant Leonard was piloted to
Delegal and there received his arms. A posse of military were in the
background two miles away, but the negro did not know it. Delegal came
from the swamp and his friends with him. Lieutenant Leonard then held a
semi-reception with the blacks, who gazed at his should straps and the “U.S.V.”
in wonder and admiration. The opportunity was one not to be missed and
Lieutenant Leonard made the negroes a speech, advising them to go in town
and give themselves up for trial, promising them full protection by the
military. That his advice was well taken was evident from the many subsequent
surrenders and complete abandonment of the swamps by the blacks. The court
trials and scenes attendant followed and now one of the most unusual occurrences
of a century is coming to a close in the little city of Darien, situated on the
coast of Georgia.
The Stevens Point Journal (Stevens
Point, Wisconsin); Saturday 2 September 1899
Pg. 2 col. 5
MILITARY IN CONTROL—Outbreak of Riotous Negroes in Georgia
Is Likely Soon to Be at an End.
Darien, Ga., Aug. 28—The round-up of riotous
negroes in McIntosh county by the military resulted in the surrender of Henry
Delegal, the murderer of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, and the location
for future arrest of Delegal’s brother and the woman directly implicated
in the killing.
The arrest of Delegal and the arrival of reinforcements for
the military have broken the backbone of the defiance of the law by the
negroes. A whole regiment of troops are now on duty in and about Darien, under
command of Col. Lawton, but it is not believed there will be further
There are still several ringleaders of the blacks wanted by the
officers of the law. Unless they come in and surrender or are brought in by
their friends and turned over to the authorities the troops will go after them
The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 3
Pg. 4 cols. 1-3
[Photo of troops in front of Darien court house with this
RAPID WORK OF COURT AT DARIEN—Jurymen on Second Batch of
Five Were Divided—REPORTED TO THE JUDGE—That They Were Unable To Agree as to the
Guilt of Some Prisoners—THEIR VERDICT, HOWEVER, ACCEPTED—Three Rioters
Convicted, One Acquitted and a Mistrial Reported on the Other—Grand Jury Has the
Delegal Case in Hand.
Brunswick, Ga., September 2—(Special)—At Darien
today the court moved more rapidly in the trial of the negro rioters. The jury,
out last night on the second batch of five, sat on the case for twelve hours and
then returned with the statement that it was impossible for them to agree on the
guilt of Josephine Bird, the negress, while as for Abram Green
they found a verdict of not guilty.
Judge Seabrook sent the jury back and told them to agree and
report. The foreman stated that they would not agree if they were out six
months and Judge Seabrook told them they could sit seven if necessary.
In about an hour the Judge sent for the jury, accepting their verdict, as they
were then ready to return it.
Those convicted were Jones Green, Moses Miller and
Josephine Bird’s case was reported a mistrial and Abram
Green was found not guilty.
The cases against Charles McDonald, Dave Petty,
Hugh Thompson, Moses Bailey, and John Thompson were on trial
in the meantime and the jury was out only about ten minutes when a verdict of
guilty against them was returned with the exception of John Thompson.
The case against Bill Jenkins was tried separately, he having
employed a different lawyer from the rest, and the jury brought in a verdict of
guilty against him in about ten minutes’ time.
Court then adjourned until Monday morning next.
The grand jury this afternoon took up the case of Henry Delegal,
charged with rape, and about whom the entire trouble at Darien originated. The
jury did not conclude its labors and court adjourned until Monday.
Lawyers for the defense of the rioters today intimated that they
would endeavor to secure new trials for the negroes and asked the court when
they could make a motion to that effect. Judge Seabrook stated that he
thought they had better wait until all the cases had been tried and sentences
were passed before the lawyers began to consider propositions for new trials.
He state, however, that he was not exactly clear on that point and he would let
the lawyers know later.
Judge Seabrook is rushing things at Darien. Three juries a
day are sitting and the trials are being pushed night and day, although it will
probably take all next week to get through with them. Then the murder case is
to come up, followed by the rape case.
BRUNSWICK FOLKS VERY INDIGNANT—Editorial in a Negro
Newspaper Conveys a Threat—ITS AUTHOR IS WELL KNOWN—As a Very Bad Negro, Who Has
Caused Trouble Before—GOOD MEN OF HIS RACE AGAINST HIM—Attacks the Mocks Family
and States That Negroes of Brunswick Are Ripe for a Row.
Brunswick, Ga., September 2—(Special)—The
people of Brunswick have perhaps never been so deeply aroused and indignant as
they are today from an editorial publication in The Brunswick Herald, edited by
Henry A. Hagler, a well-known negro, in which he states that “there are
upward of 200 negroes well armed in Brunswick, who are ready and sworn to
protect us with the last drop of their blood.”
The editorial in question is a second one of the like character, the
first having appeared last week, during which Hagler wrote very strongly
regarding a case now pending in the courts, here against Mr. J.B. Mock,
who is being tried for an alleged offense of assaulting a young negro girl.
Hagler seems to have the idea that the Mock family are after him, and
the editorial starts out directed at them, but includes all the whites of
Brunswick, in a desperate effort to bring a bloody conflict between the whites
and blacks of this county. The editorial in full reads:
THE MOCKS ARE MAD—“Tell Hagler to see me, and see me damn
quick,” the is the message that reached me this week while out in Camden county
soliciting subscribers from one of the Mocks, of whom we wrote last week
as having raped a little negro girl in his store in Brunswick some days ago.
Judging from the past record of the Mocks, they are not yet the angels we
would like them to be, but we were fully acquainted with this fact when the
former article was written, and for the information of the whole crowd of
Mocks we state that we will be in Brunswick about the middle of next week;
that we have a brace of revolvers and Winchesters, and with assurances of
kindest consideration we state that the first person that disturbs the even
tenor of the way will have the early opportunity of being fanned by the gentle
zephyrs from the delectable mountains. It is not our intention to be
discourteous to any one; no gentleman would. We wish to be fair and impartial
to all mankind and in return all mankind must treat us as a man, not as a pigmy;
a gentleman, not a lackey. If the Mocks have any grievances against us,
let them be written out and sent to our office, and they will receive
consideration. Threats with us count for nothing. We know now how we are
situated, and for the benefit of the Mocks and any other hothead who
would rush in where angels fear to tread, we will state that there is upward of
200 negroes well armed in Brunswick who are sworn to protect us with the last
drop of their life blood. It behooves the Messrs. Mocks, et al, to awake
to the fact that times and conditions with the negro have changed. They are now
not the arrant coward they once were. They have reached the conclusion that the
cause of one is the cause of all, and that since they are doomed to die anyway,
they may as well leave some vacant homes other than theirs when they are ushered
into the eternity. We guess this is enough said.
CAUSED CONSIDERABLE COMMENT—When the editorial appeared on the
streets it created a wave of intense comment amongst the whites and blacks of
Brunswick. The white people, and the better class of colored people alike, felt
outraged at the attempt of Hagler to bring on trouble between the whites
and blacks of this community, and on every corner the talk was heard as men
gathered in groups.
Tonight correspondent’s offices were visited by Deputy Revenue
Collector W.H. Matthews and Deputy Collector of Customs Eugene Belcher,
the latter of whom is chairman of the republican eleventh district congressional
committee, and they, on behalf of the colored people, denounce Hagler as
a crazy man who was irresponsible for his attacks and whom the colored race all
condemned for efforts to cause trouble. They stated that they colored people
would call a meeting for Monday and pass resolutions condemning Hagler’s
Hagler’s history is one of an effort to arouse the whites
against the blacks. Bill Pledger, the noted republican leader of
Atlanta, seized his office there for his writings against prominent people, and
in Brunswick the sheriff has his office, and Hagler publishes The Herald
at Charlotte, N.C. From Charlotte The Herald is mailed to Brunswick for
distribution. Hagler is the same negro who aroused the whites of the
south so greatly several years ago by the bitterness of his attack in his
Atlanta paper against the memory of Jefferson Davis. It was at the time
of the removal of the ex-president’s remains to Virginia, and the day the casket
passed through Atlanta the editorial appeared. It inflamed the whites and began
Hagler’s downward career in Atlanta. He then embittered John H.
Devereaux, collector of customs at Savannah; Henry A. Rucker,
collector at Atlanta, and many of the leading colored men in the state against
him by the savagery of his attacks on them personally and against President
Hagler is a firebrand in any community, and the sentiment of
both the whites and better class of colored people here is that Brunswick does
not want him any longer.
Following so closely on the Darien race trouble, his writings are
like a match to a powder magazine.
Tonight the leading negroes of Brunswick furnished your
correspondent with a card denouncing The Herald’s article as untrue, and stating
that they are law-abiding citizens, and do not want trouble with the whites.
The Atlanta Constitution; Tuesday 5
Pg. 4 col. 1
JUDGE SEABROOK GRANTS THE DELEGALS A CHANGE OF
VENUE—Slayers of Deputy Sheriff Townsend Will Be Arraigned for Trial in
Effingham County—DECREE CAUSES SENSATION—Prisoners Will Be Carried to Savannah
Today for Safe-Keeping—CASES TO COME UP WEDNESDAY WEEK—Judge Declares He Does
not Question Wisdom of Governor Candler in Sending Troops to Darien, but Fears a
Fair Trial Is Impossible.
Brunswick, Ga., September 4—(Special)—“I am
opposed to trying cases that involve human life, where the shadow of the
courthouse falls upon the military,” was in substance the statement made by
Judge Seabrook from he bench of McIntosh superior court today, as he announced
his decision to grant a change of venue in the cases against John Delegal,
Ed Delegal, and Mirrandy Delegal, under indictment for the murder
of Deputy Sheriff Townsend.
This statement created a stir in the courtroom and great discussion
on all sides. Judge Seabrook followed it with the declaration that he did not
question the wisdom of Governor Candler in sending the military forces to
Darien at the time he did to protect the place, neither did he mean to criticize
the judgment displayed by Governor Candler in calling out the military,
but for the reason given and for other reasons he did not think necessary to
mention from the bench, he had decided to grant the change of venue to the
accused and set the case against them for trial in Effingham county superior
court on Wednesday week, September 13th.
The calling of the murder case today was something of a surprise and
attorneys for the defense immediately sprang their plea for a change of venue.
Judge Twiggs, for the defense, opened with the declaration
that the accused could not secure an impartial trial in McIntosh county, due to
the inflamed condition of the public mind, and in support of this argument
presented affidavits from Captain Gleason, Captain West and others
of the First Georgia regiment, who were present from Savannah during the
exciting times that followed the murder of Deputy Townsend, and cited the
fact that Henry Delegal and other prisoners had been removed to Savannah
for safe keeping.
The three prisoners had been brought to the courtroom under a
military escort of twelve men and the courtroom was crowded with spectators.
When the defense summoned Colonel Lawton, who is in charge of
the entire military forces at Darien, there was a buzz of excitement.
Colonel Lawton, when questioned by the defense, made a statement to the
effect that he preferred not to testify in regard to the case at all. He said
in substance that occupying the position he did in the adjustment of the
troubles in McIntosh county, he did not think it would be proper for him to
testify and he firmly requested to be excused. The defense decided to grant the
request, and Colonel Lawton stepped from the stand.
Attorney Charlton, for the prosecution, stated that as the
defense had not offered any facts in evidence, only surmises and suppositions
that the accused could not get a fair trial, the prosecution did not feel it
necessary to offer counter evidence, but if the court wanted counter evidence
presented the attorneys for the prosecution would have to have a little time to
prepare it, as the plea for a change of venue was unexpected. Judge Seabrook
gave the prosecution until 4 o’clock this afternoon to present counter evidence.
In the interval the court took up the cases for riot against Ben
Brown, Bob Odistal, Harper Gordon, Henry Gordon, and
Freeman Elverson. The jury convicted three and acquitted Bob Odistal
and Ben Brown. This evening the cases against Jim Ross, Morris
Seabroe, Dan Johnson, Kit Alexander and Ed Follien were
tried. Four were found guilty and the court ordered Ed Follien
discharged. There are eight more rioters now in jail and they will be tried
tomorrow. Indictments are out now for several more, and these will be tried as
soon as they are arrested.
Wednesday morning the case against Henry Delegal, charged
with raping the white woman, will be called. Advices from Darien tonight are
that the military forces will, in all probability, leave tomorrow for Savannah,
taking the Delegals to Savannah jail.
The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 6
Pg. 3 col. 4
DARIEN RIOTERS GIVEN TERMS—Twenty-Two of the Convicted
Negroes Sentenced—SIX ARE HEAVILY FINED—One Thousand Dollars or Twelve Months
Imposed on the Leaders—SIXTEEN GOT OFF A SHADE LIGHTER—The Case Against Harry
Delegal, Charged with Assaulting White Woman, Will Be Taken Up When the Court
Brunswick, Ga., September 5—(Special)—Sentences
were passed on twenty-two rioters at Darien today, six being fined one thousand
dollars each or twelve months on the chain gang and sixteen being fined two
hundred and fifty dollars each or twelve months in the gang. Two others are out
on bond and were not present to have sentences passed. It is presumed that they
will not show up and it is hardly probable that any of the convicted ones will
be able to pay their fines.
The ring-leaders who got the thousand dollar sentences were Jonas
Green, James Wylly, Ben Dunham, Charles McDonald,
Joseph Kimmon, Charles Turner. The others sentenced were Moses
Miller Jr., Hugh Thompson, Dave Petty, James Bailey,
Freeman Elverson, Sharper Gordon, Henry Golden, James Ross,
Kit Alexander, Dan Johnson, Horace Seabroe, Levi
Mitchell, Charles Baptist, Marshall Dorsey and two women,
Maria Currey and Louisa Underwood.
In passing sentence Judge Seabrook took occasion to deliver
the rioters and the spectators a lecture on the necessity of upholding the law
at all times and the penalty that must follow any violation of it. The trial of
the last batch of eight rioters today, the conviction of four and passing of
sentences on the twenty-two, were the main features of the court proceedings,
and tomorrow the court will take up the case of Henry Delegal, charged
with raping the white woman.
Colonel Lawton left Darien today with the remainder of his
military forces, it being in his judgment unnecessary for the military to remain
longer. Henry Delegal was brought over from Savannah on tonight’s train
under a military escort of forty men and these will probably remain throughout
DELEGALS ALL IN ONE JAIL—Prisoners Held at Darien Have Been
Transferred to Savannah.
Savannah, Ga., September 5—(Special)—John
Delegal, Eddie Delegal and Mary Delegal, their mother, arrived
from Darien at 1:30 o’clock this afternoon. They were immediately placed in the
Chatham county jail, where they will be held until the day of their trial in
Effingham county. Colonel A.R. Lawton, Lieutenant Edward A. Leonard
and the Liberty Independent troop, thirty-eight strong, came from Darien with
the prisoners. They were met at the depot by Sergeant of Police Owen Reilly,
and a squad of eleven patrolmen. The “red maria” attracted a great deal of
attention as it hurried down Liberty street loaded with blue coats. Many
persons thought there was a riot and that this was the reason for the assembling
of the officers of the law.
“It is needless for me to march them through the streets of Savannah
and attract a crowd. You are fully able to take care of them and transport them
to the jail without any excitement,” said Colonel Lawton to Sergeant
The patrolmen formed in double ranks and the Delegals were
handed over to them. They were handcuffed to each other and were escorted by
Deputy Sheriff T.A. Baily, of Darien. Mary Delegal, the mother of
the two boys, followed behind. She was not shackled. Up to this time Henry
Delegal, who is charged with rape, did not know that his wife and youngest
son, Eddie, were under arrest. He was in the corridor on the first floor
looking through the bars. The sight of his wife and two boys startled him. He
could hardly believe his own eyes.
“Praise to God, my whole family is in this place; God will do right
and justice is my hope,” he said.
Colonel Lawton announced on his arrival that he was home to
stay. The commanding officer of the First Georgia regiment, who has been in
Darien almost since the trouble first started two weeks ago, looked quite
fatigued. He stated that everything was quiet at Darien and that the trouble
had all ended.
The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 7
Pg. 3 col. 3
IS HARD TO SECURE A JURY—McIntosh Residents Are Prejudiced
Against Henry Delegal.
Brunswick, Ga., September 6—(Special)—Trouble
is being experienced in McIntosh county in securing a jury to try Henry
Delegal. Today over seventy jurors were summoned and out of that number
only eleven have been secured. The jurors go down mostly for cause and about
nine-tenths of them admit their prejudice in the case.
Court has adjourned until tomorrow to give the sheriff another
chance to bring in men and that official is actively at work tonight hunting
available material to present to the court tomorrow.
The Atlanta Constitution; Friday 8
Pg. 3 col. 2
DELEGAL’S CASE WITH JURY—Defense Offered No Evidence, but
Prisoner Makes Statement.
Brunswick, Ga., September 7—(Special)—The
twelfth juror in the case against Henry Delegal was secured in McIntosh
court today and after a heated trial behind closed doors the case is late
tonight in the hands of the jury. There is a belief that it will result in a
mistrial. The woman’s character precludes the probability of the jury agreeing
on the case tonight at least. The trial opened today with the woman’s father on
the stand and the impression made by his testimony was unfavorable to the
prosecution. The woman was then placed on the stand and told a story of
Delegal having forced his way into her house on the night of December 2d
The defense offered no evidence beyond the statement of the accused
and he denied the charge against him.
The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 9
Pg. 3 col. 4
DELEGAL GETS A MISTRIAL—Jury Was Unable To Agree and Change
of Venue Was Granted.
Brunswick Ga September 8—(Special)—The Jury in
the case of Henry Delegal returned a statement that they stood seven for
conviction and five for acquittal after being out all last night. Judge
Seabrook ordered a mistrial. Declared on motion for change of venue it was
granted and the case set for re-hearing at the special term of Effingham court
the same week that the Delegal murderers are to be tried. Judge
Seabrook and all the Savannah attorneys returned to Savannah today.
Delegal was carried back under military escort and lodged in Savannah jail.
Effingham’s special term of court begins next Wednesday. The
prisoners will all be removed next Tuesday night.
The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 13
Pg. 3 col. 2
DELEGALS ARRIVE AT GUYTON—Will Be Placed on Trial for Their
Guyton, Ga., September 12—(Special)—Sheriff
W.W. Griffin, assisted by Deputies L.B. Smith and J.J. Usher,
of this county, arrived here from Savannah at 3 o’clock this evening, with
Henry and John Delegal, the alleged murder and rapist, on their way
to Springfield, where they will be placed upon trial tomorrow morning for their
lives. It will be remembered that old man Henry Delegal was placed upon
trial a few days ago at a special term of McIntosh superior court for an assault
upon a white woman, and a mistrial resulted, whereupon a change of venue was
made by Judge Seabrook to this county. The brothers and friends of
Deputy Sheriff Townsend, who was killed by John Delegal, in McIntosh
county, a few days ago, accompanied the sheriff’s posse to Springfield and will
be present at the trial tomorrow morning.
The Atlanta Constitution; Friday 15
Pg. 3 col. 3
JOHN DELEGAL GOES FOR LIFE—Convicted of the Murder of
Deputy Sheriff Townsend—DURING THE DARIEN RIOT—Jury Recommended Him To Mercy of
the Court—AND THIS SAVED HIM FROM GALLOWS—Henry Delegal, Charged with Rape, Was
Placed on Trial Yesterday Afternoon at Guyton—All the Evidence Has Been Taken.
Guyton, Ga., September 14—The case of John
Delegal of the Darien rioters sent to the Effingham court on change of venue
from McIntosh county was concluded today in a verdict of guilty of murder with a
recommendation to the mercy of the court. He was sentenced to life
imprisonment. John Delegal it will be remembered shot and killed Deputy
Sheriff Townsend, who went to arrest him during the time of the riots.
His brother and sister, who were indicted with him, were acquitted.
The case of Henry Delegal for rape which, after a mistrial in
Darien last week, was sent to this county on a change of venue was taken up this
afternoon. This covers the case out of which grew the riots. There was no
trouble in securing a jury and the evidence was quickly submitted.
The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 16
Pg. 3 col. 2
HENRY DELEGAL IS SET FREE—JURY BROUGHT IN A VERDICT OF NOT
GUILTY—Crime Charged Against Him Caused the Recent Riot at Darien.
Guyton, Ga., September 15—Henry Delegal,
colored, was today acquitted in the Effingham court of the charge of criminal
assault upon a white woman in McIntosh county. This was the affair out of which
grew the Darien riots. Arguments of the attorneys were made at a late hour last
night, and the jury remained locked up until noon today when a verdict of not
guilty was returned.
The cases of Edward and Melinda Delegal, charged with
being accessories to the murder of Sheriff Townsend, were begun this
afternoon. These are the last the [sic] Darien riot cases.
The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 17
Pg. 7 col. 4
EDWARD DELEGAL FOR LIFE—Convicted as Accessory to Murder of
Deputy Sheriff Townsend.
Guyton, Ga., September 16—The Darien riot cases
were cleared up today by the Effingham court. Edward Delegal was
convicted as accessory in the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, of
Darien, and sentenced to life imprisonment. Malinda Delegal, his mother,
indicted under the same charge, was acquitted. A summary of the riot trials
show: Henry Delegal, for criminal assault, acquitted; John and
Edward Delegal, for murder, sentenced to the penitentiary for life, and
twenty-eight rioters sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.
City Journal (Kansas City, MO); Saturday 14 October 1899
Pg. 7 col.
A NEGRESS—Georgia Community in Deadly Fear of a Crazy Woman Who Has a Gun.
BRUNSWICK, GA., Oct. 13.—The section of Glynn county around Sapp’s still
is being terrorized by a crazy negro woman, stark naked, roaming the woods,
shooting at any one she sees. Already one man has fallen dead before her
pistol, while two other negroes, her husband and a brother, have been wounded by
The woman’s name is Mary Eason. A few days ago she became
violently insane, stole the weapon with which she is now armed and a box of
cartridges from her husband and was oof to the swamp. Persons go armed in the
neighborhood and houses are guarded as protection for the women and children.
The Brunswick Times-Call; Thursday 2 May 1901
Pg. 1 col. 6
WHITE MAN KILLED BY BLOW FROM A NEGRO—Fatal Difficulty Near Bladen Tuesday
Night—NEGRO IS STILL AT LARGE—The Dead Man Was a Brother to Mrs. Joseph Lasserre
of This City
At Owens’ store, four miles from Bladen on the F.C. and P. railroad
Tuesday night, Mr. Brown, brother of Mrs. Joseph Lasserre, of this city, was
brained by a negro and the murderer is still at large.
Mr. Brown clerks in the store and when he refused the negro credit
it was the sign for a fuss. After abusing Mr. Brown considerably he showed
fight and reaching for a scantling he struck him in the head scattering his
brains for many yards around.
As soon as he committed the terrible crime the negro made good his
escape and up to the present has not been captured.
The murdered man was formerly from Camden county. He has visited
Brunswick on several occasions and had many friends here who will be grieved to
hear of the terrible affair.
The Brunswick Times-Call; Friday 3 May 1901
Pg. 1 col. 2
MURDERER OF BROWN GIVES UP TO SHERIFF—An Old Negro Surrenders to
Authorities—TELLS A PECULIAR STORY—Says He Never Struck Mr. Brown With
Scantling, But Only a Blow With His Fist
There is in the murderer’s cell of the Glynn county jail at present
an old-time-Georgia darkey, who says he is 63 years old, but from all
appearances, he is not a day less than 80.
And this old negro is on a very serious charge, one that may cost
him his life, but he does not seem to realize what he has done.
This old negro, Charley Harvey by name, is the man who murdered Mr.
Brown at Owens’ store, near Bladen, on last Tuesday night, a full account of
which appeared in yesterday’s TIMES-CALL. Harvey was not seen after the murder
was committed until yesterday morning, when he came to Brunswick and surrendered
to Sheriff Berrie.
A representative of the TIMES-CALL went to the jail to see the old
negro, and he was found asleep in his cell, and it took several good knocks on
the iron door to awake him from his slumbers. The reporter told the old-timer
that he wanted an honest account of how the killing occurred, and he started
“Well, boss, I never did think dat I would be behind dese bars for
killin’ a white man, but I is, I spose,” said Harvey, and then he went on to
tell his story, which, in substance, was as follows:
Mr. Brown was employed as a clerk in Mr. Owens’ store, and the negro
was also employed by Mr. Owens at his residence. He wanted some whiskey, and
says that Mr. Owens told him to go to the store and get it, but Mr. Brown
refused to let the darkey have it without the money, and a quarrel was the
result. According to the negro’s statement, he was followed out of the store by
Mr. Brown, and was struck across the head twice by him with a piece of wood,
although he showed no signs of any blows. The negro says that he then picked up
a piece of scantling, but that Brown took it away from him, and he hit him
(Brown) with his fist just above the right ear, and that he fell to the ground,
his head hitting heavily on the hard ground, “and if he am dead, boss, dat is
jes what kilt him,” said the negro. Harvey said that he then left the scene of
the difficulty and as soon as he was informed that Mr. Brown was dead, he
started to Brunswick to surrender to the sheriff, and rented a boat to com over
from Fancy Bluff. He reached the city about 10:30 o’clock yesterday morning,
went directly to the jail, and told the above story.
So far, we have heard of no eye witnesses to the killing, and it is,
therefore, impossible to give Brown’s side of the case. The negro said that
there were two people who saw it all, but if it is true, they have not let it be
The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 12
Pg. 2 col. 3
GRIFFIN TO BE HANGED FRIDAY—Slayer of Conductor Latimer
Confesses and Is Ready To Die.
Brunswick, Ga., June 11—(Special)—Tricy
Griffin, the negro slayer of Conductor Latimer, is to hang on Friday,
and the scaffold has been erected in the jail yard. The hanging will be
private. Griffin has confessed that he killed Conductor Latimer
and says he is now willing to die.
The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 15
Pg. 5 col. 4
GRIFFIN STRANGLED TO DEATH—Slayer of Conductor Latimer is
Hanged at Brunswick.
Brunswick, Ga., June 14—(Special)—Tricy
Griffin, convicted of the murder of Conductor Latimer, was hanged in
the jail here today at noon, in the presence of about forty people, including
Detectives Conally and Scarlett, of Atlanta, who effected his
capture and conviction. Prior to the hour set for the hanging, the streets
surrounding were well filled with people anxious to catch a glimpse of the
Griffin was kept in his cell until a short time before the
execution, when he was brought into the jail corridor to prepare for the death
trap. He was allowed to talk to the crowds outside the jail fence, and to many
of these he said goodby [sic].
In the jail corridor Griffin reviewed the act which sent him
to the gallows at length and said that he did not intend to kill Conductor
Latimer, but only meant to frighten him. He attributed all his present
trouble to women, cards and whisky. Griffin was led to the trap and
unflinchingly stood while the black cap was fastened and the noose adjusted by
Deputy Sheriff Price of Wayne county. The drop was sprung and
Griffin’s body shot downward to recoil from the jerk. It was seen that the
knot had slipped from under the jawbone to the back of his neck. This prolonged
his death evidently by strangulation, and it was about five minutes before
Drs. Blanton and Blaine [sic] pronounced life extinct. The body was
cut down and placed in a coffin for burial. This ended the first legal hanging
in Glynn county in seventy years.
The Brunswick Daily News; Saturday 3
Pg. 3 col. 3
Lee Blue, a negro who has been wanted by
the local authorities for some time, charged with stabbing Will Skipper a
young white man, has been arrested in Tampa on the charge of highway robbery.
An officer will probably be sent for the criminal.
Daily Telegraph; Tuesday 23 February 1909
Pg. 8 col.
SAYS HE WAS ARCH ANGEL—Jeff Davis Man Held for Murder, Tells Remarkable Tale.
HAZLEHURST, Ga., Feb. 22.—Jeff Davis superior court convened this morning.
Judge T.A. Parker presiding and J.H. Thomas, the newly appointed
solicitor general, appearing for the state.
Rev. DeFoor opened court with prayer.
Four murder cases are ready for trial. A.D. Strickland, who
killed John Cole and was soon afterward adjudged insane and sent to the
asylum, is well and back ready for trial. He says the whole time from before
the date of the homicide to his awakening at Milledgeville is a blank; that when
his mind becomes rational it appeared to him that he had reached heaven, having
had all sorts of delusions during his insanity. He can recollect signing checks
for millions of dollars and feeling like he owned the world; not only that but
he occupied an archangel’s place in heaven.
The case of the state against Walter Carter for the homicide
of Elias Mobley, which resulted in a mistrial when tried before, will
likely be tried this week.
Carrie Miller and John Supple, colored, will be tried
for the killing of other negroes.
Frank Hall, who is charged with having burglarized the
southern depot and Wilson Hardware store, has been captured after a lively chase
in Florida and after being shot in the leg is here for trial.
In addition to this there are fifty misdemeanor cases and
seventy-six civil cases on the docket and ready for trial.
The Brunswick News;
Thursday 7 November 1912
Pg. 1 col. 3
WOMEN OF UNDERWORLD SHOOT UP RIVAL HOUSE—DOTTIE WILLIS, A
MEMBER OF THE RESTRICTED DISTRICT, FACES VARIOUS CHARGES.
Dottie Willis, proprietress of a house
in the restricted district, together with an inmate of her establishment, while
in a drunnen [sic] rage on Tuesday night started in to “clean up” a rival house
in the neighborhood and from the police report of the affair, she certainly
carried out her purpose.
The Willis woman seriously injured an inmate of the place,
shot at the colored maid and broke up all the furniture in sight. She continued
on her rampage after arrest, breaking out the window glass in the woman’s
department at the city jail and destroyed some property. Her hearing in police
court has been continued until Friday and she also faces various charges in the
While some people look upon this class of women as a necessary evil,
there is most assuredly no room in this community for a woman with such a
vicious nature and she should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law for
her unwarranted outbreak and ordered from the city.
The Brunswick News;
Friday 8 November 1912
Pg. 12 (or 8) col. 2
HELD TO CITY COURT—Justice Lambright yesterday held
Dottie Willis in $650 bond and Laura Green in $200 bond for
appearance at the November term of the city court. These are the women from the
restricted district charged with “shooting up” another establishment.
The Brunswick News;
Sunday 10 November 1912
Pg. 5 col. 4
DOES ANYBODY HERE KNOW JAMES?—The News is in receipt of
communication dated Brookman, Glynn county, November 7, stating that Jas.
Dunham, age 87, was married on that date to Tevenier Green, age 54.
This is Mr. Dunham’s third matrimonial venture.
The Brunswick News;
Tuesday 10 December 1912
Pg. 1 col. 6
IN PISTOL DUEL ONE NEGRO DEAD ANOTHER DYING—GUN BATTLE HELD
AT CLOSE RANGE WITH SERIOUS RESULTS—FOUGHT ABOUT A WOMAN—Harmon Robinson is the
Dead Man While Tom Reynolds, Alias Delegal Cannot Live But a Few Hours. Happens
In a pistol duel at close range one man was
killed yesterday afternoon about 5 o’clock and the other so badly wounded he
cannot live but a few hours, so the doctors say.
The shooting occurred at the home of Harmon Robinson, the
dead man, and the other party in the duel was Tom Reynolds, alias
Delegal, both of who mare well known middle-age negroes.
It seems that bad blood had existed for along time, Robinson
accusing Reynolds with intmacy [sic] with his wife. The wounded man went
to the house of the dead man to see Will Smith, who occupies a part of
it, and shortly after his arrival the shooting started. They were in a small
room and it was a close range affair.
Robinson was struck in the breast by one bullet, but died in
a few minutes. Reynolds was hit three times through the lungs, in the
stomach and his arm, the bullet breaking this member. With the three bullets in
his body the wounded man rushed out of the house and went to his own home, 1604
Stonewall, where he was found by the police.
While Will Smith and Robinson’s wife were in the house
at the time of the shooting they did not see it. The shooting caused a great
deal of excitement among the colored people and hundred gathered around the
scene of the affray.
The Brunswick News;
Wednesday 11 December 1912
Pg. 1 col. 4
NEGRO IS EXONERATED BY THE CORONER’S JURY—TOM REYNOLDS, IT
APPEARS, SHOT AND KILLED ROBINSON IN SELF-DEFENSE.
Tom Reynolds, the negro who shot and
killed Harmon Robinson in a pistol duel Monday afternoon, was yesterday
exonerated by a coroner’s jury who, after looking into the case and summoning
all witnesses possible, came to the conclusion that Reynolds fired in
The inquest was held at the home of Reynolds, who himself was
seriously wounded, having been struck by five bullets from the revolver of
Robinson. It developed at the inquest that Reynolds did not fire
upon Robinson until he had been struck by two bullets, when he opened
fire on the dead negro.
The condition of Reynolds was reported much improved and it
is now probable that he will recover. The remains of Robinson were
interred yesterday afternoon.
The Brunswick News;
Thursday 12 December 1912
Pg. 1 col. 5
CRAZY WEST INDIA NEGRO—Now in Jail and Authorities are
James Samuel Hedge, a West India negro,
is giving the authorities quite a lot of trouble. He is crazy and if not a
citizen of this county, of course he could not be sent to the asylum.
Ordinary Dart has taken up the matter with Immigration
Inspector Johnson and if he is not a citizen he will be deported.
Hedge claims that he came here on the schooner Carrie Strong
some time ago and that he has a family in the West Indies. If this is true the
federal government will see that he is taken away from American soil at the
earliest possible moment.
CRAZY NEGRO FROM ST. SIMONS—Had Been Rambling Around for
An insane unknown negro is confined in the
Glynn county jail, and who he is or where he came from is a mystery. The man
has been on St. Simon(s) rambling around for the past several days and Deputy
Sheriff Owens went over and returned with him yesterday.
The negro insists that he has murdered a man, but whether this is
true or not is, of course, unknown. One thing is certain, however, he is crazy
and will probably be sent to the asylum.
Pg. 8 col. 2
REYNOLDS STILL LIVING—Tom Reynolds, the negro who
shot and killed Harmon Robinson and who was badly wounded himself is
still alive and the chances for his recovery are good. As the coroner’s jury
exonerated Reynolds he has not been placed under police surveillance.
The Brunswick News; Wednesday 1 April 1914
Pg. 1 cols. 2-3
THREE PRISONERS ESCAPE FROM GLYNN COUNTY JAIL—Secreted
Themselves In Unused Cell and Rushed Out as Jailer Opened Door.
Three negro prisoners escaped from the county
jail yesterday morning shortly after 5 o’clock, when Jailer Lowe opened
the door to the cage to release the trusty who works around the jail.
The men, John Hicks and Joe Young, charged with
entering the Georgia Hardware company and Will Moore charged with
stealing from the Wright & Gowen Co., had hidden themselves in an unused cell
the night before, the door of which is not in working order and when Mr. Lowe
opened the cage door they rushed out of the cell, which is the first on the
right adjoining the door, and reached the door that opens into the front of the
jail. This door was locked, but the key had been left in the lock and one of
the men, reaching his hand through the bars, unlocked it and thus opened the way
to the street.
As the men rushed past him, Mr. Lowe drew his revolver and
ordered them to halt, Hicks stopped, saying he was coming back and
begging Mr. Lowe not to shoot. Young ran up the stairs to the
second floor as Moore was reaching through the bars to unlock the outside
As Moore unlocked the door, Hicks instead of coming
back, turned and ran, Mr. Lowe firing at him twice. Young came
back down the stairs and all three men escaped as Mr. Lowe was locking
the door in the cage under the fear that some of the other prisoners were out of
No blame whatever can be attached to Mr. Lowe in the matter
as every ordinary precaution had been taken, the fortunate part of the affair
being the fact that the men did not assault the jailer in making their escape.
Every avenue of escape from the city is being guarded and there is
little doubt that the men will be apprehended and returned to jail within a
short time, as all are known to the police and county officers, and a determined
hunt for them is now on.
The Brunswick News; Wednesday 3 June 1914
Pg. 1 col. 4
RECEIVES LIFE SENTENCE--Was ably defended by Judge Gale--State made out strong
Ansel Pinkney, charged with the murder of Sadie Wooten
in McCullough’s store at Pennick, was placed on trial in superior court
yesterday afternoon, the jury returning a verdict at 7:30 o’clock last night for
murder in the first degree with a recommendation for mercy which means life
Pinkney was ably defended by Judge A.D. Gale, as the
state made out a strong case the consensus of opinion being that the jury would
return a verdict carrying with it the death penalty.
Court will convene at 9 o’clock this morning with Judge C.B.
Conyers presiding, and exceptionally large number of criminal cases being on
docket, which it is thought it will take some weeks to clear.
The Savannah Tribune;
Saturday 17 June 1916
Pg. 4 col. 2
Brunswick is being well represented in the
northern states these days with a large number that is already there, yet there
are a few more to go. Miss Leola Menidy, Miss Ellen Dennis,
Miss Sally Ried and Mrs. Eldora Floyd will leave Friday for points in
Miss Leola Buggs is spending her
vacation with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Adolphus C. Buggs.
Miss Buggs is one of the teachers of Coleman Institute at Gisbland, La. She
reports having had much success her first year in teaching music. Miss Buggs
is a graduate of Fisk University.
The closing exercise of Risley school last
Friday night was excellent from every point of view. The teachers deserve much
credit. Notwithstanding the number of hours each teacher is engaged in her
duties each participant displayed well his part. Since the leaving of Prof.
Whithead as principal, the work has been entirely in the hands of Miss
C.I. McIntyre. There ought to be ome [sic] request made to the board of
education by the colored citizens of Brunswick in reference to our public school
system, for conditions are bad. To search the record of Risley one would find
that the board has not done one thing for the colored people but remodeled and
painted what was given by northern philanthropists. There are as many colored
children as white and only one school for them. The grand jury recommends but
the recommendations fail to materialize.
The Savannah Tribune;
Tuesday 25 June 1921
Pg. 2 col. 2
Mrs. Madison Scarlett and her daughter,
Miss Annie M. Scarlett left Washington last week to spend some time with
her son, Geo. Scarlett, who is practicing law in that city. Miss
Scarlett is a recent graduate of Howard University. They will return next
The engagement of Prof. S.C. Mitchell,
principal of Selden Institute to Miss Ella McLeod is announced. Their
wedding will take place June 29, 9 o’clock at the Presbyterian church, Cordele,
Ga. Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell will be at home Selden Institute,
Brunswick, Ga., after July 1.
The Brunswick News;
Tuesday 2 November 1926
Pg. 8 col. 2
AN AGED COLORED RESIDENT MISSING
Jack Bailey, colored, for thirty-five
years living near Brookman, and a resident of this county all of his life, is
strangely missing from his home and the relatives of the old negro who is known
throughout the section, are using every effort to locate him.
Bailey, it seems, mysteriously disappeared from his home near
Brookman on October 17, and although members of his family have made every
possible effort to locate some trace of him, they have failed. Bailey
was 68 years of age. His sons, in the city today seeking information about him,
stated that his mind was slightly affected and they fear he rambled away from
his home and was unable to return.
The Brunswick News; Thursday 9
Pg. 1 col. 7
TWO NEGROES ARE HELD FOR KILLING OF CALVIN DOLLY—Sam
Cornelius and R.H. Robinson were ordered held, Felix Benjamin
was detained as a witness and Jake Melvin was released yesterday
afternoon by a coroner’s jury which investigated the killing Saturday of
Calvin Dolly, colored, who was stabbed to death at his home, corner of J and
The evidence before the jury was strong against
the two negroes who were held charged with the crime. One witness stated that
Cornelius was the man who inflicted the fatal wound, saying that he
stabbed Dolly in the back with a butcher knife. Robinson, it
seems, was one of the principals in the fight which resulted in the murder,
while Benjamin is one of the most important witnesses.
The case will likely be tried at the session of the superior court
The Brunswick News;
Friday 27 May 1927
Pg. 6 col. 3
ARTHUR BURGESS GIVEN FREEDOM—After being in the Glynn
county jail for one year, Arthur Burgess, negro, was ordered liberated
today by Solicitor General B.W. Gibbs and he will be out in time to
attend his mother’s funeral. She died at Sterling last night.
At a previous session of the superior court
Burgess was found guilty of voluntary manslaughter in connection with the
death of Mrs. Mollies Crosby, white, who had been beaten so terribly
about the head she died at the city hospital in a few hours after the attack
which occurred at her home several miles in the country.
Attorneys representing Burgess carried the case to the
supreme court and this tribunal ruled that the evidence under which conviction
resulted was insufficient and ordered a new trial but inasmuch as no additional
evidence has been secured by the state the solicitor decided to liberate
The Brunswick News;
Sunday 29 May 1927
Pg. 8 col. 3
MEMORIAL HIGH SCHOOL, COLORED, TO CLOSE FRIDAY—B.F.
Hubert, president of the Georgia Industrial College, will deliver the
commencement address at the Colored Memorial school on next Friday, June 3.
The school has experienced one of the most
successful years in its history and at this closing twenty young pupils will
have completed the junior high school department. It might be interesting to
know that this city school has a department of domestic science and domestic art
for the girls and a composite trades course for the boys. The entire class that
will finish the academic department will also finish their respective trades.
The board of education has under erection a five unit trades
building which is being built by student labor. This work by the boys has
attracted statewide attention. The boys who do the work are less than high
school grade, and have done every phase of the work necessary to complete the
building. The building has ample space when completed to care for over a
hundred students in some profitable industry.
The parent-teacher association of the school has been very active in
the promotion of the school. It has made ample provision for many of the
necessary things which tend to make school work better. There has been hearty
cooperation in helping keep up the attendance in the school.
The Brunswick News; Friday 12 April
Pg. 6 col. 3
ATTEMPT TO BURN COLORED SCHOOL THWARTED TODAY—A deliberate
attempt to burn the handsome new colored Memorial school, corner of Albany and I
streets, was made at an early hour this morning and had it not been for the fact
that some colored residents in the vicinity were awake rather late and observed
the flickering lights of the fire the attempt might have proved successful.
As it was a large hole, probably five feet in
diameter, was burned in the floor of the assembly room of the school. The
neighbors who observed the fire sent in an alarm and the fire department
responded at once and extinguished the blaze. An investigation followed and
Chief J.H. Harrison stated this morning that the fire was of incendiary
origin beyond question. Wood had been piled in the center of the room and the
match applied and the fire was burning into the floor when the department
arrived. It was fortunate that the blaze was observed by neighbors before it
had time to gain good headway.
The Brunswick News; Tuesday 8 July 1930
Pg. 8 col. 4
NEGRO WOMAN KILLED BY FORMER HUSBAND
Cato Wilson Shoots Wife When She Refuses to Make Up With Him
Madeline Wilson, a negress about 25
years of age, died at the City hospital early last night from wounds inflicted
by her husband, Cato Wilson, Sunday night, and officers are now searching
for the negro on a charge of murder.
The shooting took place at the home of the woman, 1404 Wolf
street, at 9:30 o'clock Sunday night. Wilson left immediately and
all efforts to locate him have failed.
It seems that Wilson and his wife separated in
Savannah some time ago, the woman coming to this city, her home, and the husband
remaining in Savannah. Saturday he came here and tried to persuade his
wife to return to Savannah with him. He visited her Sunday and was at the
house and, the woman told officers after the shooting, apparently was in a good
humor, no quarrel having occurred between them.
Just as Wilson was ready to leave the house,
supposedly to return to Savannah, he drew his revolver. "Goodbye, I'll
meet you in hell," he said, and with that remark fired twice, one of the bullets
entering the woman's left shoulder and the other penetrated the small of her
Immediately the negro left the scene, while the woman was
carried to the hospital, where it was at once realized that her condition was
Cato is well known in police circles, having been in
jail here on two or three occasions, and officers believe he will be captured
within a few days.
The Brunswick News; Wednesday 9 July 1930
Pg. 8 col.2
OFFICERS STILL LOOKING FOR WILSON
Police today continued to search for the
whereabouts of Cato Wilson, colored, who Sunday night shot and killed his
Due to the fact that he is fairly well known in police
circles by his past record, Wilson probably will soon be arrested and
charged with murder.
Wilson shot his wife after they had apparently ended a
quarrel, which had its beginning in a separation several months ago.
The Brunswick News; Thursday 10 July 1930
Pg. 8, col. 4
The following is a list of names of babies born in the
city and county during the month of June, 1930, who have been properly
registered according to the law. If your baby’s name does not appear you should
communicate with your physician or the health department:
Colored: Abraham Mollette, Jr., James Ellis, Eddie James Harris, Jr., Shelly Fernack, Bertha Mungin, Barbara Naomi Owens, Mary Whaley, Birdie Vesta Hitchcock, Elmo Lucius Polite, Jr.
The Brunswick News; 12 February 1934
CAR GOES INTO RIVER; FOUR NEGROES DROWN; FIVE OTHERS ESCAPE IN
ACCIDENT NEAR HERE LATE SATURDAY
Four Glynn county negroes were drowned and
five others had a narrow escape in a frightful accident late Saturday afternoon
when a large automobile in which they were riding crashed through the railing on
South Brunswick River bridge, six miles south of the city, and plunged into the
icy waters below.
The four negroes who lost their lives were:
George Burns, Horace Lamar and his wife Annie May Lamar. Those who escaped were
Jimmie Jackson, husband of one of the drowned woman, Sheppard Maxwell,
Mack, Robert Mack, and Jack Wiggins.
All of the negroes resided in the Brookman section of the
county and they were well known, both by the white and colored residents of that
section of the city, and all of them had good reputations.
The accident was attributed to the wet and slippery condition
of the bridge, which was covered with ice as a result of the freeze Saturday.
Jimmie Jackson was at the wheel of the large car. The party of negroes had been
to Brunswick to do their Saturday shopping and were returning to their homes.
Jackson, who owned and who was driving the car, said as he approached the top of
the slippery bridge he observed a truck mounting the south end, and he pulled
his car slightly to the right to pass the truck. He said the car started to
skidding on the icy bridge and he realized he could not apply the brakes, for
fear it would wreck the car. He said he endeavored to right the machine, as it
whirled from one to the other side of the bridge, but he was unable to control
it. When within about 25 feet of the end, he said, the car headed directly into
the railing, and crashing it. The big car took a nose dive into the almost
frozen waters with its nine passengers.
There was a wild scramble as the automobile struck the
bottom. The front of the machine was submerged, while a portion of the rear
protruded from the water. The five negroes who escaped and reached shore
extricated themselves with difficulty. Some of them said they cam through the
top, others claimed they made their exit through windows, and all insisted it
was impossible to open the doors to permit those trapped in the car to escape.
Jackson said he was caught under the wheel and that it was some time before he
could extricate himself and escape.
Assistance soon arrived, but it was feared the four missing
negroes had been drowned, and there was no way of making an immediate search. A
wrecker was summoned to the scene but it was impossible to pull the heavy car
from the bottom of the river an dark ended operations until Sunday morning.
Early yesterday the car was pulled to the banks of the river
and a search was made for the missing victims. Carrie Jackson was found in the
car, but the other three bodies had floated out. The woman had a death grip on a
top post in the car. About noon the bodies of the other three negroes were
found. Low water had left them on the river bank near the scene where they lost
The five negroes who escaped were not seriously injured. One
or two of them received cuts and bruises. Sheppard Maxwell, however, was almost
frozen during the time he was in the water, and he suffered to such an extent
that he was carried to the City Hospital yesterday for treatment.
The Brunswick News; July 1934
The following is a list of names
of babies born in Brunswick and Glynn county during the month of June 1934, who
have been properly registered according to law. If your baby’s name does not
appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
Dorothy Henrietta Blue, Jeannette Leonard, Vivian Marie Crittenden, Jewel May
Streeter, Lamar Jariel Moody, Jr., Theresa Louise Lawrence, Walter Ben Jackson,
Ed Bines, Jr.
The Brunswick News; Wednesday 10 July
Pg. 8 col. 4
BIRTH STATISTICS—The following is a list of names of babies
born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Ga., during the month of June, 1935, who
have been properly registered according to law. If your baby’s name does not
appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
Colored—Lolabell Mack, Elworth Speakman, Vanderline Williams,
Helen Geneva Brewer, Fannie Pearl Williams, Eleanor Eugenia Dukes.
Margaret Davis Cate; Record Group 1, Series 1, Folder
This article clipped from an unnamed newspaper, possibly between 1935-1955.
MOSES DALLAS, NEGRO PILOT, DIED AS CONFEDERATE HERO—Former
Slave Guided Raiding Party Under Lieutenant Pelot in Capture of Federal Gunboat
“Water Witch” in Ossabaw Sound.
Capture of the United States gunboat Water
Witch by a group of Confederate Navy personnel on the night of June 3, 1864, off
the Georgia Coast has been described in the official reports as “the most
spirited incident of the last year of the war in Georgia waters.” The accounts
given by the respective commanding officers fully bear out this description.
The Union gunboat was one of the Unites States Navy’s most popular
vessels, a fine side-wheel steamer mounting four guns and having a crew of about
eighty. She had taken upart [sic] in the Paraguay War in 1855 and also in
Commodore Hollins’ attack on the Confederate fleet in the Mississippi
Passes in October of 1861. At the time of her capture she was under the command
of Lieut. Pendergrast, U.S.N., and was doing blockade duty in Ossabaw
Sound between the mouths of the Ogeechee and Vernon rivers.
SURPRISE RAID PLANNED
A rumor having reached the Confederate command
that a federal war vessel was in the lower reaches of the Ogeechee river near
the famous Fort McAllister, it was decided to seek her out and to endeavor to
take her by surprise.
To this end seven ship’s boats were manned by fifteen officers and
117 seamen from a Confederate squadron based in the Savannah river who rowed
these small crafts to the vicinity of the location of the gunboat.
The attacking party was under the command of Lieut. Thomas
Postell Pelot, of Savannah, who was in boat number one. With him were the
assistant engineer and Moses Dallas, the Negro Pilot, who guided them
over the treacherous sandbars successfully and came up with the Union vessel at
anchor in Ossabaw Sound. The night was rainy and very dark, the only
illumination coming from the flashes of lightning, but Dallas put the
seven small boats alongside the Water Witch without any delay, four on the
starboard side and three on the port.
DALLAS FIRST CASUALTY
The attackers boarded the vessel with
difficulty, Dallas being one of those who was shot down before gaining
the deck. Lieut. Pelot and Lieut. Pendergrast were engaged in a
duel with sabers when during a very brilliant flash of lightning the paymaster
of the gunboat was able to kill Lieut. Pelot with a pistol shot.
Lieut. Price succeeded to the command when Lieut. Pelot
was killed and the commander of the gunboat surrendered the vessel shortly
afterwards. The Confederate lost six killed and twelve wounded. The Federals
lost two killed and twelve wounded. Only one Federal escaped. A Negro seaman,
named McIntosh, jumped overboard when the fighting began, probably
deeming discretion the better part of valor, and swam several miles to Ossabaw
Island where he was picked up next day by the U.S.S. Fernandina.
SHIP RUNS AGROUND
Lieut. Price’s report of the battle
states that since his pilot, Moses Dallas, had been killed he was forced
to get one of the ship’s quartermasters to steer the vessel into safer waters of
the Vernon river, on account of the danger from recapture by nearby Union war
vessels. This acting pilot ran the ship aground on the Raccoon Key at the
height of high tide and Price was forced to jettison many barrels of pork
and beef as well as many other supplies which were sorely needed by the
Confederates. The ship was taken up the Vernon river and put under the
protecting guns of Beaulieu Battery. The wounded Union men and the Confederate
wounded were sent in to the Savannah hospitals.
Moses Dallas must have been a resident of the Georgia coastal
area since he apparently was so well informed as to the channels of the Vernon
and Ogeechee rivers and the sandbars of Ossabaw Sound. His ability as a pilot
was established by his being chosen by Lieut. Pelot to put him aboard the
gunboat, and it is likely that had Dallas survived the fighting the ship
would not have been grounded on Raccoon Key with the necessary loss of some of
the “spoils” of the battle.
MANY NEGROES WERE LOYAL
While the Confederates abstained from arming
their Negroes there were hundreds of instances where Negroes followed their
masters into the armed services and did valiant service as hostlers and cooks.
They were not forced to follow this course but did so on account of the loyalty
they felt toward their masters. Many thousands of the Negroes joined the armed
forces of the Federals and were contemptuous of those who sided with the
Confederates. Dallas was a free many by 1864 and was not compelled to
act as pilot for the Confederates who captured the Water Witch and must
therefore have been urged by some sense of loyalty to the Southern men who had
treated him with fairness and consideration. However, his own people seem never
to have sung his praises and but for the reports of the commanding officer of
the two naval units involved Dallas would indeed have been an unsung
The Brunswick News;
Wednesday 29 January 1936
Pg. 8 col. 3
NEGRO IS WOUNDED BY ACCIDENTALLY SHOOTING HIMSELF—Soloman
Singleton, colored, is in the City Hospital with a painful and probably
serious bullet wound as the result of an accident at his home, 2119 Cochran
Singleton was accidentally shot by his
cousin, Ellis Cash, who was detained by police and released after an
investigation. Singleton, it seems, had an old revolver, which he handed
to Cash for examination, when it was accidentally discharged, the bullet
entering Singleton’s abdomen. He was carried to the hospital for
treatment, but the full extent of the wound is not yet known.
The Brunswick News; Monday 18 April 1938
Pg. 8, col. 4
RISLEY COLORED SCHOOL PLACED ON ACCREDITED LIST
Risley High school,
colored, has been placed on the list of accredited negro high schools by the
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, it was announced in a letter
received today by Supt. Geo. W. Wannamaker from the chairman of the
association's committee on approval of negro schools.
The letter announced that the local
negro high school was placed on the list at the recent meeting of the
association held in Dallas, Texas.
This is the first time the negro high
school here has attained this high rating and it is a distinct compliment to the
principal and teachers at the school, as it is stated requirements for being
placed on the list are very strict. There are not more than a dozen negro
high schools in the state that have been given such a high rating.
Improvements of the school building and additions to the curriculum are partly
responsible for the placing of the school on the accredited list.
C.V. Troup, one of the best
known negro educators in the state, is the principal of Risley school.
The Brunswick News; Wednesday 20 April 1938
Pg. 8 cols. 2-4
BURGLAR ENTERS WINCHESTER HOME IN WINDSOR PARK
entered the home of Dr. M.E. Winchester, Glynn county health commissioner, in
Windsor Park last night, quietly went to his bedroom and removed his trousers,
taking them to the first floor, where he rifled the pockets, securing $50.
While in the bedroom the thief also stole one or two other articles.
Entrance was made through
a window in the rear of the residence. The thief used matches to find his
way about the home, striking them promiscuously on newly painted walls in one or
two of the rooms of the residence.
The robbery was
discovered early this morning and police were called. An investigation
revealed that the thief had also endeavored to enter the home of T.H. Missildine,
located directly in the rear of the Winchester home, but apparently he was
frightened away by a barking dog. Footprints of a barefooted man were
found at windows of the Missildine home. Back of his garage were found the
shoes of the burglar, who evidently removed them before he entered the home of
Dr. Winchester and was frightened away by the barking dog before he could secure
them after he entered the home.
ONLY NEGRO DEACONESS MAKES UNUSUAL RECORD AT PENNICK
The unique Christian record of
serviced by Deaconess Anna Alexander, only negro deaconess in the
Episcopal church in America, is one which is attracting attention in southeast
Georgia, the story being told by the Rev. Howard Harper, rector of Grace
Episcopal Church, Waycross, and editor of "The Church in Georgia," published by
the Episcopal diocese of Georgia.
The deaconess is located at Pennick,
ten miles north of Brunswick, and has established an unique record during the
many years she has been there.
The Rev. Mr. Harper, having
visited the unusual Pennick community, gives the story as follows:
"Back in the early 1890's a young
colored girl, living in the rural district of Pennick, ten miles from Brunswick,
felt keenly the need for the Episcopal church among her people. That girl
was Anna Alexander, a school teacher from Darien, who had been baptized
and brought up in St. Cyprian's church at Darien.
"As a result of her work and
influence, and Episcopal service was held by a lay reader[?] from St.
Athanasius, Brunswick, on September 9, 1894[?], in the Baptist church building.
Early in 1900 Anna opened a school in the same Baptist building, but it
was definitely an Episcopal school, in which colored children learned their
catechism, church history and the other things which a Christian ought to know
and believe to his soul's health. The soul's health has always been the
first concern of Anna Alexander as she has gone about giving her life to
the colored people of her section.
"In September, 1902, the school moved
into its present building, built by Anna's own hands.
"The Church of Good Shepherd building
came in 1928[?], and the house in which Anna lived in 19??. By this
time Anna had long (since 1901) been Deaconess Alexander, the only
negro deaconess in the American church.
"The peculiarity of the Pennick
community is that it is made up entirely of negro farmers who are not tenants,
but who own their own land. Among these people Deaconess Alexander
ministers to forty-five communicants and daily instructs thirty-two children.
"The contributions of the people in
19?7[?] totaled $??, of which $4? was sent to the general church fund.
"Sunday services at Good Shepherd are
conducted by the Rev. J.G. Perry of St. Athanasius, Brunswick."
The Brunswick News; Thursday 21 April 1938
Pg. 8, col. 2
TWO NEGRO BURGLARS QUICKLY CAPTURED; Police Round Up Pair,
One an Escaped Convict, Who Robbed Winchester Home
and clever work on the part of the Brunswick police department yesterday
afternoon landed in jail two negroes, one of them according to his statement, an
escaped convict, who are charged with burglarizing the home of Dr. M.E.
Winchester, Glynn county health commissioner, in Windsor Park Tuesday night.
Police Chief J.E.
Register said the negroes were listed as E.J. Hamilton, who said he faced a long chaingang sentence, and
Joe Carswell. Both negroes, the chief said, formerly
resided in Macon. Carswell has been in and out of Brunswick for about a
year and Hamilton, he told police chief, came here about 10 days ago following
his escape from a chaingang at Soperton.
A valuable wrist watch
stolen in the Winchester home was recovered, but the two negroes had only about
$2.00 of the money stolen left when they were arrested, Chief Register said.
Dr. Winchester reported that about $35.00 was stolen from his trousers pockets.
The negro, one of the two, who entered the home secured the trousers in the
bedroom and carried them to the first floor, leaving them on the kitchen floor
after stealing the money and removing the belt.
An effort to sell the
watch to a downtown merchant about 6 o'clock yesterday afternoon resulted in the
capture of the two negroes. The police department had advised all dealers
in the city where it was believed an effort would be made to dispose of the
watch to be on the lookout for it, and late yesterday Carswell attempted to sell
it. Officers were advised and the negro was captured, and he informed
officers where they could locate Hamilton. He was found in a room occupied
by Carswell, and when the officers arrived he was hidden behind a trunk.
Both negroes deny the
robbery of the Winchester home, and each declares the other secured the watch.
Carswell said he knew nothing about it, except that Hamilton gave him the watch
to sell, and Hamilton declares the watch was stolen by Carswell.
Register believes both negroes were connected with the burglary, on watching
outside while the other entered the residence.
Hamilton told the police
chief he escaped from Soperton about ten days ago. He was serving a 40
year sentence, having been convicted on two hold-up and one burglary charge, he
said. When arrested Hamilton had on the belt removed from Dr. Winchester's
trousers. Being too large for him, the escaped convict trimmed it down to
Chief Register is of the
opinion that the two negroes are connected with one or two other robberies
committed in the city recently, and a further investigation is now in progress.
The Brunswick News; Saturday 10 February 1940
Pg. 8 col. 4
The following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and
Glynn county, Georgia, during the month of January, 1940, who have been properly
registered according to law. If your baby’s name does not appear you should
communicate with your physician or the health department:
Colored: Essie Mae Riley, James Ellis Walker, Gwendolyn
Loretta Murphy, Bobbie Sykes, Barbara Marie Miller, Queen Esther Mack, Johnnie
Will Crooks, Jr., Elliott McGowen, Jr., Shirley Ann Jackson, James Edward Jaudon,
Franklyn David Russell, Carolyn Evangeline Rooks.
The Brunswick News; Saturday 10 August 1940
BIRTH STATISTICS--The following is a list of names of children
born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Georgia during the month of July, 1940, who
have been properly registered according to law. If you baby's name does
not appears you should communicate with your physician or the health department.
Colored: Claudine Mae Cash, William Lee Crittendon, Mary Nell Hardy, Herbert Lee Jackson, Oliva Baker, Leona Luetta Bloodworth, Evelyn Olivia Green, William Theopholus Brown, James Noble, Jr., Bettie Jean Hardee, Emma Mygenia Collins, Billie DeWitt Martin, Marilyn Louise Young.
The Brunswick News; Friday 10 January 1941
Pg. 8, col. 3
BIRTH STATISTICS--The following is a list of names of children
born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Georgia, during the month of December, 1940,
who have been properly registered according to law. If your baby's name
does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health
Colored: John Henry Jones, Willie Lee Wright, Gernice Lamar Gamble, Robert Lee Smith, William Jerome Vickers, Janie Lee Massie, Edward Owes, Annie Louise Philson, Zenna Emily Bradley, Joseph Henry Jaudon.
The Brunswick News; Wednesday 10 November 1943
Pg. 3 col. 7
BIRTH STATISTICS—The following names of children born in
Brunswick and Glynn county during the month of October, 1943, have been properly
registered according to law. If your child’s name does not appear you should
communicate with your physician or the health department:
Colored—Patricia Ann Hadley, Cary Plummer, Sonya Elaine Haynes,
Joe Ann Bethel, Vivian Saunders, Louticia Mae Edwards, Betty Jean Edwards,
Doretha Richardson, Lauretia Rovene Bryant, Barbara Jean Gibbs, Charles Edwards
Warrens, Charles Otis Kelley, John Lee Singleton, Jr., Robert Burton Cain, Earl
Leroy Wilson, Gilbert Davis, Jr., Theodore Roosevelt Kitchen, David Lee Noble,
Georgia Elizabeth Golden, Dorothy Louise Baisden, Ozie Lee Evelyn Jones.
The Brunswick News; Friday 10 December 1943
Pg. 8 col. 5
BIRTH STATISTICS—The following list of names of children
born in Brunswick and Glynn County, Georgia, during the month of November, 1943,
have been properly registered according to law. If your child’s name does not
appear you should consult your family physician or the health department.
Colored—Robert Edward Lee; Majorie Beatrice
Hunter; Louise Cornelia Wynn; Rosa Lee Mangram; LaVerne Tillman Jones; Marian
Luvenia Strickland; Henry Tresvant, 3rd; Patricia Ann Stephens; Evelyn Royal;
Vivian Lennette Carr; John Gibson Tresvant; Joe Melvin Heath.
The Brunswick News; Tuesday 11 January 1944
Pg. 8 col. 4
BIRTH STATISTICS—The following list of names of children
born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Georgia, during the month of December, 1943,
have been properly registered according to law. If your child’s name does not
appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
Colored—Robert Wesley Thompson; Bettie Gene
Oglesby; Robert Corbit Baisden; Fred Morgan, Jr.; John Ivory Merrell; Margaret
Elizabeth Jordan; Herbert Williams; John Wesley Johnson; Minnie Lee Alston;
Herbert Floyd, Jr.; Viola May Bens; Rose Marie Walker; Tommie Lee Herring; Janie
Delores Street; Bobby Jean Cobb; Edna Mae Mathis; Betty Jean Franklyn; Freddie
Paul Wesley; Marian Lula Ford; Marvin Lucius Ford.
The Brunswick News; Monday 20 November 1944
Pg. 8 col. 2-4
ANOTHER MURDER COMMITTED HERE SUNDAY MORNING
Another murder was entered on Glynn county’s criminal record early
Sunday morning when one Negro is reported by police to have stabbed another to
LeRoy Pound is the Negro who lost his life, and Joe
Robinson is held in jail on a murder charge. The difficulty occurred on L
street shortly after 2:30 o’clock Sunday.
Police have not completed the investigation, but they have
ascertained it seems as if Robinson was standing on L street, when
Pound approached him. The latter was said to have been mumbling, probably
talking to himself, when according to the police record, Robinson jumped
on him. He wielded a knife, and inflicted several gashes, one of which was
fatal. Pound lived for only a short time.
Whether the two Negroes had had a previous altercation is not
known. An investigation of the tragedy is being continued.
POLICE OFFICER SMITH ATTACKED, STABBED BY NEGRO
City Police Officer W.T. Smith was painfully but not
seriously stabbed Saturday afternoon when he attempted to arrest Julius Green,
colored, on Monk, near Oglethorpe street.
The police officer had been called to the scene to investigate a
motor accident, and he was informed that a negro, under the influence of
whiskey, was causing a disturbance down the street. Officer Smith went
to investigate, and when he approached Green the negro had a knife in his
hand and immediately attacked the officer. He inflicted wounds about the
shoulder, on the arm and in the back. The negro then attempted to escape.
Officer Ross Edwards arrived at the scene about that time,
and arrested the negro before he could get away. The officers reported that
while he was drinking, the negro was not drunk.
The Brunswick News; Monday 2 July 1945
Pg. 8 cols. 4
NEGRO USED BIG PIECE OF LUMBER TO KILL ANOTHER—Eddie
Baker, local negro, is dead, and police are searching for Daris Cooper,
also colored, who is wanted on a murder charge in connection with the slaying of
the former Saturday night.
Cooper is said to have used a piece of two by five lumber,
five feet long, to deliver a death blow to Baker.
According to a police report of the tragedy, the two negroes started
a fight about 10 o’clock Saturday night at Monk and Wolf streets. Discontinuing
the battle for a few minutes they walked up to Monk and Albany streets, where
the fight was resumed. Police were told that Cooper administered a
terrific glow with the large piece of lumber, inflicting a long and wide cut in
Baker’s head. The injured negro was carried to the City Hospital where
he died Sunday morning. Cooper made his get-away after striking Baker,
The tragedy was investigated by officers Burch, Branch and
NEGROES STABBED IN 4-MAN BATTLE—Two negroes were stabbed,
one of them seriously, in a four-man battle on Monk street Saturday.
Police said Louis Cuthbert, Harry Warts
and Lonnie Proudfoot were fighting Angus Young at Luke Miller’s
place. Cuthbert is alleged to have drawn a knife during the melee and
stabbed Young, whereupon the latter drew a knife and also wielded it,
stabbing Cuthbert in the side, but not seriously. He was treated at the
City Hospital and then placed in jail, as were the other principals, except
Young, who is still in the hospital.
The Brunswick News; Thursday 20 February 1947
Pg. 8 cols. 4 & 5
LOCAL NEGRO NOW HEADS OWN BAND
A local negro, William Henry Morrison, whose father has been
employed at the Brunswick Marine Construction Company for the past 30 years, has
attained considerable note in the field of popular music, it has been learned
Morrison, who was born and grew up in Brunswick, later
studied music in New York, and more lately played in several orchestras,
including the well-known bands of Louis Armstrong and Cab Calloway.
Under the name “Chick” Morrison, the negro musician, who plays the drums,
has recently organized and is leading his own band, and is currently being
featured at New York City’s Café Zanzibar.
He has made a number of recordings of popular songs which are being
distributed throughout the country by record manufacturers.
One of Chick’s popular recordings will be played during the
recorded program over Radio Station WMOG tomorrow afternoon between 1 and 1:30
NEGRESS HELD ON STABBING CHARGE
City Police are holding a 25-year-old colored woman listed as
Jewel Wiggins on a charge of assault with intent to murder following her
arrest Tuesday night in connection with the stabbing of Fred Williams,
Officers Ben Bruns and J.C. Harris said the stabbing
occurred at the Tick-Tock Café at 1604 Albany street, and that Williams
was taken to the hospital suffering a knife wound in the chest. The Wiggins
woman was also a defendant in a disorderly conduct charge at a Police Court
hearing yesterday in which several negroes were arrested for being disorderly in
“The Good Shepherd’s Rest,” former headquarters of “Reverend Gibson,” who
left Brunswick after several encounters with local police several months ago.
A white woman who said she is the wife of a sailor aboard a Navy
ship formerly stationed here, was charged with reckless driving, being drunk,
and getting into a fight wit another woman prisoner after being place in jail.
She was sentenced to pay fines totaling $100 or serve 60 days in jail.
The Brunswick News; Wednesday 11 June 1947
Pg. 8 col. 5
The following is a
list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn County, Georgia, during
the month of May 1947, who are properly registered according to law. If you
[sic] baby’s name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or
the health department.
Colored—Vivian Louise Jones, Katharene Louise Demery, Ruth
Wing, Ruby Wing, William Philmore, Jr., Catharine Miller, George Elwood
Florence, Theophilus Herrington, Mary Louise Holmes, Harold Sams, Willie James
McMullen, Dan Delano Franklin, Tommie Dunham, Jr., Viola Jean King, Barbara Jean
Jackson, Helen Ruth Burns, Isaac Thomas Mungin.
The Brunswick News; Friday 11 July 1947
Pg. 8 cols. 1 & 2
[Article is VERY hard to read—ALH]
NEGRO CONVICTS KILLED AT LOCAL CAMP—Seven others injured by guards who open fire
when prisoners attempt to make escape.
Superior Court Judge Gordon Knox telephoned The News this
afternoon that he had called the Glynn county grand jury to convene at 10
o’clock Wednesday morning to investigate the killing of six prisoners and the
wounding of seven others at the nearby state prison camp yesterday afternoon.
Judge Knox said the last grand jury had not been discharged,
but had been excused subject to call.
When Warden H.G. Worthy of the State Highway Camp No. 18
strode into a group of unruly negro convicts about 8:30 o’clock yesterday
afternoon, Willie Bell, a long-timer and reported trouble-maker, lunged
at him. The warden shot Bell with his pistol, and immediately half a
dozen other armed prison guards opened fire on the convicts with shotguns and
A few second later the firing had ceased and five of the colored
convicts lay dead, eight others were wounded, one dying during the night at the
city hospital. Bell received only a minor wound in the leg.
Witnesses said at the first shot by Warden Worthy, the
prisoners broke in all directions, men scrambling over the nearby bunk house.
Three of the dead negroes lay where they fell in front of the bunk house.
Another was killed under the house and had to be dragged out, and the fifth
managed to crawl under the house to a 10-foot wire fence on the other side. He
was shot climbing the fence and fell dead on the outside.
The wounded lay where they fell, some under the bunk house building,
others sprawled in front of it. Fourteen of the group of 27 prisoners in the
group were not hit by the bullets and crouched or lay still on the ground as
guards rounded them up and herded them into the bunk house.
Events followed in rapid-fire order when news of the shootings was
telephoned out to newspapers an hour and a half later. The Association for the
Advancement of Colored People, through its local chapter, engaged Attorney
C.J. Cogdell, and is demanding a full investigation. The solicitor general
will be called on to investigate, and Judge Gordon Knox will be
[illegible] to convene a special session of the grand jury Monday. Mr.
Cogdell also said he would ask the Georgia Bureau of Investigation to
The association also expects to call on the U.S. District attorney
and Attorney General Tom Clark to look into the matter. Telephone calls
to the convict camp, to local county police, and to newspaper men[?] in
Brunswick came last night from three major news services, the AP, the UF, the
INS, and from such newspapers as PM, the New York Daily News, the Chicago
Tribune, and other papers including one in Philadelphia.
Coroner J.D. Baldwin began the investigation today with an
inquest. Attorney Vance Mitchell was on hand when the coroner’s jury
convened., stating that he represented Warden Worthy and the state.
The prison camp is located near Anguilla, about 12 miles from
Brunswick. All ambulances in Brunswick and several doctors were summoned to the
camp immediately after the shooting to treat the wounded. There are about 75
convicts, all colored, in the camp, who work on highway maintenance in gangs of
Warden Worthy said he had received a group of new prisoners
yesterday, mostly long-timers who had been making trouble. He said when the men
returned to the stockade yesterday afternoon they were cursing and refused to
obey orders. He then summoned help from county police, he said, and County
Chief Russell B. Henderson and two county officers came to the camp to
The group of prisoners was standing near the door to the bunk house,
he said, and refused to line up as ordered, or obey other orders of the guards
and warden. When Chief Henderson arrived he said he talked to the
prisoners and told them to do what the warden said. He said Willie Bell
did most of the talking and cursing, and the warden entered the group to get
Bell out and away from the other prisoners.
them not to put their hands on the warden because we would be playing for
keeps,” he said, “Then when Capt. Worthy walked in among them, Bell
lunged at him and the shooting started, it all happened so quick it was hard to
see what took place. The shooting was over in what seemed like no time.”
Chief Henderson who was armed
with a sub-machine gun said he held his fire, and that numbers of the county
police who were there did not fire either. The prisoners were unarmed except for
a few short pieces of rod and a hickory stick.
The bunk house, before which the men
were standing, is about 100 feet long and 25 feet wide and is set on pillows
almost two feet above the ground. Apparently many of the prisoners scrambled
under the bunk house either in an effort to escape or to avoid the fire of
Attracted by the ambulances and early
reports of the shooting, several hundred people converged at the camp a little
later in automobiles, curious to see what had caused the excitement. County
police and prison guards kept most of the people outside the stockade gates.
Warden Worthy refused to
permit news cameramen to take any pictures inside the stockade. Later when
Coroner Baldwin arrived, after the wounded men had been picked up an
taken to the hospital in ambulances, the coroner said that pictures could be
taken, and the photographers were permitted to take pictures of the scene.
H.B. Duvalt [?] of Atlanta,
convict supervisor of the state highway department, arrived here this morning to
confer with Warden Worthy and get the official report of the incident.
The warden said he pleaded with the
prisoners for nearly an hour to obey his orders before county police arrived,
but the men only cussed and threatened him
LIST OF DEAD
Warden H.G Worthy listed the following as the five convicts
who were killed by guards yesterday afternoon at State Highway Camp 18 near
Jonah Smith, Fulton county, sentenced to 28 years in 1938 for
burglary. Five previous escapes.
Henry Manson, Colquitt county, sentenced to 26 years in 1945
for breaking and entering. Three previous escapes.
Willie Wright, Fulton county, sentenced to 12 to 15 years in
1944 for burglary and grand larceny. One previous escape.
James Smith, Fulton county, sentenced to 15 years in 1942 for
burglary. Two previous escapes.
George Patterson, Fulton county, sentenced to three to seven
years in 1943, charge unlisted.
Edward Neal, the sixth, from Fulton county, died last night
at the hospital. He was serving a one to tow year term for robbery and a five
year stabbing sentence.
Two of the wounded were taken to jail after being treated at the
hospital. Those who remained at the hospital were listed as:
West Johnson, Willie Frank Chambers, Ben Stephens, Willie Brooks,
and Ben Benford. Their records were not available immediately.
The Brunswick News; Wednesday 29 October 1947
Pg. 8 col. 1 & pg. 3 col. 5
GLYNN CONVICT FARM WILL BE RE-OPENED—BUT ONLY WHITE PRISONERS TO WORK ON JEKYLL
WILL BE HOUSED THERE.
The State Board of Corrections today was granted temporary use of
the former Glynn county stockade, scene of the July 11 slayings of eight negro
prisoners, to house convict laborers who will work on Jekyll Island.
Charles A. Williams, state director of corrections, announced
at the same time in a letter to the county commission that the Board of
Corrections plans to establish a permanent camp on the island for its upkeep.
Only convicts with meritorious conduct records will be placed there, he said.
In approving the reopening of the Anguilla camp at a called meeting
the commission in its unanimously adopted resolution declared that it was untrue
that “permanent re-establishment is contemplated.”
The resolution specifies that “certain white prison labor only will
be made promptly available to do the necessary work on the magnificent Jekyll
Island Park facility prior to the scheduled opening of January 1.”
Commissioners also voted to permit the Board of Corrections to
remove needed equipment from the Anguilla stockade when facilities for a
permanent camp on Jekyll Island are available.
Occupancy of the stockade by Jekyll convict workers is expected to
begin in the immediate future.
Mr. Williams informed the commission that a personal survey
of the island facilities had convinced him that it would be impractical to
quarter prison laborers there before a permanent camp can be constructed. The
chief factor against such a step at the present time, he said, are that
relatives of the convicts would be unable to visit them and no adequate medical
attention could be given.
Member of a negro delegation that protested reopening of the camp
when the issue was discussed in a commission session Saturday appeared at the
meeting today and registered their approval of the action permitting a temporary
use of the stockade to quarter white prisoners only.
They had objected saying reestablishment of the camp would create a
“feeling of insecurity” and might precipitate another incident like that of July
11 when eight negroes were killed in an alleged escape.
In addressing remarks to members of the delegation Commissioner
Ray Whittle emphasized that the reopening would not be permanent and
billeting of the convicts on the island is not feasible at the present time.
Whereas the slain negro convicts were subject to State Highway
Department, employee[?], the white prisoners to be used in developing Jekyll
Island will be under the supervision of trained Board of Correction guards.
The commissioners resolution declares, “In granting this particular
request of the Board of Corrections, the county commission wishes to emphasize
its determination to extend all possible assistance to the state in promptly
making the Jekyll Park attraction fully available to the public.”
In answer to the question of using only free labor the resolution
points out it is the responsibility of the Board of Corrections that “prisoners
are usefully worked on public properties during the period of their discharge of
their debt to society.”
The Brunswick News; Tuesday 4 November
Pg. 8 col. 1
NEGRO’S DEATH TO BE INVESTIGATED—An inquest into the death
of an elderly negro, who was struck by an automobile on Glynn avenue Sunday
afternoon, will be held at 8 a.m.[?] Saturday.
Major Holmes, the car victim, died at
the City Hospital yesterday less than 24 hours after he was hit.
Ernest Graves, driver of the automobile which knocked the
negro’s body into the air before it fell to the pavement, has been charged with
reckless driving and retained on a $300[?] bond.
The Brunswick News; Monday 20 March 1950
Pg. 10 col. 3
NEGRO SERIOUSLY HURT WHEN TRUCK OVERTURNS ON HIM
A negro was seriously injured but six other
negro boys escaped unhurt when a truck overturned on State Highway 99 near
Sterling yesterday afternoon, Glynn Police Chief W.H. Norris reported.
The injured man was Arthur Lee Best of Needwood, driver of
Chief Norris said Best and the six negro boys, ranging
in ages from six to thirteen were riding towards Sterling at a moderate rate of
speed. Suddenly the wheels rolled into a soft bed of sand, and Best lost
control of the vehicle.
As the truck overturned, the driver was hurtled upon the ground, and
the machine toppled over on him. At the same time the negro boys were thrown
clear of the wreckage.
An ambulance was called, Chief Norris said, and Best
was taken to City Hospital, where he is believed to be suffering from internal
Brunswick News; Tuesday
11 July 1950
The following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and
Glynn county during the month of June, 1950, who have been properly registered
according to law. If your child’s name does not appear, you should communicate
with your physician or the health department.
Colored—Margaret Weems, Peggy Davis Cohen, Alford Bowe, Harriett
Rosetta Carroll, Delores Jones, Patricia Diane Jones, Irene Mangram, Richard
Porter Cooper, Bertie Mae Pasco, Gerald LaVerne Lawrence, Sallie Ann Life,
Herbert Lee Chapple, Samuel George Allen, Paul Jerome Lawrence, Jaunita
Stephens, Hubert Washington, Harold Washington, Sandra Faye Johnson, Melvin
Gordon Smith, Willie Frances Kitchen, Gloria Dianne Sullivan, Shirley Marie
The Brunswick News; Monday 3 November 1952
Pg. 12 col. 1
NEGRO HELD HERE ON MURDER CHARGE
A 28-year-old Negro is being held by city
police on charges of murdering another Negro, Delma Conaway, during an
argument Saturday night, according to Chief J.E. Register.
Henry Lee Blue is charged with fatally wounding Conaway
with four shots from a .22 caliber weapon during an argument at 1919 Gordon
The Negro was turned over to local law enforcement officers
yesterday by an uncle who resides in the Needwood community, the chief said.
The Brunswick News; Saturday 23 February 1953
Pg. 8 col. 5
NEGRO WOMAN HELD ON KNIFING CHARGE
A 25-year-old Negro woman is being held by county police on charges
of critically wounding Willie Mathews, 29, Negro, at a colored night spot
on the Jesup Highway early today.
Willidene Mathews, 25, 1711 G street, is accused of cutting
Mathews with a switch blade at about 2 a.m. today, according to Chief
Mathews, who lives at 1925 Albany street, is reported in fair
condition at City Hospital.
The Brunswick News; Saturday 26
Pg. 8 col. 6
COLORED FUNERAL USES BOATS BECAUSE OF FLOOD
Funeral services for a colored resident here
today went through as planned, with the aid of boats.
Those attending the services, held at a home facing the railroad
tracks east of Albany and south of Prince Street, were taken to and from the
home by boat. Water surrounded the entire block.
It was also planned to remove the casket from the home by boat at
the time of burial.
The Brunswick News; Monday 28
Pg. 10 col. 6
BURIAL HALTED WHEN DIGGING EFFORTS FAIL
Funeral services for a colored woman, Daisy
Williams, where held yesterday, but burial had to be delayed until today.
The grave couldn’t be dug previously because of heavy rains.
The procession went to the cemetery at Spring Bluff before it was
found that the ground was too soupy to dig. The grave was dug today by walling
The Brunswick News; Monday 9 August
Pg. 12 col. & pg. 3 col. 2
FIRE BURNS OUT RISLEY HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING—Smoke Overcomes
fireman As Flames Win Long Fight [Photo of building included with original
Raging flames destroyed the Risley High School
building this morning despite a desperate battle by firemen to halt the blaze.
Heavy smoke poured from the windows of the 400 pupil building in the
earlier stage of the hours-long losing battle put up by the firemen and a
fireman was overcome by it when he entered despite the protection of a gas
mask. D.M. (Buck) Haddock was carried from the building by fellow
firemen and rushed to the Brunswick hospital by an ambulance where he was
reported to be in good condition.
Towering flames burst through the roof of the school as the fire
gained headway and poured form opened windows. Later the roof began falling in
and finally the floor of the second floor collapsed. Large crowds gathered to
watch the battle.
Four fire engines were dispatched to the scene by the city Fire
Department and a truck of the Atlantic Sign Company, operated by Bill Peek,
arrived to provide needed assistance with a hydraulic telescope ladder. A fire
truck from Glynco arrived by 11 o’clock in answer to a call for help from County
School Superintendent R.E. Hood, but its assistance was not needed. Fire
chief J.W. Greenfield directed the fire-fighting operations. Fire hoses
were strung around the building like spaghetti and five were often in operation
at the same time but low water pressure hampered the firemen’s efforts.
By 11:30 o’clock the building was gutted with only the walls left
standing, and these were cracked in places from the tremendous heat.
Mr. Hood said this school building was covered by $75,000
insurance. He added the building probably could be repaired for that amount.
It was expected that damage to the first floor was mostly water damage and that
this part of thee building could be repaired. In any case the walls were still
standing and the two ends of the building seemed not to have suffered much
A place for pupils who attend the school will be found somehow,
Mr. Hood said, and plans still call for them to start to school Sept. 1.
Possibilities on handling the 400 students without classrooms
include the utilization of nearby churches and the gym. The building will be
rebuilt as quickly as possible, Mr. Hood predicted.
Smoke was reported coming from the school building at 8:40 a.m. and
the first fire truck was dispatched immediately. A second truck sped to the
scene at 8:50 o’clock and a third and fourth went at 9:20 o’clock and 10:25
The fire apparently started in a chemical store room downstairs next
to the science room and broke through the ceiling into the second floor. Its
origin could not be immediately determined. When the firemen first arrived
heavy smoke was pouring from the windows but no flames were visible outside.
Gaining headway, however, the flames spread through the upper north
wing and at 10:15 o’clock burst through the roof and blazed with tremendous
heat. Working its way down the length of the building in the face of the
firemen’s hoses, the blaze destroyed the entire roof and at 10:50 o’clock burst
through to the lower floor with renewed fury.
Efforts in the latter stages of the battle were directed towards
saving the walls of the building but these began cracking in several places.
[Photo Caption—GRAPHIC PICTURE TELLS THREE STORIES—As
today’s fire raked through the second story of the Risley Negro High School
building, gutting the structure, a News photographer obtained this
three-story-in-one view. The flames are shown eating their way towards the
south end of the building at the left, after gutting the north end. The picture
was made from the rear of the Albany Street building, erected 20 years ago with
a PWA grant. The second story is the problems of school officials, already deep
in a building expansion program for Negro students here. In the right
foreground are seen R.E. Hood, county superintendent (right), architect
J.L. Robeson, and school board business manager J.M. Hodges
(left), discussing replacement plans. The third story is the contribution by
Bill Peek of the Atlanta Sign Company of the hydraulic mobile extension
ladder, owned by his firm and seen in use dangerously close to the fire. The
local fire department is without such equipment.]
The Brunswick News; Monday 12 March 1956
Pg. 10 cols. 1 & 2
following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn County,
Georgia, during the month of February, 1956, who have been properly registered
according to law. If your child's name does not appear you should
communicate with your physician or the Health Department.
ATKINSON, Clinton Lavesta; JACKSON, Cleo Rosa Lee; BACON, Gloria Ann; JONES, Yolanda Sabrina; BROWN, Deborah Dianne; McKNIGHT, Rogers Henry; CANNON, Ruthe Mae; MORTEN, Larry Lawrence; COOPER, Edwin Jerome; MURRAY, Ronald Leon; DAVIS, Gwennesse Leon; THOMAS, Reena Lynett; DAVIS, Irma Beatrice; THOMPSON, Janet; DUDLEY, Gwendolyn Lawana; WASHINGTON, Philip Leon; EVANS, John Westley Jr.
The Brunswick News; Monday 7 November
Pg. 10 cols. 2
K STREET CHILD RECEIVED MINOR INJURY FROM CAR
A five-year-old K Street girl received minor
injuries Saturday night when she darted in front of an oncoming car and was
knocked to the ground, police reported.
Elender Shaw, colored, of 1707 K Street ran across L St. at
the Lee St. intersection. A car driven by William L. Echols of
Jacksonville skidded about 30 feet before hitting the child, police said.
MUSICIANS PACK EMPTY CASES AND LEAVE HOTEL
Jimmy Riley and his musicians packed
their empty instrument cases, picked up their marbles and left the King and
Prince Hotel during the weekend.
It was the Riley group who was victimized June 5 when burglars
removed their instruments from the patio storage hall. The only sign of the
night-time intruders was a warped string bass fiddle that floated onto the shore
the next day. All else had vanished in the musical mystery.
Gone out with the tide, so far as anyone knows, were a saxophone,
violin, clarinet, cymbals and drum accessories in addition to the fiddle. Total
value was put at more than $1,000.
Gadi Timers, hotel manager, toasted the generosity of local
musicians who by lending their instruments permitted the Riley combo to go on
the very next night. To the average listener there was no noticeable change in
the group’s performance, he said. But all that is water under the fiddle.
The Brunswick News; Monday 19 November 1962
Pg. 12 cols. 2-3
CRIES LEAD TO NEWBORN BABY LEFT IN TRASH CAN
Authorities today were flooded with inquiries
from Negro couples interested in adopting a newborn colored infant found
abandoned in a housing project trash can yesterday. The infant was believed
only two hours old when found.
The infant’s crying attracted the attention of Eddie Brantley,
Negro, 74 Brooklyn Homes, as he walked along Albany Street near the McIntyre
Court colored housing project, according to Officer Bruno Lewallen.
Brantley followed the sound until he reached a row of four
cans behind one of the project buildings. He removed the lid and found the baby
beneath a bag of garbage. Officer Lewallen reported. The infant, a boy,
was stuffed into a paper bag.
Officers E.W. Butler and J.L. Fountain, first to reach
the scene, wiped the infant clean of coffee grounds, egg shells and potato
peelings and summoned an ambulance.
The four pound, eight-ounce baby was reported in good condition
after an examination at the Brunswick hospital.
Meanwhile, police hunted for clues to the mother’s identity. Chief
Rex Deaver indicated a suspect had been uncovered by coluored [sic]
policemen and may be arrested for questioning today.
Juvenile Court authorities said several couples have been given
questionnaires leading to possible adoption of the infant, labeled “Baby X” at
the hospital. Police said telephones have been flooded with inquiries.
Chief Deaver said misdemeanor charges of neglect and
abandonment plus a possible attempted murder charge will be filed against the
mother if she is found.
Joining the investigation was officer J.M. Turner.
The Brunswick News; Saturday 29 April 1972
Pg. 14 col. 6
THREE DEATHS, INJURY RESULT FROM COLLISION
Three local men are dead today, and another hospitalized with
multiple broken bones as a result of an early morning two-car collision on the
F.J. Torras Causeway.
City police said Lester Grovner, 29, of 3019 Amherst St.,
Dennis C. Williams, Jr., 28 of 1826 Lee St., and Timothy Hillery, 25,
of 2212 Wolf St. were dead on arrival at the Brunswick hospital early this
Grovner was driver of the car in which three men were riding
when it was struck in the front by a vehicle operated by 23 year old Steve R.
Anderson of Glynnvilla Apts. according to police reports.
Police said the Grovner vehicle was traveling east on the
causeway and the Anderson auto was traveling west.
According to police reports, the Anderson vehicle left
approximately 129 feet of skid marks before crossing the center line into the
path of the Grovner car.
Police said after the collision Anderson’s vehicle caught
fire. Anderson was thrown a few feet from the burning vehicle they said.
Police estimate $2,150 damage to the Grovner vehicle and
$1,895 to the Anderson automobile.
Anderson is reportedly in “fairly good” condition at the
Police offered no explanation as to why Anderson might have
skidded into the other lane.
The Brunswick News; Monday 1 May 1972
Pg. 1A col. 1 & pg. 5A col. 2
SEVENTEEN DIE IN WEEKEND AUTO MISHAPS—by The Associated
Seventeen persons died in accidents during the
weekend in Georgia, all of them in traffic.
A head-on collision on Interstate 95 at College Park killed two
persons Sunday night. Police identified the victims as Lonnie L. Waller,
19 and eight months old Demitrion Brown.
Another College Park accident killed Stephen M. Griffith, 22,
Saturday. Police said his car collided with an earth moving machine.
Steve Cross, 30, of Macon died Saturday night when he lost
control of his car and rammed into a parked tractor trailer truck in downtown
A head-on collision Saturday killed 31 year old Clara Dunson
and 5 year old Lisa Erwin, both of Bogart. The accident occurred north
The state patrol said Wiley Martin, 39, of Waynesboro died
Saturday night when his car went out of control on Georgia 56 about five miles
south of Waynesboro.
Pedestrian accidents killed two Georgians, George Lively, 21,
of Doraville, was struck and killed by a car near the Atlanta city limits on
Nesbitt Ferry Road late Saturday. And William Turner, 45, of Lake Park
was struck and killed about seven miles north of Statesville on Georgia 11 in
A two-car collision just east of Sumner on U.S. 83 took the life of
three year old Joe Isaza on Saturday.
Killed in a head-on collision two miles west of Clayton on Georgia 2
was Hayne Sanders, 36, of Hiawasee.
A head-on wreck on a Brunswick causeway killed three men. They were
identified as Dennis Williams, 28, Lester Grovner, 29, and
Timothy Hillery, 25, all of Brunswick.
Early Saturday, a hit and run driver struck and killed 26 year old
Robert Michael Maddox of Lanett, Ala. He was walking along Georgia 103
about seven miles south of West Point.
Ricky Proctor, 18, of Dawsonville, was killed Saturday when
his car went out of control on a curve and struck an embankment about four miles
north of Dawsonville on U.S. 19.
One year old Christie Lavon Holden of Moultrie died in a
three-car accident Friday night near Moultrie on Georgia 33.
The Associated Press counts accidental deaths each weekend from 6
p.m. Friday until midnight Sunday.