Miscellaneous Articles Involving the Enslaved & Freepersons


The Georgia Gazette; Wednesday 9 July 1766

Pg. 4 col. 2

            RUN AWAY from the subscriber at Sapelo, a NEGRO FELLOW named HARRY, about 5 feet 8 inches high, 24 years of age, speaks bad English.  A reward of 20s. will be given to any person who takes him, and delivers him to the warden of the work house in Savannah, or at Sapelo to GEORGE GRAY.

The Georgia Gazette; Wednesday 20 July 1768; pg. 2 col. 2

            RUN AWAY the 14th inst. from Mr. Forrester’s sawmill, on the way from Savannah, A MULATTO BOY, named BILLY, about five feet two inches high, has a remarkable bushy head, much pitted with the smallpox, had on when he went away an old oznabrigs [sic] frock and trowsers [sic], with an iron chain round his neck, which he endeavours to conceal by wrapping a cloth round it.  He was just brought back from St. Kitts in the schooner Sally, where he was carried about two years ago by one Capt. Simpson, who employed him ever since as a sailor.  He will probably pretend to be free, and attempt to get off again in a vessel.  All masters of vessels are hereby forwarned [sic] against carrying him off, or employing him, as they may depend upon being prosecuted with the utmost rigour.  A REWARD of TWENTY SHILLINGS, with all reasonable charges, will be paid to whoever apprehends the said mulatto fellow, and delivers him to the keeper of the Work-House in Savannah, or to the subscriber at his plantation on Sapelo.  GEORGE M’KINTOSH.
            N.B.  The above mulatto boy was advertised in this paper about two years ago.  July 16, 1768.

The Georgia Gazette; Wednesday 15 February 1769; pg. 4 col. 1

            WENT AWAY the 13th inst. from the subscriber’s plantation on Sapelo River, A TALL NEGROE FELLOW, very black, speaks pretty good English, Angola born, and is named BRISTOL; he is branded on the breast I W in small letters, and came from the West Indies some years ago, is well acquainted about Sunbury and Midway, where he was taken up once before.  Any person that will apprehend the said fellow, and deliver him to me, shall have a reward of twenty shillings, with all reasonable charges.  GEORGE M’INTOSH.  17th January, 1769.

Columbian Museum & Savannah Advertiser; Tuesday 19 April 1796

Pg. 3 col. 4

25 DOLLARS REWARDRan away from the Subscriber's plantation, on Savannah Back River, a few days ago, the following NEGROES, viz:  A Negro Man, named SAMPSON, lately purchased of Capt. John Dilworth, of Camden County, in this State; he is full 6 feet high, very black, his head pretty grey, walks upright, is supposed to be between 40 and 50 years of age, and formerly belonged to the estate of the late Henry Sourby; he is well known in the southern parts of this State, being used to go between St. Mary's and Savannah, in a boat with Mr. Dilworth, and its supposed to be gone to St. Mary's, Beaufort, or some of the Sea Islands, as he went away in a small Canoe.--Also, from the same Plantation about the same time, a Young Negro Fellow, named SIMON, also very black, active and artful; about twenty years of age, near six feet tall, very likely, strong and well made, is apt to flutter a little, if surprized or sharply spoken to, born in South Carolina, and purchased by me, together with his mother, brother and sisters, of the estate of Col. Joseph Maybank of St. Thomas's Parish in that State, where it is probable he may attempt to go; it is said he has a wife either at Mr. Campbell's plantation, adjoining mine, or at Dr. Channings on Savannah River.  A Reward of Twenty DOLLARS, will be paid for apprehending and delivering Sampson to me in Savannah, and Five Dollars for Simon.  If either of them are harboured, the person so doing may expect to be prosecuted.  JOHN GLEN.  Savannah, April 18th.



Georgia Gazette; Friday 12 January 1798

Pg. 2 col. 1

WILL BE SOLD, at the Courthouse in the Town of St. Mary, County of Camden, between the hours of 10 and 3 o'clock, on Tuesday the 6th day of March next,
A Negro Fellow, named Will, seized under execution as the property of John Dilworth, at the suit of Gen. James Jackson.  Conditions cath.  The property pointed out by the Plaintiff Agent.  J.M. LINDSAY, S.C.C.  Sheriff's Office, November 30, 1797.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 2 November 1818

Pg. 1 col. 4

FIFTY DOLLARS' REWARD—Eloped about three months ago, from the undersigned a remarkably good looking negro [torn] named Scipio, about 22 or 23 years old and feet nine or teen inches high.  He is well known in Milledgeville, on Turtle river and in Savannah, where he has been occasionally hired out, and in the latter place has several relations.  He was seen in the company of two negroes, with a dog and gun.  It is supposed he will make for Savannah, and endeavor to get on board some vessel bound to the northern states or to Europe, as he before attempted to accomplish that object.  Any person apprehending and delivering him to Messrs. Carnochan & Mitchel in Savannah, or to James H. Giekie in Darien, or to the subscriber at the Thicket McIntosh county, shall receive the above reward and [torn] reasonable expenses paid.  William Carnochan
            N.B.  Captains of vessels and others are cautioned against harboring, employing, or taking him from the state, as the law will be rigidly enforced against offenders.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 2 November 1818

Pg. 2 col. 1

SHERIFF'S SALES—On the first Tuesday in December next, will be sold at the Court-house in this county, between the usual hours of 10 and 3 o'clock, the following property, viz.—One Cow and Calf, as she runs on the commons of Darien; one bay Horse and one old Sulky, returned by James Hamilton in his schedule of insolvency, as his property, and levied on to satisfy (so far as they will go) sundry executions against said Hamilton.
            Also, two Negro men, Paul and Boston, levied on as the property of James Derenges, deceased, to satisfy an execution obtained in favor of John Bolton, survivor of John Jackson vs. John Wallace, administrator James DerengesJames Pelot, D.S.M.C.

AN ORDINANCE—[article is torn away] Concerning Free Negroes and Persons of Color, Settling in the Town of Darien Passed the 14th September 1818.—Be it ordained, that all free Negroes, Mullattoes, or Mustezoes, or any free person of color, residing in the town of Darien, shall pay tax as follows, viz: for every male person as aforesaid, from the age of 15 to the age of 50 years, shall pay a town tax of ten dollars [a] year; and all females as aforesaid of and between [torn] ages, shall pay a yearly tax of five dollars; and [torn] Negro, Mullato, Mustezo, or free person of color [torn] come to reside within the limits of Darien, after [torn] passing of this ordinance, without first paying a [torn] the said town of fifty dollars, after ten day's notice [torn] failure of which, they shall be imprisoned for thirty [torn] at expiration of which time, their persons shall [torn] posed to public sale to pay the above mentioned [torn] and all incidental expenses.  James Troup, Int[torn] Attest, James Burnett, C.C.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 9 November 1818

Pg. 2 col. 3

RANAWAY—About three weeks ago, two negro men, well known in this place and St. Mary's, by the names of Nosko and Chance, formerly the property of John Holzendorf, sen.  A reward of ten dollars each, will be paid by delivering them to Scott Cray in Darien.  A.H. Powell



The Darien Gazette; Monday 23 November 1818

Pg. 1 col. 3

FIFTY DOLLARS' REWARD—Ranaway on the 10th instant, from the office of the Darien Gazette, a Negro boy named Smart, about 12 years old, four feet six inches height, stoutly built, the countenance pleasing though full and flat nosed.  He carried with him two round jackets; one of dark woolen, and the other of blue homespun; two checked shirts; osnaburgs trowsers and a pair of negro shoes.  He is supposed to have obtained a passage on board some vessel bound to New York, or in one going to Savannah, where his parents reside.  The above reward will be given for proof to conviction of such person as may have inveigled him away, or harbored or now harbors or may harbor him, and ten dollars [torn] all reasonable expenses for his deliver to Mr. [torn] Gugel in Savannah, or at the office of the Darien Gazette.  McIntyre & Millen



The Darien Gazette; Monday 30 November 1818

Pg. 3 col. 4

SHERIFF'S SALE—On the first Tuesday in February next, will be sold at the Court-house in this county, between the usual hours of 10 and 3 o'clock, the following two negroes, viz: Cate and her son Joe, levied on as the property of Green B. Tillman, under a foreclosure of mortgage from said Green B. Tillman to William CraigJames Pelot D.S.M.C.




The Darien Gazette; Monday 21 December 1818

Pg. 1 col. 3

A LARGE ESTATE FOR SALE—That extensive and well known property belonging to Pierce Butler, esq. situated on the waters of the Alatamaha [sic], in the counties of Glynn and M'Intosh, consisting of about 15,000 acres of land of various kinds, and 535 negroes.
            Among the negroes are about forty-five mechanics, viz: Blacksmiths, House and Ship Carpenters, Bricklayers, Coopers, &c.  Of the prime land, there is about 1600 acres fit for immediate cultivation, viz: 800 acres of tide swamp on Butler's Island, one mile from Darien, suitable for rice, cotton or sugar; 300 acres of brackish marsh, and excellent cotton land, on Experiment, on Little St. Simon's, and 500 acres on Hampton, St. Simon's Island, consisting of old fields that have not been in cultivation for three years.
            The estate is amply provided with buildings of every description, requisite in an extensive culture of rice, cotton and sugar.
            A further description is considered unnecessary, as it is presumed no person would become purchaser, without a previous examination of the premises.
            Butler's Island, containing 1498 acres (875 of which are banked in) is offered for sale in one lot, together with all the negroes, excepting a few families, that will be kept until the other property be disposed of.  The St. Simon's lands may be divided into several tracts to suit purchasers.  The payment will be accommodating; 20 per cent only will be required to be paid in hand; and 7 per cent interest on the balance.  Any person desirous of purchasing will please apply to the subscriber.  Roswell King
            The editors of the Georgian in Savannah, and of the City Gazette in Charleston are desired to insert the above 8 times weekly, and forward their accounts to this office for payment.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 21 December 1818

Pg. 2 col. 4

RANAWAY—From the subscriber, on the 12th instant, a very [torn] Negro Fellow named Jim, about twenty-two or three years old, five feet eight or nine inches high, stout made, full face, dark complection, lisps a little when speaking; had on when he went away, a negro cloth jacket and pantaloons, of white.  He was formerly the property of James Thomas, of Burke county; he was not long since taken out of Darien gaol; he will make for Savannah or Darien, in order to get on board some vessel, as he worked some time on board of one when he was out before.  He may try to get on board of an Augusta Boat; and make his way for that place, as he worked there some time at the bricklayer's trade.  A reward of twenty dollars will be paid to any person who will deliver him to the subscriber in M'Intosh county, or lodge him in any safe gaol in the state so that I can get hold of him.  Jonathan Thomas
            N.B.  Captains of vessels and others, are cautioned against harboring, employing or taking him out of the state, as the law will be rigidly enforced against them.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 28 December 1818

Pg. 4 col. 3

ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS' REWARD—Ranaway, on the 7th inst. the subscriber's negro woman Rose, about five feet four or five inches high, mild appearance, of easy disposition and apparently forty years of age.  As she carried away with her a good supply of clothes, it is impossible to describe her dress.  She is well known in Savannah, having lived there in the family of the late Levi Sheftall, esq. and owned latterly by Mr. Elias Wallen.  As her connections reside in that city, it is believed she will endeavor to reach it.  Twenty dollars will be given on securing her in the gaol at Savannah, or delivering her to her owner at Darien; and one hundred dollars for proof to conviction of her being harbored by any white person.  John Holzendorf, sen.
            N.B.  If Rose return[s] of her own accord, she will be forgiven.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 11 January 1819

Pg. 4 col. 4

NOTICE—On the 15th of February next, will be hired, at public outcry on the farm of John Granham[?], Wayne county, between the usual hours, Four Negroes (Stepney, Jess, Simon and Dina) and the said Plantation, the dwelling house excepted.  The terms will be made known on the day of hire.  Mary Granham ex'rx. A. M'Donald ex'or.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 18 January 1819

Pg. 3 col. 4

RANAWAY—From the plantation of Mr. Archibald M’Larin, on Savannah river, three negro fellows, viz:  FOX, a yellow fellow, had on irons when he went off.  TONEY, of the Angola nation, about five feet six inches high; and ARCHY, about five feet six inches high, forty-five years old and very flat footed.  A liberal reward will be given for securing them in gaol, or application to their master; Mr. John M’Nish, Savannah, or in Darien to B. King & Co.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 18 January 1819

Pg. 4 col. 4

TWENTY DOLLARS’ REWARD—Ranaway on the 10th instant from the plantation belonging to the estate of major Edward White, in Jones county, and African fellow named TOM, lately purchases at the sale of Africans in Milledgeville, about 22 years of age, five feet and a half high, stoutly built, of a very pleasant countenance, his face and back covered with country marks, the latter very remarkable, meeting on the middle and running downwards towards the sides.  He will probably be unable to mention his owner’s name.  Had on when he went away, a jacket and trowsers of white plains.  It is conjectured that he may attempt to find his way to Darien, Savannah or the Indian nation.  The above reward will be paid to any person who will deliver the negro thus described, at the plantation from which he absconded, or confine him in any gaol, so that he may be recovered.  Benjamin A. White, ex’or.
            The editors of the Darien Gazette will please to give the above six weekly insertions, and forward their bill to the Journal office for payment.  Milledgeville, December 14—A—12.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 25 January 1819

Pg. 1 col. 1

FOUND—A fifty dollar bank bill by a negro in this city.  The owner can have it again by paying for this advertisement and giving the finder five dollars for his honesty.  Inquire at this office.



The Darien Gazette; Monday 15 February 1819

Pg. 3 col. 4

TWO HUNDRED DOLLARS' REWARD—Absented from the plantation of James Moore, last, a Negro Wench, named CELIA, and on the 11th January following, a Negro man, named JACK, both belonging to the estate of Mrs. Martha Powell, deceased.  Fifty dollar's reward will be given for the apprehension of each or either of said Negroes on delivery to one of the subscribers and all reasonable expenses paid.  As it is believed said Negroes have been inveigled or stolen from the premises aforesaid, further proof to conviction of the offender.
            Celia is about thirty-five years of age, African born, speaks rather bad English, and in a very peculiar manner; but is otherwise smart and shrewd.  On being spoken to, she has the singular habit of throwing up her head with a disdainful air.  Jack, her husband, between forty and forty-five years of age, about five feet eight inches high, steady and sedate in his manners, one upper tooth lost, and some country marks.  Both of said Negroes, it is believed, are branded on the breast with the letter M.

JAMES MOORE Executors on estate
GEO. ABBOTT Mrs. Powell
Glynn County, February 7, 1819—-17

[Read slave inventory of estate for Martha Powell and Glynn County Deed Book G pgs. 305 & 306 regarding Celia and her husband Jack.  Note by Amy Lyn Hedrick]



The Darien Gazette; Tuesday 5 October 1824

Pg. 3 cols. 2 & 3

EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM A GENTLEMAN ON ST. SIMON’S ISLAND TO THE EDITOR, DATED SEPTEMBER 15, 1824—"I congratulate you on the preservation of your life and concerns from the horrible devastation and ruin that has cast a general gloom on our land, desolated our cities, despoiled our homes & disappointed our hopes.  Every carriage house on the Island is crushed with all the carriages, many carts and wagons and several valuable horses; almost every Negro house on the Island is down or uninhabitable.  Mr. Matthews' dwelling house, pigeon and store-house alone sustained the shock.  My gin-house unroofed, carriage house, carriage and one horse crushed some of the Negro houses swept off by the violence of the waves, as the water was three and four feet deep over the whole point.  Not a building in Frederica remains uninjured, and Mr. Blounts is entirely carried off and the inhabitants forced into the open field to preserve their lives.  The village I understand is quite a wreck; the large barn, carriage-house and other out buildings being crushed; St. Clair was less injured, Dr. Grant has suffered great loss in buildings, and had his carriage and one horse crushed.  At Hampton, the loss of Barns, Negro houses and many out-buildings is, I understand almost general.  At Cannon's Point the loss is incalculable, as the sea broke in and deluged the whole Point, sweeping away buildings, undoing the labor of years, and despoiling the ornamental improvements of a cultivated taste.  A partial description now directs me to the South End of our ruin-clad Island, where more melancholy events have occurred.  Capt. Demere has suffered great loss in buildings, but experienced the still more distressing affliction of having the lifeless corpse of his grandson RAYMOND, with five Negroes brought to him after a search of several days.  The Messrs. Wrights have suffered very severely in buildings, but understand Mr. Cater has not been so seriously injured.  At the Light-house, that building and the dwelling-house were the only ones that remained.  At Retreat, our esteemed friend Mrs. Page and her family must have suffered more in mind, than their pecuniary interest has sustained by their great losses, as the sea dashed around them with all the fury of a raging and unparalleled tempest, until it had leveled to the earth the hospital, store house, carriage, cotton and corn-house, with many out buildings, crushing their carriage, carts and wagons, drowning their cattle another stock, and spreading "wild confusion" through their beautiful and interesting improvements.  Such is the scene that will be presented to the visitor of our once cheerful Island; such the condition of our once comfortable homes, now alas! wrapped in desolation and ruin! Gracious God! "How mysterious are thy ways, how deep they thoughts!" As to our crops, if we realize one-third as much as we expected, we ought not to be dissatisfied.

(Storm happened on 8 September 1824) Further on in this paper it lists the dead, one being: "Mr. Raymond Demere, 3d, of St. Simon's and 4 Negroes—they were overtaken by the gale on their way from this city (Darien)—Mr. D. was in his 29th year. "Mr. Gould on Sapelo Island, had two of his children dashed from his arms by the waves and drowned."



The Darien Gazette; Tuesday 12 October 1824

Pg. 3 col. 5

FIFTY DOLLARS REWARD—Ran away from Pykes Bluff, St. Simons Island, (Ga) three Negroes, viz. ANDREW and his wife CELIA, and ISRAEL.  Andrew is a tall fellow, deficient of his right eye, and 45 years of age.  Celia is a tall mulatto woman, about 45 years of age.  Israel is a short thick fellow, about 45 years of age; he is an artful fellow, and speaks good English.  The above reward will be paid on their being apprehended and secured in some gaol so that I get them.  JOSHUA W. MATTHEWS oct. 5—-38



The Savannah Georgian (Savannah, GA); Tuesday 21 August 1827

Pg. 3 col. 4


            RANAWAY from on board the sloop Favourite in Savannah, on the 4th day of August, instant, a small pock marked negro man named Solomon, about 40 years of age.  It is believed that he is lurking in and about Savannah, and is probably harbored there by some person of colour.  The above reward will be paid to any person, who will apprehend the said Solomon and lodge him in Jail in that place, by Elias Fort, Esq.


aug 18                         199—E

[NOTE:  James Athelston Dawson Lawrence was a resident of St. Simons Island and Elias Fort was a residence of Eastern Wayne County and Western Glynn County—ALH]



Darien Gazette (Darien, GA); Tuesday 12 August 1828

pg. 1

SHERIFF’S SALE—ON the first Tuesday in September next, will be sold in front of the Court House in the city of Darien, between the hours of ten and four o’clock—
            Two Slaves, viz, Sarah and her child William, levied on as the property of Henry Harford, to satisfy an execution, Hall, Cooke & Co. for the use of the Bank of Darien, vs. Henry Harford.

july 29—31

SHERIFF’S SALE, POSTPONED—ON the first Tuesday in Sept. next, will be sold in the town of Brunswick, in Glynn county, between the usual hours of sale, the following property, to wit—
            Two negro Slaves, viz, Harriot and her child Mary, and five hundred acres of Land, bounded east by William and Jacob Moore’s land, north by Wm. Moore’s land, south and west by unknown lands—levied on as the property of Jacob Moore, to satisfy executions in favor of Charles Dewitt and others.

Brunswick, aug. 5—32

MARSHAL’S SALE—ON the first Tuesday in September next, will be sold in front of the Court House in the city of Darien—a Negro man named Allen McKinley. As he is sold for his jail fees, &c. the terms will be cash, or good town acceptances.

SAML. M. LEE, City Marshal.

july 29—31

Col. 4


            RANAWAY on the night of the 7th inst. from the plantation of Thomas B. King, on Colonel’s Island, two negro men, Peter and Battice. Peter is a tall black fellow, about 5 feet 9 or 10 inches. Battice is about 5 feet 6 or 7 inches; he stutters when he speaks. A liberal reward will be given for apprehending the said negroes, and their safe deliver to

on Colonel’s Island

June 17—25



The Georgian (Savannah, GA); Saturday 15 October 1831

Pg. 1 col. 5


            On the first Tuesday in November next,
            WILL be sold in the Town of Brunswick, Glynn County, between the usual hours of sale, the following slave Dick, levied on as the property of James A.D. Lawrence, to satisfy the foreclosure of a mortgage in favor of Samuel M. Burnett.

oct 11              W. MABRY, S.G.C.



The Georgian (Savannah, GA); Friday 05 July 1832

Pg. 4 col. 2

NOTICE—FOUR months after date application will be made to the Honourable the Justices of the Inferior Court of Chatham County, when sitting for Ordinary purposes, for leave to sell the interest of Charles A.F. Irvine, Martha A. Irvine, Caroline A.F. Irvine and James E. Irvine, being one undivided seventh part each, in and to a tract of land containing 202 ½ acres, being numbered 13 in the 21st District of the 1st section in the County of Lee in this State, as also in and to a tract of land containing 202 ½ acres, being number [sic] 244 in the 19th district of the 2d section in the County of Muscogee in said state, as also in and to five negroes named Flora, Jane, Titus, Clarinda and Jonah—the said tracts drawn by Alexander Irvin’s [sic] orphans, and the said property to be sold for the benefit of said orphans.

ANN E. STEWART, Guardian.

april 25—ju



The Georgian (Savannah, GA); Saturday 6 October 1832

Pg. 4 col. 1


            On the first Tuesday in November next,
            WILL be sold in the town of Brunswick, Glynn Co., between the usual hours of sale, two negroes, named Simon and Cloey levied on to satisfy an execution in favour of Smith & Dean against Mary Abbott, and one in favor of John Anderson and John Franklin vs. Mary Abbott.
            Also, three tracts of land, one containing two hundred and eighty-five and a quarter (285 ¼) acres, bounded on the south-east by Parrott’s lands, on the south-west by Paynes and on the north-east by Robert Wall’s land, and on all other sides by unknown lands, one other tract containing four hundred and forty three (443) acres, bounded on the north-west by marshes of the St. Tilla and on the north-east, by old survey of Wanes, by the south-east by Walls Land.  One other tract containing two hundred (200) acres, bounded on the north-west and south-west by vacant land, on the north-east by Hazzard’s land, and on all other sides by vacant land—all levied on as the property of Solomon Moody to satisfy an execution in favor of Ann M’Nish, Executrix of William M’Nish, against Solomon Moody.

oct 4     A.G. BURNETT, D.S.C.


            On the first Tuesday in November next,
            WILL be sold in the town of Brunswick, Glynn county, between the usual hours of sale—
            One negro woman named Sary, levied on as the property of James Jones, under an attachment issued out of a Justices Court in favour of J.A.D. Lawrence, levy made and returned to one by a Constable.  Also, one black nae [sic], levied on as the property of Jacob Moore to satisfy an execution in favor of John Andus.

oct 4     A.G. BURNETT, D.S.G.C.



The Brunswick Advocate; Thursday 8 June 1837

Pg. 3 col. 6

RUNAWAY--FROM Gowin Swamp on Monday night, two negro fellows,--DICK, a stout black fellow, about six feet high 45 years of age. NED, stout yellow complected [sic] about five feet ten inches high 27 years of age. As they both have relatives on the Brunswick Canal it is very likely they may be in that vicinity. Ten dollars will be given for the apprehension of each, on application to the subscribers.
Oak Grove, Glynn Co. June 5, 1837.



The Brunswick Advocate; Thursday 15 June 1837

Pg. 3 col. 5

WANTED TO PURCHASE--A GANG of ONE HUNDRED NEGROES, for which the Cash will be paid.  F.M. SCARLETT, Oak Grove, Glynn Co., June 15, 1837.



The Daily Chronicle & Sentinel (Augusta, GA); Monday 7 July 1862

Pg. 1 cols. 1 & 2

From the Savannah News, 5th.


            We saw yesterday, at the office of Messrs. Blount & Dawson a negro man named Robert belonging to Mr. Francis M. Scarlett, of Glynn county, who has just returned from a visit to his friends at Hilton Head, James Island and other Yankee localities.  He ran away from his master’s place, near Waynesville, in March last, took a boat and went to St. Simon’s Island.  He discovered three gunboats off St. Simon’s, one of which hailed him.  He approached the steamer, and received from them a countersign.  He was then told to go to another one of the gunboats, and when hailed, to give the word “Contraband.”  He then approached the steamer indicated—the Pocahontas—gave the countersign, and was taken on board.
            He remained on board the Pocahontas eight days, during which time he was kept steadily at work, scouring decks, &c.  While on board the gunboat, she attempted to go up the Altamaha river, but was prevented from going as far as Darien in consequence of pilings, which they were unable to remove.  While on this trip she sent a boat with eight or nine men ashore to procure fresh meat and other pickings.  The boat was fired into by Confederate pickets, killing three and wounding two others.  The survivors immediately returned to the Pocahontas, and the dead were subsequently buried on St. Simon’s Island.
            From the Pocahontas he was transferred to a steamer, the name of which he does not remember, and taken down on the Florida coast.  Here he was placed on board the Wabash, and shortly afterwards taken to Port Royal.  While at the last named place, he worked on the wharf in loading and unloading Yankee steamers, for which he was promised $8 per month.  He worked two months but received pay for only one.  He afterwards worked a short time in a saw-mill and received no pay.  He was then employed by Major White of Massachusetts, as a body servant.  The Major promised to pay $10 a month, but after repeated application for pay, stated that he had no money.  He asked Robert how he would like to go to Massachusetts, who replied “very well,” but says he had then determined to come back home as soon as an opportunity offered.
            From Hilton Head Robert followed the Yankee troops to North Edisto, and finally to James Island.  He remained on the last named Island three weeks, during which time the battle of Secessionville [sic] was fought.  A few days after the battle he succeeded in eluding the Federal pickets, and passed into our lines.  He was subsequently sent to Charleston and afterwards turned over to his master.
            Robert states that the Yankees are organizing companies of contrabands, at a place called “Fish Hall,” or Hilton Head, and that it is their intention to form them into a regiment.  He explains the modus operandi by which the negroes are induced to enter the service.  Religious meetings are held, at stated periods, at which a Rev. Mr. Wilson officiates.  At these meetings an “enrolling officer” was always present, who proceeded to take the names of the able-bodied men present.  These were asked to volunteer, and those who refused—by far the greater number—were forcibly sent to Fish Hall and mustered into service.  He attended one meeting, which was addressed by a colored brother from the North.  A sentinel stood at the door, (as was the invariable custom) while the colored brother harangued his audience in behalf of a church in Canada, and a forced contribution was taken up at the expense of the imprisoned contrabands.  This was the last meeting Robert attended, and he reports that the audience were at last accounts growing distressingly thin, the general impression being that their colored orator pocketed the money, and allowed the church in Canada to look after itself.
            Robert reports the negroes on Hilton Head dissatisfied, and many of them anxious to escape.  The island is closely guarded, and escape is next to impossible.  A negro attempted to get away, while he was on the island, and was shot.  The negroes are worked from daylight until eight and nine o’clock at night.  They are allowed no privileges, and are very cruelly treated, and on very slight offences, they are closely confined and put on bread and water.
            Robert’s experience has given him a very unfavorable impression of the Yankeedoodles generally, and of their military colony on Hilton Head particularly.  From his own report he has good reasons for preferring to live in Dixie.



The Burlington Weekly Hawkeye (Burlington, Iowa); Saturday 22 November 1862

Pg. 6 cols. 4-6


Correspondence of the New York Tribune.
On Board Steamer From Ft. Monroe to Baltimore, Nov. 14, 1862.

            Events of no ordinary interest have just occurred in the department of the South. The negro troops have been tested, and to their great joy, though not contrary to their own expectations, they have triumphed, not only over enemies armed with muskets and swords, but over what the black man dreads most, sharp and cruel prejudices.
            Gen. Saxton, on the 28th of October, sent the captured steamer Darlington, Capt. Crandell, down the coast of Georgia, and to Fernandina, Florida, to obtain recruits for the 1st Regiment South Carolina Volunteers. Lieut. Col. O.T. Beard of the 48th New York volunteers, was given the command of the expedition. In addition to obtaining recruits, the condition and wants of the recent refugees from slavery along the coast were to be looked into, and if, occasion should offer, it was permitted to “feel the enemy.” At. St. Simons, Ga., Capt. Trowbridge, with thirty-five men of the “Hunter Regiment of 1st South Carolina volunteers” who had been stationed there for three months, together with twenty-seven more men, were received on board. With this company of sixty-two men, the Darlington proceeded to Fernandina.
            On arriving a meeting of the colored men was called to obtain enlistments. The large church was crowded. After addresses had been made by the write and Col. Beard, 100 men volunteered at once, and the number soon reached about 125. Such, however, were the demands of Fort Clinch and the quarter-master’s department for labors, that Col. Rich, commanding the port, consented to only twenty-five men leaving. This was a sad disappointment, and one which some determined to not bear. The twenty five men were carefully selected from among those not employed, either on the fort, or in the quarter-master’s department, and put on board. Amid the farewells and benedictions of hundreds of their friends on shore they took their departure, to prove the truth or falsity of the charge. “The black man can never fight.” On calling the roll, a few miles from port, it was found our twenty-five men had increased to fifty-four. Determined not to be foiled in their purpose of being a soldier, it was found that thirty men had quietly found their way on board, just at break of day, and had concealed themselves in the hold of the ship. When asked why they did so their reply was.
            “Oh, we want to fight for our liberty and for the liberty of our wives and children.”
            “But would your dare to face your old masters?”
            “Yes, yes, yes; why, we would fight to death to get our families,” was the quick response,--No one doubted their sincerity. Muskets were soon in their hands, and not time was lost in drilling them. Our steamer, a very frail one, had been barricaded around the bow and stern, and also provided with two twelve-pounder Parrott guns. These guns had to be worked by black men, under the direction of the captain of the steamer. Our fighting men numbered only about 110 and 50 of them were raw recruits. The expedition was not a very formidable one, still all seemed to have an unusual degree of confidence to its success.
            What had been done the day previous, and what had been accomplished on the day of sailing, is described as follows by Lieut. Col. Beard in his report to Gen. Saxton.
            “On Monday, Nov. 3, with the steamer Darlington, having on board Captain Trowbridge’s company, colored troops (62,) I proceeded up Bell River, Florida, drove in the rebel pickets below Cooper’s, destroyed their place of rendezvous, thence proceeded and destroyed the saltworks, and all the salt, corn and wagons which we could not carry away, besides killing the horses. Thence we proceeded to Jolly river and destroyed two saltworks, with a large amount of salt and corn. Thence we proceeded to St. Mary’s and brought off two families of contrabands, after driving in the enemy’s pickets.
            “On Tuesday, Nov. 4, proceeded to King’s Bay, Georgia, destroyed a large saltwork in a creek about a mile from the landing, together with all the property on the place. Here we were attacked by about eighty of the enemy, of whom we killed two.”
            This was the first place where the troops were brought under fire. They had all (about thirty in number) just got into the small boats, when the enemy suddenly rushed out of the thick woods and fired upon them. Their condition was a perilous one, the enemy being not over ten rods distant, and the steamer still further off. Nothing daunted, the men loaded and fired coolly and incessantly, till safe on board. A warm fire was opened at once by the men from the steamer, and one of our Parrotts played well its part. It was marvelous that under so heavy a shower of bullets, not a man was wounded, though many balls were lodged in the steamer and barricades.
            Nov. 6—The first landing this day was on Butler’s Island, from which the troops brought off quite a quantity of rice. The next landing was at Darien, Ga., where two prisoners and some arms were taken. The pickets fled at the approach of our troops. Lieut. Walker, of Captain Trowbridge’s company, who had been left in charge of part of the company on St. Simons Island, accompanied by twenty-five men, had crossed over in small boats a few days before our arrival, and had captured, in Darien, the Assistant Provost Marshal. One of our new prisoners stoutly objected to being marched to the small boats by his negro captors. He swore a white man was entitled to more respect; but the overjoyed negroes could not see the force of his argument or profanity.
            The women and children (about fifty) taken from St. Simons on the day previous were now landed for safety at St. Catherines as a more hazardous work was to be undertaken. Much of the night was spent in getting wood and cooking meats, rice and corn for our women and children on shore, and for the troops. The men for the steamer, killing beeves needed no “driver’s lash” to incite them to labor. Sleep and rest were almost unwelcome, for they were preparing to go up Sapelo River, along whose banks on the beautiful plantations, were their fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, wives and children—Weeks and months before some of the men had left those loved ones, with a promise to return, “If de good Lord jis open de way.”
            At 5 o’clock on Friday morning, Nov. 7, we were under way. Capt. Budd, of the gunboat Potomska, had kindly promised the evening before to accompany us past the most dangerous places. On reaching his station in Sapelo Sound, we found him in readiness. Our little fleet, led by the Potomska, and followed by the Darlington, sailed proudly up the winding Sapelo, now through marshes, and then past large and beautiful plantations. It was very affecting to see our soldiers watching intensely the colored forms on land, on saying in the agony of deepest anxiety, “Oh, masir, my wife and chillen lib dere,” and another singing out, “dere, dere my brodder,” or “my sister.” The earnest longings of their poor, anguish-riven hearts for landings, and then the sad, inexpressible (except by sighs) regrets as the steamer passed, must be imagined—they cannot be described.
            The first intelligence was made at a picket station on Charles Hopkins’ plantation. The enemy was driven back; a few guns and a sword only captured. The Potomska came to anchorage, for lack of sufficient water, a few miles above, at Reuben King’s plantation. Here we witnessed a rich scene. Some fifty negroes appeared on the banks, about thirty rods distant from their master’s house, and the same distance from the Darlington. They gazed upon us with intense feeling, ultimately turning their eyes toward their master who was watching them from his piazza, and toward our steamer, which as yet, had given them no assurance of landing.—The moment she headed to the shore, their doubts were dispersed, and they gave us such a bowing welcome as angels would be satisfied with. Some of the women were so filled with joy that they ran, leaped, clapped their hands, and cried, “Glory to God! Glory to God!”
            The Darlington rested directly in front of the old planter’s door. About eighty men were formed in line of battle in the front yard, and some thirty were employed as scouts. The men were not all landed before the dark subjects of the patriarchal institution were rushing for the boat. It only required about fifteen minutes to gather their liberal supply of “old duds.” As they were coming with bundles on their heads, children in their arms and on their shoulders, loaded also with pigeons, pots, trays, chickens, ducks, and squealing little pigs, I ventured my unhallowed feet upon the piazza, when I met the planter and a widowed daughter, who was joint owner of the fleeing “chattels.” Salutations being exchanged, I remarked to the lady, “This is a sad morning to you.”
            “Yes,” said she, “this seems hard.”
            You may consider yourself fortunate in being thus providentially relieved of the responsibility of going to the judgment with the blood of these people upon you.
            “If it were the wish of Providence, then let him take them by death,” replied she. But their life is worth more than their death. “It is a divine institution.”
            If it were divine, we replied, it would relieve them of their rags and filth, renovate their dark and loathsome cabins, open the school house to their children, and cease to sell husbands and wives, parents and children. You see how eagerly they rush to us, with a thousand benedictions, while they express no kind regards to you. The good lady had no reply, except that the negroes were all their dependence.
            After relieving the old planter and daughter of $20,000 worth of humanity, i.e., fifty-two slaves, and the leather of his tannery, we re-embarked. Our boats were sent once and again however, to the shore for men, who, having heard the steam whistle, came in great haste fro distant plantations.
            As the Potomska could go no further, Capt. Budd kindly offered to accompany us with one gun’s crew. We were glad to have his company and the service of the crew, as we had only one gun’s crew of colored men. Above us was a bend in the river, and a high bluff covered with thick woods. There we apprehended danger, for the rebels had had ample time to collect their forces. The men were carefully posted, fully instructed as to their duties and dangers by Col. Beard. Our Parrotts were manned, and everything was in readiness. No sooner were we within rifle-shot than the enemy opened on us a heavy fire from behind the bank and trees, and also from the tops of trees. Our speed being slow and the river’s bend quite large, we were within range of the enemy’s guns for some time. How well our troops bore themselves will be seen by Capt. Budd’s testimony.
            Our next landing was made at Daniel McDonald’s plantation. His extensive and valuable salt works were demolished, and he himself taken prisoner. By documents captured, it was ascertained that he was a rebel of the tallest kind.—We took only a few of his slaves, as he drove back into the woods about ninety of them just before our arrival. One fine looking man came hobbling down on a crutch. McDonald had shot off one of his legs about eighteen months before. The next plantation had some 500 slaves on it; several of our troops had come down from it, and also had relatives there, but the lateness of the hour and the dangerous points to be passed on our return admonished us to retreat.
            Our next attack was expected at the bluff.—The enemy had improved the time since we parted them in gathering reinforcements. Col. Beard prepared the men for a warm fire. While everything was in readiness, and the steamer dropping down hard upon the enemy, the write passed around among the men, who were waiting coolly for the moment of attack, asked them if they found their courage failing. “Oh, no mas’r, our trust be in the Lord. We only want a fair chance at ‘em,” was the unanimous cry.
            The fire was immediately opened upon us by the enemy, numbering from 80 to 100 men.—Our troops returned the fire with effect. Two of the enemy soon fell headlong from the trees, and several on the ground soon fell. Only three of our men were wounded, and they ceased not firing till the enemy had, yet the blood completely covered the face of one who had been struck by a ball in the forehead.
            Most people have doubted the courage of negroes and their ability to stand a warm fire of the enemy. The engagements of this day were not an open field fight to be sure, but he circumstance were peculiar. They were taken by surprise, the enemy concealed, his force not known, and some of the troops had been enlisted only two days. Capt. Budd, a brave and experienced officer, and yet witness of both engagements, has kindly given his opinion, which we are sure will vindicate the policy, as well as justness, of arming the colored man for his own freedom at least.

U.S. Steamer Potomska, Sapelo River, Ga.; Nov. 7
            SIR,--It gives me pleasure to testify to the admirable conduct of the negro troops (1st S.C. Volunteers,) under the command of Lieut. Col. Beard, 48th N.Y. Volunteers, during this day’s operation. They behaved splendidly under the warm and galling fire we were exposed to, in the two skirmishes with the enemy. I did not see a man flinch, contrary to my expectations.
            One of them particularly came under my notice, who, although badly wounded in the face, continued to load and fire, in the coolest manner imaginable.
            Every one of them acted like veterans.

Very respectfully,
Wm. Budd
, Acting Lieut. Com’g Potomska.

To the Rev. M. French, Chaplain, U.S.A.
            On reaching his ship, Capt. Budd led our retreat. It had been agreed, after full consultation on the subject, that, in our descent down the river it was best to burn the buildings of Capt. Hopkins and Col. Bailsford. Both of these places were strong picket stations, particularly the latter. Bailsford had been down with a small force a few days before our arrival at St. Catherine’s and shot one of our contrabands, wounded mortally, as was supposed, another, and carried off four women and three men. He had whipped to death three weeks before, a slave for attempting to make his escape. We had on board Sam Miller, former slave, who had received over 300 lashes for refusing to inform on a few of his fellows who had escaped. He had been the owner of several of our troops and of their friends.
            The troops landed in these places under the guns of the Potomska, and quickly did their work. The first place a magazine was blown up. At the latter was a strong force, but the shells were too much for them. The sun had gone down when the troops landed, and the enemy had the advantage of darkness. Still our men went back half a mile, firing cabins, outhouses, and finally the splendidly furnished mansion of Col. B., sparing only his sword and saddle. All this work was done in the very face and eyes of the enemy, and yet such was their terror of black men armed that they dare not make an attack. The en all reached the steamer by the small boats without loss.
            I would here remark that the men were not allowed to take any article for their own use, nor indeed did they seem anxious to do so. To damage the rebels, rescue their friends, and show that they could be “sogers,” seemed the one desire of their hearts. It was truly surprising to see how rapidly and expeditiously they could land; after leaping from the small boats into the water knee-deep, and climbing up the banks, then would rush into the woods as fearlessly as a dog after a fox. They felt perfectly at home, scouting in the woods, and were an awful terror, as we had reason to know, to the enemy. Their intimate knowledge of the rivers made them invaluable as pilots.
            On passing among the men as we were leaving the scenes of action, I inquired if they had grown any to-day. Many simultaneously exclaimed:
            “Oh yes, massa, we have grown a’most three inches,” said Sam; “I feel a heap more of a man.”
            With the lurid flames still lighting up all the region behind, and the bright rays of the smiling moon before them, they formed a circle on the lower deck, and around the hatchway leading to the hold, where were the women and children captured during the day, and on bended knees they offered up sincere and heartfelt thanksgivings to the Almighty God for the mercies of the day. Such fervent prayers for the president, for the hearing of his proclamation by all in bonds, and for the ending of the war and slavery, were seldom, if ever, heard before. About one hour was spent in singing and prayer. Those waters surely never echoed with such sounds before.—It really seemed, sometimes, as if we could almost hear the angels chanting over us, the old son of Judes, “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, and good will to men.”
            We refer again to Col. Beard’s report. He says: “The colored men fought with astonishing coolness and bravery. For alacrity in effecting landings; for determination, for “bush” fighting, I found them all I could desire, more than I had hoped. They behaved bravely, gloriously, and deserved all praise.”
            Our steamer left Beaufort without a soldier, and returned after an absence of twelve days with one hundred and fifty-six fighting colored men, some of whom dropped hoe, took a musket, and were at once soldiers, ready to fight for the freedom of others. The troops made thirteen landings on the main between Fernandina and Fort Pulaski, destroying nine large salt works, together with some $20,000 worth of salt, corn, rice, horses, &c., which could not be brought away. About seventy slaves were taken from their rebel masters, while our steamers brought back the scars of 150 of the enemy’s balls. The men entered Beaufort singing the John Brown song more heartily, I venture to say, than it was ever sang before. The negroes now think they will be ready when the brigade is completed, to take the job of putting down the rebellion.



Bangor Daily Whig & Courier (Bangor, Maine); 23 June 1863

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            A Hilton Head letter of the 17th states that Montgomery’s expedition, consisting of the 54th Mass., the 2d South Carolina and Brayton’s R.I. battery, proceeded up St. Simons Sound, Ga., and Tuttle [Turtle] River, above Brunswick, on the 8th, and destroyed a railroad bridge over Buffalo Creek.
            The expedition also ascended Attahama [Altamaha] river on the 11th above Darien, and captured a schooner laden with 40 bales of cotton and brought her away. The expedition then returned to St. Simons Island, without the loss of a man, and awaited orders from General Gilmore[?] and the supply of certain defects of what was found necessary to its work.



The Weekly Gazette & Free Press (Janesville, Wisconsin); 26 June 1863

Pg. 2 col. 5

Fort Monroe, June 21.
            Richmond papers of the 20th say that the city of Darien, Ga., was burned by the federals on the 11th inst., and is now one plain of ashes and blackened chimneys. Seven iron-clads and were at Brunswick, Ga., and large forces had landed from transports. Vallandigham has run the blockade from Wilmington. He is going to Nassau and thence to Canada.



The Weekly Gazette & Free Press (Janesville, Wisconsin); 3 July 1863

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Hilton Head, June 17, 1863
            Early on the morning of the 11th inst., Col. Montgomery left St. Simons Island, where his brigade is now encamped, to present his compliments to the rebels of Georgia, having the week before sent them to those of South Carolina.
            This force consisted of five companies of the 2d South Carolina, eight companies of the 54th Massachusetts, Col. Shaw, all negro, and the 3d Rhode Island battery, Capt. Brayton, and the transports Sentinel and Harriet A. Wood, constituted the fleet.
            The expedition ready, the order was given to sail through Doboie [Doboy] Sound and up the Altamaha river, the largest stream in Georgia, to the village of Darien, which is said to have contained before the war some 2,000 inhabitants, most of whom were wedded to the rebel cause.
            As the John Adams approached the village she poured a constant shower of shot and shell into the woods, along the shore and into the town, as she came up to the wharf. The few “crackers” and paupers remaining in the place ran frightened and terror stricken in every direction, and when Col. Montgomery landed his troops, he found not a single armed inhabitant to dispute his right. Through the activity of some of the negro soldiers, a few of these poor “white-trash” were caught, who told the story of there being a strong cavalry force within five miles of the place, which may or may not have been true. At any rate, Col. Montgomery, from the information obtained from them, did not desist from his original purpose, but marched nearly his whole force into the town, posted his sentries and prepared to do his work.
            In a few hours all the valuable property he could find, of a movable character, was transferred to his boats. A large class of second-class furniture, considerable livestock, horses, cows, and sheep, and rice and corn sufficient to feed his command for at least a month, was thus disposed of.
            The inhabitant driven out and the town sacked, the nest step in Col. Montgomery’s programme was to burn and destroy everything he could not carry off with him. In a few moments the principal buildings were all in flames, and, a strong south-west wind prevailing at the time, the whole village was soon enshrouded in flame and smoke, and before the expedition returned not a single tenantable habitation remained.
            Darien destroyed, Major Corwin of the 2d South Carolina took the Harriet A. Wood and proceeded up the river in search of a rebel craft he had heard of through some negroes. When four miles up the stream he found the report to be correct, and overhauled and captured a copper-bottomed schooner, a large flat-boat, and 80[?] bales of long staple cotton, estimated to be worth $30,000. Major Corwin was absent from Darien two hours, and when he returned with his prize, was received by the Massachusetts and South Carolina negro soldiers with nine tremendous cheers.
            These bold, rapid and successful expeditions of Col. Montgomery are spreading terror throughout the entire coast, and are compelling the rebels to abandon their rice and cotton fields, and all the smaller villages which would be at all likely to be visited by him.



The New York Times; Sunday 28 August 1864

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Boston, Sunday, Aug. 27.

            An officer of the United States transport Massachusetts, arrived here today, reports that the blockade-runner Lillian, for Nassau, N.P., was captured on the 25th inst. off Wilmington by the gunboats Gettysburgh and Keystone State and transport Massachusetts.  Several shots were fired at her before she surrendered, one of which took effect two feet below the water line, producing a bad leak, and another cutting off a man’s hand.  The leak was stopped, and the prize taken into Beaufort, N.C. [sic].  She will be sent to Boston.  Her cargo consisted of 721 bales cotton, 50 of which were thrown overboard.  The Lillian is an iron vessel, and very fast.  Her Commander is said to be Capt. MAFFITT, formerly of the pirate Florida.

[Another article states the capture happened on the 24th ult.  This event involved one of Brunswick's newly freedmen, Columbus Hippard --ALH]



The Macon Weekly Telegraph; Tuesday 22 February 1870

Pg. 8 col. 5


            We stated yesterday that the Grand Jury of Glynn county had been fined by the Judge of the Brunswick Circuit, twenty-five dollars for contempt of Court in their General Presentment, or in default of payment, sentenced to twenty-five days’ imprisonment.  They had chosen the latter, and there being no jail in Brunswick the sheriff had incarcerated them in the jail at Savannah, where the intended to sue out a writ of habeas corpus before Judge Schley, of the Eastern Circuit.
            As this case is likely to attract some attention we append the facts more in detail, as gleaned from the Brunswick Appeal, of the 11th instant.  The following was the Grand Jury Presentment:
            February 8, 1879}
            We, the Grand Jury of the adjourned February term, make these, our general presentments:
            While we congratulate our citizens that every convicted colored offender found guilty by a legal jury has been sentenced by the Court, and they are now undergoing the penalty due their crimes, and are prevented for a time at least the opportunity of repeating or renewing their offences, we regret that a white criminal found guilty by the same jury of a far more heinous offence than any alleged to have been committed by those who are now paying the penalty of their misdeeds, should, under the administration of our laws or the interpretation of them, be permitted to go at large; and while w are placed without our seeking, in a position that requires us to diligently inquire into, and true presentments make, of all offences, we feel we are engaged in a solemn farce, and mockery of law and we have no encouragement to offer our people that the present enforcement of law affords them any adequate protection against the commission of crime.
            We are painfully alive to the fact how futile all our efforts for the establishment of law and order have been rendered by the action of the Court I admitting to bail one convicted of assault with intent to murder, against whom an indictment is standing for murder in the first degree.
            We have the honor to be,
            Very respectfully.

Hamilton A. Kenrick, Chm’n.
Frances E. Kemp
Edward L. Harvey
L.H. duBignon
Joseph Dangaix
Horace B. Robinson
Alex. Peters
James T. Blain
J.C. Goodbread
Burr Winton
Alex. B. Forrester
William A. Couper
Benjamin M. Cargyle
Joseph W. Roberts
Horace Dart
John B. Habersham
Sylvester C. Littlefield
Geo. W. Aymar
Roland B. Hall

            Upon the conclusion of the reading of the presentments, the Judge rebuked and discharged the Jury.  He then ordered the Clerk not to spread the presentments upon the records of the Court.  After discharging the Jury, he issued the annexed order:
            It is ordered and adjudged that each of said Grand Jurors, having used such disrespectful and contemptuous language in regard to the action of this Court, be and he is hereby adjudged in contempt of the Court in the premises, and that they and each of them pay a fine for such contempt in the sum of twenty-five dollars each, or in default thereof be confined in the county jail of said county, or in such other jail as the Ordinary of said county of Glynn may direct, for the full term and period of twenty-five days; and it is further ordered, that the sheriff of said county be and is hereby commanded and directed to execute this order.
            W.M. SESSIONS, J.S.C.B.C.
            The appeal declines to express an opinion about the affair.  The presentment is evidently in contempt, but we are unable to say how much or how little it might have been merited by the Court.



Darien Timber Gazette; Friday 27 July 1877; pg. 3 col. 1

            HENRY CAPERS, Charles Gary, Charles Thorpe, and Richard Drayton, all colored, were arrested on Friday last, at the instance of Joe Mansfield, who charged them with breaking into his store on the night of the 18th inst. On Saturday they were arraigned before Justice Corker, under the charge of burglary in the night time. Henry Capers acknowledged that he entered the store, but said that they other men, Drayton, Thorpe, and Gary, had nothing to do with the robbery. They were discharged, and Henry Capers was committed to jail to await a hearing at the next term of the Superior Court, for burglary in the night time. Henry was to have been married on Saturday night, but we learn that he has indefinitely postponed the celebration of this happy event.



Darien Timber Gazette; Friday 9 November 1877; pg. 3 col. 1

            HENRY CAPERS, the colored man who broke into Mr. Mansfield’s store several months since, was sentenced to a term of ten years in the Penitentiary, by Judge Tompkins, on Thursday.



The Brunswick Advertiser & Appeal; Wednesday 7 August 1878

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In an encounter between Mr. Thornton Sharpe, former conductor of the M. & B. R.R., and a colored man, at No. 1 on the above road, the former was cut in the breast with a razor.  His wound, we learn, is healing.  The negro has left for parts unknown.



The Brunswick Advertiser & Appeal; Saturday 10 May 1884

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BRUNSWICK, GA., MAY 9, 1884.
            MR. EDITOR:  On Sunday night, the 4th inst., certain unknown parties tore down a large portion of the fence of the Risley school house.  Their action was a wanton and malicious attempt to injure the property, and a reward of ten dollars will be paid for information which will lead to the discovery of the guilty parties.  JAMES BLUE.

Pg. 3 col. 4


            Horace Cadone, colored, has been found guilty of burglary, and sentenced to six years in penitentiary.
            Jake Brown, colored, has been found guilty of larceny, and sentenced to six years in the penitentiary.
            Isaac Williams, the witness, who would not answer promptly, and was put in jail, on being searched was found with a pistol in his pocket.  The grand jury at once found a true bill against him, and he has been arraigned and plead guilty.
            Rube Peyton, who killed Watt Russell on the Island a few weeks since, has been found guilty of murder in the first degree, and sentenced to be hung on the 20th of June.
            Wm. Lewis, who shot Manny Williams, on St. Simons, whilst working roads, recently, has been acquitted.

Pg. 6 col. 2

            If Rube Peyton is hung it will be the first hanging in Glynn county in sixty-five years.


The Atlanta Constitution; Tuesday 19 August 1884

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GEORGIA GOSSIP—SHORT TALKS WITH THE SCRIBES OF THE COUNTRY PRESS—A Negro Man Tied to the Track of a Railroad – Homicide in Doughtery County – The Rice Crop in a Splendid Condition – A Riot in Brunswick – Other Items of Interest.

            The Brunswick Herald says that a negro man was securely tied across the railroad track about four miles north of Eastman on Friday night; the train came thundering along and cut his head from his body.  The train stopped and immediately the vicinity was alive with negroes who had doubtless bound the man to the track, and were hypocritically lamenting the occurrence of the tragedy.
            [Paragraphs omitted as they dealt with other counties—ALH]
            Darien complains of the regularity of Saturday night tragedies among the colored people.  The knife and the razor are its favorable weapon.
            James Maxwell, a colored man living in the neighborhood of Carnaghan bridge, McIntosh county, was bitten on both ankles, by a large rattlesnake on Saturday afternoon last, while looking for his cow.
            Brunswick Herald:  About noon yesterday a report reached this city that a riot was in progress at the upper wharf.  The police went promptly to the scene.  It was found that the affair had been greatly exaggerated, but that an affray between three colored men, Paul Austin, Massey Scarlett, and Hampton Scarlett, Massey Scarlett had been stabbed in the shoulder with a knife, the blade of which had been so deeply embedded in his body that the point could not be pulled out.  Scarlett was brought to Brunswick and Dr. Burford tried to extract the blade, but it resisted all efforts at extrication.  Austin is in jail.  H. Scarlett escaped unhurt.



The Brunswick Advertiser & Appeal; Saturday 4 April 1885

Pg. 6 col. 5


            There lives in this county an aged colored man, King Heppard [sic], Sr., by name, who is indeed a patriarch.  He is 85 years old and still strong and vigorous.  His wife, Matilda, is 59 years old.
            King Heppard is the father of six sons and five daughters.  Unto these have been born forty-eight children.  Of these latter several ware married, and among them have twenty-seven children.  Counting the old man and his wife, their children and grand children, and great-grandchildren, we have an aggregate of 88 people in one family.
            Old man Hippard [sic, this is the commonly known spelling] certainly deserves the name of patriarch, but we naturally imagine that in this day of free American ideas, that the patriarch hardly has the same control of this immense family that the patriarch of old had.



Brunswick Advertiser & Appeal; Saturday 19 September 1885

pg. 3 col. 1


            The “dry” territory along the Satilla river seems to have furnished room for illicit work the past few months. U.S. Deputy Marshal Palmer, of Savannah, made a raid up there last week and took in four negroes who were alleged to have been selling liquor without a license.—Among them was an old fellow named Ned Tattnall, 75 years old. On his way to Savannah he seemed utterly reckless, and said he was “purty ole” any way and couldn’t last long, so it didn’t make “no diffrunce no way;” but when he got to Savannah and began to take in the situation, he concluded he would rather be in the rice fields of Camden than Albany, N.Y., or Dry Tortugas, so turned “State’s evidence” and told the Court “twasn’t been him wat been sell de licker no way, but it was his daughter.” The Marshal reports finding several demijohns, etc., hid away in the house. The plan adopted, it seems, was not to sell the liquor on the premises, but to take a jug into the woods near by and there retail it out. Marshal Palmer was here again this week on his way to the Satilla to gather in a few more of the illicit sellers, and having a warrant for Judson Minor, colored, of this city, charged with the same offense, stopped over on his way down and arrested him. Minor gave bond to be at the boat on her return ready for the Marshal to take him to Savannah. It seems he is charged with selling liquor from a sailboat in the same territory with Ned Tattnall and others up the Satilla river. They all submitted quietly to their arrest, knowing that Uncle Sam was a bad man to resist. These visits of the Marshal up the Satilla are having a dampening effect on the “jug trade” of the Satilla. We are told only six little brown jugs went up last Monday by the Cracker Boy, instead of twenty-five or thirty, as usual.


Brunswick Advertiser & Appeal; Saturday 26 September 1885

pg. 2 col. 5

            WAYCROSS, Sept. 22—At Nahunta, Wayne county, to-night, during a dispute about 25¢, between two negroes—West Morris and Hampton CarlisleMorris drew his pistol on Carlisle. Oscar Marshall interfered, when Morris turned upon Marshall and shot him through the bowels. Marshall will die. Morris escaped.


Weekly Advertiser & Appeal; 1888 no date or page number

NINE IN ONE FAMILY—“Nigger for luck and poor man for children” is an old adage that the school census taker has been verified in a single house.  He found one colored family with nine children between the school ages 6 and 18.  Among the whites the greatest number found in any one family has been seven.  Several have run up to 5 and 6 but only one as high as seven.

ST. MARYS—A Youthful Murderer—A Vigilant Grand Jury.

            Last Monday, in company with the Court, Judge Atkinson, and various members of the bar, your correspondent boarded the steamer City of Brunswick on our way to this place, together with a goodly number of our Baptist brethren with their wives and daughters, on their way to Jacksonville and St. Augustine.  The weather was beautiful, the sun shone brightly, and with fine breeze and in such pleasant company the trip could not fail to be pleasant.  Among the visitors who did much to make the trip enjoyable were Dr. Walker, who entertained us while stuck in the mud at “the dividings” by description of his life and work among the Chinese.  Mrs. W.J. Northern and her accomplished daughter, Miss Anna Belle, of Sparta, and others.
            We reached Fernandina in safety although behind time, and spent the afternoon in seeing the town, driving to the beach, taking a surf bath, etc.  But all things changed, and especially April weather.  By night the wind is blowing almost a gale, and Tuesday morning when we re-cross Amelia Sound on a tug boat it does not resemble the placid waters that we glided across so easily the day before, for now the waves are rolling and pitching and it is with difficulty that we get across, but St. Marys is safely reached at last.  There is nothing new to be said about the town.  It is just the same, “grand, gloomy and peculiar; grand in the beauty of its trees, shrubs and flowers, gloomy in its wealth of vacant houses and deserted streets, and peculiar when we remember what it once was, and now is, and one is led to exclaim, “Lo, how the might have fallen.”
            Camden Superior Court opened last Tuesday morning, and a faithful and diligent grand jury have brought many offenders to justice and under the able management of Judge Atkinson, a large amount of business has been disposed of.  One case tried is peculiar in its nature in that the defendant, James Williams, Jr., was a little colored boy, 15 years of age, who was indicted and tried for the murder of his little play mate, Arthur Sullivan, about eleven years old.  They two, with Arthur’s brother, Frank, 13 years old, were playing, and from play got into a boyish fight, with sticks and knives, during which Jimmie drove a knife into Arthur’s head.
            The jury very properly convicted him of voluntary manslaughter, and the Judge, exercising the discretion vested in him by law, tempered justice with mercy, and sentenced him to one year in the penitentiary.  Three young colored men were convicted for riot, and sentenced each to 12 months or $50.  They paid their fines.
            London Gibbs was convicted of hog stealing and paid his $50 fine.
            The Court adjourned to-night, and we leave for home to-morrow morning.  C.L.S.



The Brunswick Weekly Advertiser & Appeal; Friday 12 October 1888

Pg. 6 cols. 2 & 3

There will be one colored man in the next session of the Georgia Legislature—the Representative from Liberty county, Sam McIver by name, known before the war as “Estate of Stevens’ Sam.”  He is a regular Chesterfield in manners and address.

THE COUNTY COURT—Judge A.J. Crovatt opened court on Thursday and forthwith proceeded to “do up” evil doers.  As we sat and listened to his mild words to each offender, we naturally thought “can this be the terrors of the law” that we read about?  But the scene suddenly changes when he announces to some poor wretch that the law demands that he serve his country for 6, 8, 10 or 12 months on the chain gang.  The tone is the same, but the result is different.  His Honor disposed of a large number of cases.  Whilst present we picked up the following:


            Judge—Peter Cooper, you are charged with larceny—guilty or not guilty?
            Peter—Guilty Mr. Jedge, an’ I trows de mercy on de court—make em’ as light as yer kin.”
            The Judge took “de mercy” thus bestowed, and in view of Peter’s crime—stealing a barrel of flour out of Lott’s store in open day time, and trucking it down the street to his home—gave Peter six months on the chain gang with privileges of $50 and costs instead.
            Otto Martine, a white man, had stolen some clothing from his employer, tailor Isaacs, and was up before His Honor.  He plead guilty, and being a white man the Judge first thought of giving him eight months or $60 and costs, but finally let him off the same as his colored brother, inasmuch as he way [sic] a foreigner and not well posted in our ways.
            Renty Cohen was told to stand up and say what he had to say about his guilt or innocence in stealing a pair of pants from Mr. Willie Miller in Hancock’s bakery.  Of course he was guilty, for he was caught with the pants on (put there by mistake, he said).  He plead guilty, and shared the same fate as the others.
            Gen. Fluker, the big eater, was next called up.  He is the man who ate twenty loaves of bread, four pounds of raw bacon and three pints of syrup and quarreled because he was stopped from eating more.  As the gaunt giant stood up before the court, Judge Symmes arose and begged His Honor that he make special allowance for the feed of Fluker if he should be convicted, for Sheriff Berrie could not possibly feed him on forty cents per day, the amount allowed by law.  The General was not ready for trial, so his case was postponed.



The Macon Daily Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 26 October 1888

Pg. 3 col. 3

            Brunswick News:  M. Agee, a section boss on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia road, knocked on the head and seriously hurt Charlie Tresvant, one of the hands belonging to another section.  It occurred about 10 o’clock yesterday, and produced concussion of the brain, that may result in death.  It was caused by a dispute having arisen as to some tools that the colored man claimed were in the care of the section boss.  Tresvant went in to take possession of what he claimed was his own tools, when Mr. Agee picked up a shovel and struck him on the head.  A warrant was sworn out before Judge Lambright yesterday for Mr. Agee, but up to last night no arrest had been made.



Brunswick Weekly Advertiser-Appeal; Friday 4 January 1889

pg. 2 col. 2


            ATLANTA, Ga., Dec. 20.—There is only one colored man in the Georgia Legislature, Samuel McIver. On going home yesterday Dr. William D. Hoyt was very much surprised to find a big colored man in his house talking to the female embers of his family. He did not know what to think of it as he walked into the room until one of the ladies remarked: “This is Sam; don’t you know him?” It then flashed across the physician’s mind that the colored man was the old coachman of his wife’s mother, in Liberty county, long before the war.
            Sam was born in 1816 and is therefore 72 years old. He told them all about how he was elected to the Legislature and how he was getting along. Mrs. Stevens, who was his older owner, also asked him many questions about the old homestead. Dinner time came and there was somewhat of a predicament. What should be done with the old negro? He was a member of the legislature, and it would not do to send him to the kitchen. So the family ate dinner and gave the table to Sam. At supper time the same thing was repeated; the family ate first and then Sam.
            Dr. Hoyt thought that he ought to give the old man some present, but was afraid that he might insult him by offering him something ordinarily given to the people of his race. During the evening the visitor seemed very much pleased with some improved rat traps the doctor was setting. So he presented him with one. Finally it was about time of the legislator to leave as he was going back to Atlanta by the 9:30 train.
            As he was getting ready, Sam said to Dr. Hoyt: “Dr. hasn’t you got an old coat you’d give me.” The “old human nature” of the colored man came back to him, and he forgot that he was a legislator drawing a salary of $4 per day. Dr. Hoyt was pleased to hear him ask the question, as he had been puzzled to know what to give him. The doctor looked over his cast off clothing up stairs, and found an old coat. Sam already had on two coats. These were rather too tight. He pulled off one and put on the coat received, with the oldest one outside. The outside coat was several inches shorter tha the one given him, but that made no difference to him.



The Brunswick Times; Tuesday, 3 September 1889

Bound Over

    Before Justice Coker, yesterday, the negroes arrested by Constable Levison Sunday (Sept. 1, 1889) had their trial.  They were Alex Roberts, Sandy and Grace Berien, Tom and Charlotte Roberts.  They were charged with having stolen a drove of turkeys from Mr. Stafford Burney, who resides near Sterling.
    Justice Coker bound over Alex Roberts and Sandy and Grace Berien to the next term of the county court.  The other two were dismissed.

Broke his leg

    Simon Ellis, colored, who works at one of the docks in the city, had his left leg broken yesterday.  Ellis was engaged in moving some lumber, when the pile fell down on him, crushing his leg quite badly and breaking it just above the knee.  Ellis was taken to his home near Dixville and a physician was called in who set the fracture and left the man doing as well as could be expected under the circumstances.



The Augusta Chronicle; Tuesday 24 September 1889

Pg. 1 col. 2

CHASED BY A BLACK MOB—A Brunswick White Man Narrowly Escapes Negro Lynchers.

            BRUNSWICK, Sept. 23.—[Special.]—A sensational shooting scrape occurred yesterday morning about 2 o’clock, in which J.H. Minehan (white) shot and probably fatally wounded Frank Golden (colored).
            Minehan, by instructions of his lawyers, refused to talk.  Golden says that the shooting was without provocation.  It occurred in front of Golden’s saloon, on Mansfield street.
            As soon as the shot was fired a crowd of negroes gathered, and Minehan ran, the crowd following, yelling:
            Catch him!  Catch him!  Kill him!  Kill him!
            The town was aroused, and as Minehan ran up Bay street several came down Monk street to join him.
            Arriving at the Ocean hotel he saw it was useless to continue farther, as he would be overtaken and probably killed.  He stepped in the front door and held the mob of infuriated blacks at bay with his pistol.
            Officer Goodbread arrived on the scene at the same time warning his pursuers to leave.  They seemed loathe to leave, and followed both Minehan and Goodbread to jail.
            Fearing serious trouble, orders were again given to this crowd to disperse, and the words this time had their effect, as one by one they left from around the jail.



The Columbus Enquirer-Sun; Saturday 1 August 1891

Pg. 1 col. 7


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., July 31.—At Jessup today Marshal Goodbread killed General Fluker (col.), an escaped murderer from Brunswick, while attempting to arrest him.  The verdict of the coroner’s jury was justifiable homicide.



The Columbus Enquirer-Sun; Thursday 10 September 1891

Pg. 1 col. 4


            BRUNSWICK, September 9.—[Special.]—Alice Westmoreland, a mulatto woman in the employ of G.A. Hanson, white, who keeps a restaurant on Oglethorpe street, was shot between 11 and 12 o’clock last night in Hanson’s restaurant.  The shooting, according to the statement of the woman and Hanson was accidental.  The latter says that he threw his pistol on a table, when it was discharged, the ball entering the left ear of the woman, ploughing through the fleshy portion of the base of the head, coming out three inches in the rear of the ear and making a scalp wound on his head.  The wound on Hanson was examined by your correspondent and it was evident that it could only have been made by some blunt instrument, and not by a bullet.  According to the statement of Mr. S.T. Goodbread, who rents the building in which the restaurant is located, and runs a bar in an adjoining room, and others, the woman is a paramour of Hanson’s.  She was found lying on a pallet in a closet adjoining the restaurant.  When questioned she confirmed the story as told by Hanson.  She told Mr. Goodbread, however, this morning that the shooting was intentional, Hanson married a sister of Goodbread about two years ago, and deserted his wife and two children in Boston.  The woman is not seriously wounded.



The Sandersville Herald (Sandersville, GA); Thursday 23 February 1893

pg. 2 col. 1

            Two hundred and sixty Arkansas negroes arrived in Brunswick on Friday, to embark for Africa. As no vessel was in port to sail for Africa, their colored friends aidded them in settling and getting them work. If they are the dupes of bogus emigrant agents, such agents should be arrested, and severely punished.



The Americus Weekly Times-Recorder (Americus, GA); Friday 24 February 1893

pg. 7 col. 1


            BRUNSWICK, February 17.—Brunswick’s population was rather undecsribably [sic] increased to the extent of 200 this morning. The influx consisted of Arkansas negroes en route to Africa, but the prospect of sending them to the land of their forefathers is not bright, as no vessel is expected in this port bound for African shores. The colored people of Brunswick are giving them what assistance they can in settling in houses and getting work for them to do.



The Morning News (Savannah, GA); Friday 24 February 1893

pg. 3 col. 2


            BRUNSWICK, GA., Feb. 23.—This afternoon at 2 o’clock in Justice Coker’s office a general row and shooting occurred between the three Mocks, father and two sons, and ex-Assistant Marshal Randolph and Andrew Turner, about the elopement of J.M. Mock and Miss Sarah Turner, who were secretly married here last night. The parties were scared up but none of the balls took effect. The parties were arrested, but later settled the matter between themselves and it was withdrawn from the court.



The Morning News (Savannah, GA); Saturday 25 February 1893

pg. 3 col. 2

NOT BOUND FOR AFRICA—The Negroes Who Recently Reached Brunswick going to the Woods.

            WAYCROSS, GA., Feb. 24.—Six of the 150 negroes from Woodruff county, Arkansas, arrived here to-day. They were in charge of J.P. Stallings of Folkston, Ga. They will work on Mr. Stallings’ turpentine farm at Folkston. It was reported that they were on their way to Africa, but this was a mistake. They left their homes in Arkansas on account of the failure of crops and the scarcity of work. Their destination was from the first Brunswick, Ga. The report that they were in bad circumstances was incorrect. Mr. Stallings found them in good circumstances at Brunswick, Ga., with money and provisions. The majority of there [sic] are able-bodied men. When asked if they left Arkansas to go to Africa, they said they did not, but started to Brunswick. One little black fellow hearing the question said: “Is Brunswick African? If dat’s so, den dat’s whar’ we was gwine.” This section of the state is covered with naval stores and saw-mill enterprises, and work is furnished to thousands of negroes, and the demand for more laborers is increasing every year. Good prices are paid for common labor. The Arkansas negroes were in a good humor, and appeared to be pleased at having found work.



Brunswick Times-Advertiser; Friday 14 June 1895

Pg. 4 col. 3

BADLY BEATEN—Barber Charles Clark the victim of a Belligerent Mob.

            A sensational side scene of the bankers’ banquet at Hotel St. Simon [sic] last night, came to public notice this morning when Charlie Clark; the popular colored barber, and member of the firm of Shaw & Clark, was brought home on the Pope Catlin, beaten into semi-insensibility and with his head and face in a state of decided pulpiness.
            Two conflicting stories are told of the affair which terminated thus unfortunately for the tonsorial artist.
            The one which Clark himself tells is that he went to St. Simon [sic] under appointment from Colonel Kay to attend to and serve the wine for the Bankers’ banquet.  When he took his place in the hotel he was ordered out by the head-waiter and told that the regular force of the hotel would attend to serving the wine.  Clark refused to evacuate, and a fight was imminent then and there, but was averted by the interposition of a peacemaker.  Clark stuck to his post and saw that the bankers got their refreshments in proper shape.
            This morning at about daybreak, when he started to board the boat for home, Clark says the force of hotel waiters mobbed him and beat him cruelly and savagely into the aspect of annihilation he now presents.
            Another story, which comes from the hotel, is that Clark himself was belligerent and intoxicated, and brought on the fight by cursing the head-waiter.
            Tom Floyd, the cook on the Pope Catlin, saw the fight, and says six waiters ‘ganged” Clark, overpowered him and beat him as stated.
            Clark is now at his home, receiving medical attention.  He is delirious and generally regarded as in a pretty bad fix.
            G.A. Shaw, Clark’s partner, will take the matter before the grand jury, where the whole truth of the fracas will doubtless be learned.



Brunswick Times-Advertiser; Wednesday 19 June 1895

Pg. 4 col. 1

            Barber Charles Clark is at his post again, after several days’ confinement from the severe treatment he received at the hands of the mob of St. Simons waiters.



The Brunswick Times; Tuesday Morning, 8 February 1898

Criminals Sent to the Gang: City Court Disposes of a Number of Cases, All Against Negroes Yesterday

    Judge Sam Atkinson convened a term of city court yesterday for the purpose of disposing of criminal cases.

The following were the cases tried and adjudged:

George West, larceny from the house, not guilty.
George Simpson, simple larceny, guilty.
Charlie Stewart, simple larceny, discharged.
Fred Cooper, assault and battery, discharged.
Jim Polite, larceny from the person, not guilty.
W.N. Thomas, misdemeanor, nolle prosequl.
Jerry Hayward, larceny from the person, accusation changed.



The Brunswick Call; Saturday 12 February 1898

Pg. 1 col. 6

UNREQUITED LOVE CAUSED A MURDER—A Tragedy on St. Simon Island Yesterday—LOVE AFFAIR CAUSES THE DEATH—John Currie, Colored, Loses His Temper and Shoots Venus Jones, the Woman He Loves.

            St. Simon [sic] was yesterday the scene of a very cowardly and a very cold hearted murder.
            It seems that John Currie, a negro laborer formerly employed by the Hilton & Dodge Lumber co. has for several months been enamored of Venus Jones, a servant in the employ of Rev. D. Watson Winn.  Unfortunately for Currie the love was not reciprocated on the part of Venus and his oft repeated offer of matrimony was each time declined by her.
            Suffering the pangs of unrequited affection, Currie became desperate and vowed a month ago and later only a week since, that he would kill the woman he loved if she again scorned his proposal of marriage.
            Venus did not think Currie really meant what he said and consequently, did not close her doors against him.
            Yesterday afternoon Currie called on Venus, told her his love story and once again sought her hand in marriage, only to be refused again.
            Now completely desperate the man drew his revolver and fired upon the woman five times two of the balls struck the woman in the head, the other three taking effect in various portions of the body.
            The woman suffered intensely, and though physicians summoned said death was certain, up to the departure of the Egmont she still lived but death is sure to come.
            After the crime Currie jumped in a boat and started towards Brunswick.  Mr. Bruce McCaskill and other(s) followed but the fleeing murderer was not overtaken.
            Officers here received word to watch all landings but up to a late hour last night Currie was still at large.



The Brunswick Call; Sunday 13 February 1898

Pg. 1 col. 1

CURRIE BEHIND THE STEEL CAGE—The St. Simon Negro Captured Yesterday—HE WAS CAUGHT IN BROOKLYN—Brunswick Officers do a Good Piece of Detective Service—A Call Representative Present.

            John Currie, the negro who on Friday shot Venus Jones at St. Simon [sic] Island and made his escape to this city, was yesterday arrested and placed in jail by officers of the law.
            Currie, it seems, had an awful time reaching Brunswick and only succeeded by swimming several miles and that too under disadvantages of wrong tides.
            When Currie reached the city he went to a small negro hut on “Red Row,” Brooklyn, and sent down town for a pair of trousers to take the place of the muddy ones he had on.  His friend visited Kaiser’s to get the pants and here stated that they were for a friend of his who was too muddy to come down town.  This remark was heard by several and reached the ears of Chief Beach who, together with a CALL representative, did some find detective work, finally locating the man in “Red Row.”  Sheriff Berrie, Chief Beach, Constable Gaskins, Policeman Gordon and a CALL man left town at three o’clock, all armed with Winchesters, and went directly to the house in “Red Row,” where Currie was found.  He yielded without resistance and was placed in the county jail.
            To a CALL reporter who had helped to bring about his capture, Currie said the Jones woman had threatened his life and shot at him before he fired upon her.  This however is untrue.
            The injured woman is not dead and advices from St. Simon [sic] say she is on the road to recovery.



The Darien Gazette; Saturday 2 April 1898

Pg. 3 col. 4

BRIEF LOCALS—Items Taken in on the Fly—Odds and Ends.

[Other articles were omitted but are copied elsewhere—ALH]

On Monday last Justice Way committed John Davis, colored, charged with carrying concealed weapons, and Preston Dardsen, colored, charged with wife beating.



The Brunswick Call; Sunday 5 March 1899

Pg. 1 col. 3

ATTEMPTED MURDER—Dangerous Negro’s Rash Act Yesterday—Attempted to Kill Capt. Tom Foley and Was Jailed by Two Active Officers.

            Adam Denegall, a well known and dangerous negro, was yesterday placed in jail by Officers Lamb [and] Scarlett on the very serious charge of assault with intent to murder.
            Denegall was in the saloon of Capt. Tom Foley on Bay street, on Friday night and insisted on playing cards in the place.  Mr. Foley refused to allow him to do so and finally ordered him out of the bar.
            When Denegall reached the sidewalk he picked up a whole brick and hurled it at Mr. Foley, only missing him an inch.
            The police deparment was notified and yesterday morning Officers Lamb and Scarlett located the negro on a vessel, nabbed him and placed him in jail.
            He will probable [sic] be severely dealt with and should be.



The Brunswick Times; Friday Morning, 5 May 1899

Horrible Crime in Glynn County; One Man Badly Beaten, His Assailant Killed and Two Women Driven to the Swamps; The Horror is yet to be Investigated; John Alden, white , and John Bird, colored, Fight. Bird Beats Alden and Then Drives Alden’s Family From Home-Later, Bird is Found Dead From Gun Shot Wound Through Head

        A horrible crime has been committed in Glynn county within the past week.  One man has been badly beaten, two women have been driven to the swamps for days and one man has been killed.
        The story, as it reached The Times yesterday, is as follow: John Alden, a white man living at Bellvista, who works at J.A. Sapp’s saw mill, and John Bird, a Negro who lived near by, went to Everett on Saturday last.  Both drank heavily and commenced to fight.  Alden was badly beaten by Bird and to save his life, Alden was taken away from Bird’s terrific assaults and locked up out of harm’s way.  Bird then returned to Bellvista, swearing vengeance against Alden.  On reaching Alden’s home, Bird drove Alden’s wife and a young lady visitor out of the house with threats.  The terrified women ran to the swamps pursued by Bird, but escaped from him.  They remained in the swamps from Saturday night until Monday.  On Monday morning Alden reached home and began a search for his family.  He found them and brought them home.  On Tuesday morning Bird, the Negro assailant was found in the woods dead with a gun shot wound through his head.  No further particulars were received last night.  An investigation will probably be held.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 24 August 1899

Pg. 3 cols. 1-2

TROOPS WERE SENT TO DARIEN—Negro Mob Objects to Removal of Prisoner—IS CHARGED WITH ASSAULT—From Darien to the Jail at Savannah—SHERIFF TELEGRAPHED THE GOVERNOR—Asked for Troops, Which Were Sent on Special Train from Savannah.  Negro Prisoner Brought to Chatham Jail—Quiet at Darien.

            Darien, Ga., August 23—(Special)—On Monday Henry Delegal, colored, charged with assault upon a white woman in the country, gave himself up.  The sheriff had him in the McIntosh jail, and the colored people gathered in great crowds, fearing there would be an attempt to lynch Delegal.  The authorities attempted to remove Delegal to Savannah, and were met by an armed mob of negroes, who said they did not want him to be sent and that he be left here in our jail.  The authorities determined to place him in Chatham jail, and asked the governor to send troops to take him to Savannah.


            Savannah, Ga., August 23—(Special)—The first news of the trouble at Darien here came through a telegram from Governor Candler to the commanding officer of the First Georgia volunteer regiment, directing him to take 200 men to Darien at once by special train.  Captain P.F. Gleason, of the Irish Jasper Greens, being the senior commanding officer in the city, at once asked Mayor Myers to have the riot call rung, and the eleven strokes from the big fire alarm bell made the volunteers hurry to their armories.
            The Savannah Volunteer Guards also assembled, but their services were not needed.  Captain Gleason got his 200 men from the five companies of the First regiment and completed the requisite number of twenty-five men from the Georgia Hussars, ordered out by Major Berne Gordon, senior commanding officer of the First Cavalry regiment here.
            A special train on the Florida Central and Peninsular railroad was secured in short order, and the troops left the city in command of Captain Gleason at 5:30 o’clock.  At 6:30 o’clock they reached Darien junction, and within half an hour after that were in Darien.
            The Savannah troops had no trouble in taking Delegal from the jail.  It was supposed that the troops had come there simply to protect the prisoner.  Judge Paul E. Seabrook had made a speech to the assembled mob, and there was no attempt at any outbreak.  The troops took the prisoner to their special train, and at 8 o’clock left Darien to return to Savannah.
            THE TROUBLE IN DARIEN—On Monday Henry Delegal, learning that he was wanted on the charge of rape, made by his alleged victim, gave himself up to Sheriff Black, of McIntosh county.  That evening a mob of negroes gathered around the jail.  They thought he was to be lynched, and they were there to defend him.  Yesterday an effort was made to bring him to Savannah, but the threats of the negro mob prevented it.  This morning there was to be another attempt on the part of the authorities to bring him here for safe keeping, of which the negroes were apprised.  They rang the colored Baptist church bell as a warning signal, and the negro mob again assembled, though there was no violence.  This led to the action on the part of Mayor Kenan and prominent citizens of Darien requesting the governor to order troops there at once.
            As soon as the bell rang, four or five hundred negroes assembled, many of them under arms, and there was considerable excitement all during the day.  The mob made no attack on the jail, but simply announced its intention of preventing the negro being taken away or being lynched.
            Mayor Kenan telegraphed the governor that the town was in charge of an armed mob of negroes, and his request for troops was promptly responded to.
            A telephone message from Darien tonight stated that there had been nor disorder there at all, though it was feared on account of the threats of the mob.  Yesterday a party of Darien citizens called on Judge Seabrook here and requested him to call a special term of court to try Delegal, fearing that a lynching would take place unless this was done.  In the event of a lynching, a race riot was predicted.  Judge Seabrook was willing to do anything possible to prevent a disturbance, but things began to look more ominous, and precautionary measures had to be taken.
            According to the story, the alleged offense was committed nine months ago, and it only became known when the girl in question gave birth to a mulatto child a few days ago.  Then it was she had to explain, and she named Delegal as her assailant, stating that he had used force in accomplishing his purpose.  She said she had not told it before because Delegal had threatened to burn her father’s house and to kill her father and herself in the even she informed upon him.
            The special train from Darien arrived tonight at 10:30 o’clock, western time, and Delegal was taken at once to Chatham county jail, where he will be safely kept.  Captain Gleason left seventy-five men in Darien in command of Captain Grayson, to preserve order.
            ALL QUIET AT DARIEN—The latest report from Darien said the negro mob had practically dispersed, and no further trouble was anticipated.
            The name of the woman is Mrs. Matilda Ann Hope, a young woman aged twenty-two years.  Her husband left her some time ago.  The alleged offense was committed in McIntosh county, about twelve miles west of Darien.

GOVERNOR ORDERS TROOPS—Chief Executive of Georgia Promptly Puts an End to the Riot at Darien.

            Governor Candler was notified by telegram at noon yesterday of the imminence of a riot at Darien, Ga., and was urged to hurry troops to the McIntosh county town without delay.  The dispatch received at the executive office stated that as the result of the arrest of Henry Delegal, a negro charged with assault, a mob of 400 negroes from the surrounding counties had assembled at Darien and held the town at their mercy.
            Governor Candler acted with his usual energy and discretion and in five minutes after the receipt of the telegram from Darien, a dispatch from him was on the way to Savannah to the commander of the First Georgia regiment ordering him to Darien with 200 men.  The commander of the regiment was instructed not to lose a moment if necessary to get a special train for his troops.
            The telegram from Darien called on the governor for 500 men, but with his recent experiences with mobs before him, Governor Candler was satisfied in his own mind that a body of 200 troops, well officered, could quell any negro riot that might arise.
            Following is the telegram received by Governor Candler from prominent officials of Darien and McIntosh county:

Henry Delegal, colored, charged with rape of a white woman now confined in McIntosh county jail.  Attempt was made by officer to remove him this morning to Savannah, but was checked by armed mob of 400 negroes; own now in hands of mob; desire to remove him to Chatham county tonight for safekeeping; forces at command inadequate; please order here immediately 500 troops.  Send arms and ammunition for local troops; presence of troops here tonight imperative.  W.C. CLARK, Chairman County Commission.  T.B. BLOUNT, Sheriff.  S. KENAN, Mayor.  R.H. KNOX, Mayor Pro Tem.

            In addition to the telegram to Governor Candler a dispatch was received by Adjutant General Byrd from Captain B.F. Sinclair, of Troop F, First Georgia cavalry, stationed at Darien, asking for arms and ammunition at once.
            Scarcely half an hour after filing his telegram to the commander of the First Georgia regiment ordering him to Darien, Governor Candler received a dispatch in reply from Captain Gleason, of company B, as follows:
Obedient to your telegram ordering 200 men of the First Georgia to Darien, I leave in thirty minutes with that number under arms and will report promptly to sheriff.  CAPTAIN GLEASON, Company B, First Georgia.
            Last night Governor Candler was notified of the safe return of Captain Gleason to Savannah with his prisoner.
            The prompt manner in which the Savannah troops responded to the call of Governor Candler is taken as one of the signs of the thorough reorganization of the state militia which Governor Candler determined to bring about with the aid of his active adjutant general immediately upon his inauguration.



The Darien Gazette; Saturday 26 August 1899

Pg. 3 col. 3


            A mob of several hundred negroes took charge of McINTOSH county jail on Wednesday morning last and prevented the sheriff from conveying Henry Delegal, a negro charged with capital offense, to the Savannah jail for safe keeping.  The sheriff intended carrying DeLegal off on the 10:20 train but the presence of the well armed mob deterred him from doing so.  It was humiliating beyond measure to the law abiding citizens of Darien.  But as the lawless proceedings were altogether unexpected of course they were not prepared for the immergency [sic].  The governor was telegraphed to for troops, and at 7 in the afternoon 200 troops from Savannah, under command of Captain Gleason, reached Darien.  On arrival they proceeded at once to the jail.  The crowd of negroes were dispersed and the prisoner was carried to the train and sent to Savannah, most of the troops going back.  Captain Grayson, with about 60 men, remained here to preserve order.  During the day and up to the time of the arrival of the troops, the negroes were absolutely in charge of the jail, without authority and in defiance of law.  It was the intention of THE GAZETTE to give the DeLegal matter a passing notice and nothing more but the bad negroes of the county have taken the matter out off our hands and they will now have to suffer the consequences.  We have often praised them as law-abiding and good citizens, and it is now with a feeling of sorrow that we are compelled to publish their outrageous proceedings of Wednesday last.  They can blame no ones [sic] but themselves and the disgrace now reals [sic] with them.
            Many arrests have been made and we understand that a special term will be called for next week to try the law-breakers.  As we go to press everything is quiet again.
            Col. A.R. Lawton came down from Savannah on Thursday night to look over the situation.  He came here at the request of Gov. Candler.



Davenport Daily Leader (Davenport, Iowa); Sunday 27 August 1899

Pg. 1 col. 2


            Darien, Ga., Aug. 26—The roundup of the riotous negroes in McIntosh county by the military today resulted in the surrender of Henry Delegal, the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend at the location of Delegal’s brother and the woman directly implicated in the killing.  Delegal’s surrender was made to Lieut. Wood in charge of a detachment of soldiers stationed fifteen miles in the country to back up the sheriff’s posse, who were scouring the swamps.  Delegal stated he surrendered for protection as his capture was only a matter of a few hours.  The arrest of Delegal and the arrival of reinforcements for the military seems to have broken the backbone of defiance by the negroes.  There are still several ring leaders of the blacks wanted by the officers of the law.  Unless they come in and surrender or are brought in by friends and turned over to the authorities the troops will go after them tomorrow.



The Atlanta Constitution; Monday 28 August 1899

Pg. 1 cols. 1-3

A BUSY NIGHT FOR MILITIA AT DARIEN—Quiet Day Followed by Hours of Active Work in the Dark—NEGROES SEEMED SUBDUED—Judge Seabrook Calls a Special Term of the Superior Court—SESSION WILL OPEN WEDNESDAY—Citizens Employ Prominent Attorney To Take Part in the Prosecution of the Men To Be Indicted and Arraigned.

By C.W. Deming.

            Darien, Ga., August 27—(Special)—At 10 o’clock tonight Captain Sinclair has a detachment of the McIntosh dragoons marching toward the Lower Bluff mill on the hill of Dodge Lumber Company.  The dispatching of these men followed reports from dragoons on the outposts’ country districts which told of a big fire reported in that direction.
            Considerable apprehension is felt, and a sweep of the country around discloses fire reflections between Darien and Brunswick.
            The negroes are thick around Hilton and Dodge’s Hill, but the fire did not last long enough to warrant apprehension that the mills have had the torch applied to them.  The dragoons’ posse is heavily armed and well equipped for trouble.
            Sounds of filing in the jail have just been reported to the dragoons’ armory, and Captain Sinclair has acted promptly.  The town marshal was hurriedly sent for and returned.  With his soldiers he attempted to open the door, but the sheriff had barricaded in on the inside.  The marshal had no key to the other doors, and the sheriff is three miles away at the ridge.  Captain Sinclair has thrown a double guard around the jail, and at the first efforts to escape the prisoners will be fired upon.  John Delegal, the murderer of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, is one of these prisoners, and it is thought the filing is being done by him.
            LIBERTY TROOP GOES HOME—The Liberty Independent troop at Crescent City today were given permission to return home.
            Scouting parties of dragoons coming in from the country tonight report to Captain Sinclair that thirteen heavily armed negroes are in the swamp near the river road.  These negroes hide in the swamp during the day, and come out at night.  The dragoons asked and were given permission to return to the scene with an arrangement by which a detachment of dragoons will go forward at daybreak to re-enforce them should they not be heard from by then.
            At midnight shots near the depot called out all the troops in the dragoons’ armory, and the entire First regiment from their camps.  Captain Sinclair, at the head of the dragoons, hurried to the depot and found the sentinels had fired on suspicious parties.
            The dragoons and sentinels where thrown out as searchers, but could not capture the parties.  Every company in the First regiment was formed and prepared for action.  Dragoons detachment from Lower Bluff mills returned at midnight and reported Hilton Dodge mills safe.
            TROOPS ARE SENT HOME—This morning Colonel Lawton returned 86 men and three officers to Savannah, and now has remaining 175 men and officers, all told, from the First Georgia regiment and the McIntosh Light Dragoons.  Colonel Lawton states he cannot say how long all of these troops will be kept on the scene, but says a large portion of them will be held in camp here until the special term of McIntosh superior court is over.  This special term has been called by Judge Seabrook, of the Atlantic circuit, and will open Wednesday next to try the thirty-five negro rioters now in jail at Savannah and Henry Delegal, the negro about whom the trouble here originated, and John Delegal, his son, who is in jail here now for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, together with such others as may be arrested in the meantime for riotous conduct.
            A committee of prominent citizens acting on behalf of the whites of this section, has formed and engaged special counsel to assist Livingston Kenan in prosecuting the negroes.  This counsel is Walter C. Hartridge, of Savannah, and W.G. Charlton, of Savannah, who is well known as a prosecuting attorney employed by the government in the case of Captain Oberlin M. Carter.  These attorneys are due to arrive tonight and will at once be taken in charge by the citizens’ committee and furnished evidence on which to base the prosecution.
            MONOTONOUS FOR SOLDIERS—In military circles the day has been monotonous, barring the departure of Captain Grayson and his men for Savannah and the arrival of tents for Colonel Lawton’s troops.  Among the citizens of Darien quiet has been partially restored, but the people in outlying districts are very apprehensive and occasional reports of armed bodies of negroes being seen in the swamps keeps Darienites on the alert.  Today reports of a negro mob in King’s swamp and continual gun firing in this section resulted in scouts being sent out and their reports on the situation is expected tonight.
            It appears that at least until Wednesday the situation will not be changed.  All the negroes appear to be thoroughly overawed by the determined action of citizens and the military.  They now realize that the whites will not tolerate their lawlessness and that the whites remain masters of the situation.  They have viewed the arrival of many rifles and much ammunition and noted the armed men scattered throughout the country until they have come to understand that all negroes must be peaceful.  In Darien and through the country where they military have passed the soldiers have had a wonderful quieting effect.  What the situation will develop on Wednesday when the negro rioters arrive is a matter of conjecture, but indications do not point to an outbreak.
            MILITARY WILL REMAIN FOR DAYS—Colonel Lawton says tonight that he is here to preserve order and enough military will remain in Darien during the special term of court to keep everything quiet, and that he considers the county practically quiet tonight.  Colonel Jacob E. Dart, the well-known Georgia politician, is here with a party of Brunswickians, consisting of Robert Pyles, Mason Scarlett, J.A. Clark, of Jekyl Island; William Davenport, Clarence Leavy, Charles Morgan, Clinton Brown.  They came on a special boat in response to calls for re-enforcements Friday night and have been doing splendid service as special deputy sheriffs.  Inspector General Obear, of the state militia, left for Atlanta tonight, after two days here with the troops.
            The credit for the part taken by the military in the search for and surrender of Delegal was given to Lieutenant Leonard Wood.  No such named officer has been here.  The military that accompanied the sheriff’s posse was commanded by Lieutenant Edward A. Leonard, of Savannah.  Colonel Lawton and others request a correction of the error in names, and in making the request Colonel Lawton said:
            “I regret that Lieutenant Leonard’s name was not used.  He is a splendid officer and deserves fully the credit for the military part in yesterday’s affairs.  Lieutenant Leonard acted fearlessly and with a great deal of discretion and diplomacy in securing Delegal, and I think he deserves all the praise that can be given him.”
            Robert R. Hopkins, whose brother was wounded by Delegal at the time he killed Townsend, says of Lieutenant Leonard:
            “He is a brave officer, and did his duty well as one of the sheriff’s posse.  I know of Leonard’s worth and work and wish you would give him full measure of praise.”
            I can also testify to the bravery, tact and good judgment of Lieutenant Leonard, having been a witness to his work in the Delegal swaps at the time of the murderer’s capture.



The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 30 August 1899

Pg. 3 col. 3

DELEGAL NOW QUITE HUNGRY—McIntosh Negro Says the Wallaces Are Persecuting Him.

            Savannah, Ga., August 29—(Special)—Henry Delegal, the negro from McIntosh county, who is in jail here, waiting to be carried back to Darien to be tried for a criminal assault, talked quite freely today about the recent trouble at his home in which is son killed Joseph Townsend and shot another white man.  Henry knows nothing about the trouble except what has been told him, but he feels sure something must have been done or said to his son to make him take the life of the deputy sheriff.
            The negro gave a new version of the trouble between himself and Troup Wallace, the father of the woman who alleges that he committed a criminal assault upon her.  He says there is malice behind the whole affair.  A nephew of Wallace tried to sell a stolen ox to Delegal several years ago, he says, and Delegal reported the matter to the authorities.  The nephew was sent to the penitentiary for six months, he says, and the Wallace family has been after him.  They tried to get him arrested once on a charge of cutting timber on another man’s land and failed.
            Delegal says he is a pretty hungry man now, despite the fact that he is given jail rations.  He does not complain of the fare except that he gets bakers’ bread to eat, and he has not cultivated a taste for it.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 2 September 1899

Pg. 3 cols. 1-2

FIVE ARE CONVICTED OF RIOTING; THE TRIAL AT DARIEN YESTERDAY—First Block of Five Negroes Found Guilt but Sentence Not Passed—FIVE MORE BEFORE A JURY—Twenty-Seven Have Been Indicted and the Court Will Be Very Busy—WILL TAKE A WEEK TO TRY CASES—After These Trials Have Been Concluded, the Cases of the Murderers of Deputy Sheriff Townsend Will Be Taken Up.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 1—(Special)—The first block of five rioters were found guilty today.  The jury was out only fifteen minutes.  The rioters were three men and two women who were most prominent in the leading affair against the sheriff on Wednesday last.
            The opening speech for the defense was made by Attorney Colding, followed by Attorneys Hartridge and Charlton, for the prosecution.  The closing argument was made by Judge Twiggs, for the defense, in a speech over one hour long.  His main line of argument was that the negro rioters were not rioters at all, but out of curiosity assembled when the church bell began to ring.
            The general sentiment in McIntosh county is that the verdict was a just one.
            Court took recess for one hour and reconvened for tonight’s session.  There are thirty-seven indictments out, but only about twenty-six arrests have been made so far.
            It took all day to try the first block of five and at that rate it will be a week before these trials are concluded.  In the meantime there are the other arrests to be made.
            Following these trials comes that of the three Delegals for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend.  No sentences will be passed until all riot cases are disposed of.
            The rioters convicted today are Ben Dunham, James Wylly, Marshall Dorsey, Louisa Underwood and Maria Curry.  Those on trial tonight are Jonas Green, a bad negro, Lawrence Baker, Josephine Bird, a mean negress, Abram Green and Moses Miller.

REVIEW OF THE DARIEN ROW—Showing How Delegal Ruled the Negroes of McIntosh County.

            Darien, Ga., September 1—(Special)—There have been many race riots reported in this country and many peculiar features connected with them, but the Darien affair can be safely said to stand without a parallel in the history of all the troubles.  Between time spent in riding about from one part of McIntosh county to another with military and sheriff’s posses, and tracing down various rumors of more or less exciting nature, some of which were veritable “hair curlers.”  I have learned a great deal of what can happen to alarm people in a county where negroes outnumber whites about four to one, and woods are so thick a man can hardly force a horse through.  To get to the bottom of this trouble one has to review a situation of many years’ existence.  In years gone by negroes ruled the county vote and negro office holders were the rule and not the exception.  There are two here now, the postmaster and deputy collector of customs, but President McKinley put these two where they are and they cut no figure in the present situation except the influence their holding such responsible and prominent offices has upon the minds of the average negro.  But to go back to the beginning is to tell of the days of the carpet baggers and the means that intelligent whites had to employ to get rid of them as office holders.  To accomplish this end the work of negro leaders had to be secured.
            HENRY DELEGAL’S INFLUENCE—One of the negroes who became identified with the whites in this effort was Henry Delegal, now in jail charged with raping a white woman and about whom the present trouble originated.  Delegal worked with the whites for years and then became a rank republican negro leader.  He forsook the even peaceful tenor of white democratic ways, and moving into a dense swamp settlement, became ruler of the inhabitants.  The settlement became known finally as the Delegal Settlement, so powerful was the negro’s domination.  Around this settlement many poor white people who had their little property and could not afford to give it up and leave, but who viewed year by year the domineering manner of Henry Delegal and his black followers.  To the blacks Delegal was a hero, a king, and they worshiped him as a god, while to the whites around he was a terror and a man to be always feared.  At the infectious increase of negro lust for white women spread over Georgia it reached the Delegal settlement and it was during that time that Delegal began to sleep with the white woman who recently gave birth to his black child.  She was a woman of bad character, but despite that the whites of McIntosh county, in view of their knowledge of Delegal domination, believed her story that Delegal gratified his lust under threats of death to herself and entire family if she told of his crimes.  Not until the black child came did the whites know that Delegal had gone so far with his power and when the physician attending the woman reported the facts, the blood of the whites began to boil.  A citizens’ meeting was called and conducted by fair-minded men.  The consensus of opinion was that no negro could sleep with a white woman in McIntosh county and go unpunished.  With this determination a warrant was sworn out for Delegal’s arrest and he was jailed.  There was some talk of whites from other counties harming him and the sheriff decided to remove his prisoner to Savannah for safe keeping.  Unexpectedly and to the great astonishment of the whites the negroes arose in arms and declared that Delegal should not be removed from jail here.  They constituted themselves protectors of Delegal from a mob which only existed in their excited imagination and from every side came to his rescue from a supposed danger which never existed.  Every lumber boom was deserted, laborers ran from their work at the mills or quit their work of loading vessels, while from the country districts they flocked in overwhelming numbers.  The negro church bells rang to call them in, and then for the first time the peaceful white citizens of this county learned that Delegal’s friends had been arming and preparing themselves for just such an event for the past ten days.  The whites, totally unprepared for such an occurrence, and outnumbered five to one by armed negroes, could not assist the sheriff and he returned Delegal to his cell in the face of five hundred or more desperate blacks, who held the streets in front of the jail.  Immediately the whites began to order arms and call for troops and re-enforcements, which came in numbers.  With their arrival came the exciting events in which the whites were victorious and Delegal was removed to the Savannah jail.  Quiet was partially restored and the remaining troops grew tired under the monotonous strain of unexciting guard duty, when like a thunderclap came the report Friday morning of the killing of Deputy Sheriff Townsend and the wounding of Deputy Hopkins while they were attempting to arrest Delegal’s sons for riot and jail them with a few others that had been implicated in the affair with the sheriff.  Like a seething cauldron the rage of the whites then exerted itself and determination to bring the murderers to justice and subdue the negro population was evident on every side.
            HAD CONFIDENCE IN SOLDIERS—The situation grew critical and Governor Candler was called upon for more troops.  His response with two hundred men and the later events which followed are fresh in the public mind, as they appeared in these dispatches and it is not necessary to review them here.  But there is connected with these events some circumstances which call for more than passing mention, and they present a new phase to the latter days.  IT is the relation of the military to the negroes that is strikingly illustrated.  To the military only have these rioters surrendered, and to the man in uniform they have given their unreserved confidence.  When Lieutenant Leonard was negotiating with the Delegal’s mother in the swamps of McIntosh he wore the coat of the “U.S.V.” which had been part of his uniform while a captain in the late Spanish-American war.  This “U.S.V.” was taken by the negroes to mean that Lieutenant Leonard was a United States soldier, and soon, throughout all that negro settlement the news spread that the president had sent down United States troops to protect the negroes.  Lieutenant Leonard then became the negroes’ idol and the Delegal who fired the fatal shot surrendered to him willingly.  How strongly this idea of United States troops prevailed is best told in the fact that the first circular issued by the negro preachers and intelligent leaders, referred to the United States troops having protected Delegal from being lynched and calling upon all rioters to come from their hiding places and give themselves up and rest under the protection of these soldiers.  The whites of McIntosh objected to the wording of these circulars and it was called in and another one issued which contained no use of the word “lynching.”
            Following the issuing of this circular negro leaders visited the swamp settlements and called their people in.  Many surrenders followed and the most important one was the surrender of Ed Delegal on Tuesday last to Lieutenant LeonardDelegal regarded Lieutenant Leonard as his brother’s savior and to him only would he give up.  Sixteen miles from the soldiers’ camp, and in a lonely wood Lieutenant Leonard was piloted to Delegal and there received his arms.  A posse of military were in the background two miles away, but the negro did not know it.  Delegal came from the swamp and his friends with him.  Lieutenant Leonard then held a semi-reception with the blacks, who gazed at his should straps and the “U.S.V.” in wonder and admiration.  The opportunity was one not to be missed and Lieutenant Leonard made the negroes a speech, advising them to go in town and give themselves up for trial, promising them full protection by the military.  That his advice was well taken was evident from the many subsequent surrenders and complete abandonment of the swamps by the blacks.  The court trials and scenes attendant followed and now one of the most unusual occurrences of a century is coming to a close in the little city of Darien, situated on the coast of Georgia.



The Stevens Point Journal (Stevens Point, Wisconsin); Saturday 2 September 1899

Pg. 2 col. 5

MILITARY IN CONTROL—Outbreak of Riotous Negroes in Georgia Is Likely Soon to Be at an End.

            Darien, Ga., Aug. 28—The round-up of riotous negroes in McIntosh county by the military resulted in the surrender of Henry Delegal, the murderer of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, and the location for future arrest of Delegal’s brother and the woman directly implicated in the killing.
            The arrest of Delegal and the arrival of reinforcements for the military have broken the backbone of the defiance of the law by the negroes.  A whole regiment of troops are now on duty in and about Darien, under command of Col. Lawton, but it is not believed there will be further bloodshed.
            There are still several ringleaders of the blacks wanted by the officers of the law.  Unless they come in and surrender or are brought in by their friends and turned over to the authorities the troops will go after them to-day.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 3 September 1899

Pg. 4 cols. 1-3

[Photo of troops in front of Darien court house with this article—ALH]

RAPID WORK OF COURT AT DARIEN—Jurymen on Second Batch of Five Were Divided—REPORTED TO THE JUDGE—That They Were Unable To Agree as to the Guilt of Some Prisoners—THEIR VERDICT, HOWEVER, ACCEPTED—Three Rioters Convicted, One Acquitted and a Mistrial Reported on the Other—Grand Jury Has the Delegal Case in Hand.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 2—(Special)—At Darien today the court moved more rapidly in the trial of the negro rioters.  The jury, out last night on the second batch of five, sat on the case for twelve hours and then returned with the statement that it was impossible for them to agree on the guilt of Josephine Bird, the negress, while as for Abram Green they found a verdict of not guilty.
            Judge Seabrook sent the jury back and told them to agree and report.  The foreman stated that they would not agree if they were out six months and Judge Seabrook told them they could sit seven if necessary.  In about an hour the Judge sent for the jury, accepting their verdict, as they were then ready to return it.
            Those convicted were Jones Green, Moses Miller and Lawrence Baker.
            Josephine Bird’s case was reported a mistrial and Abram Green was found not guilty.
            The cases against Charles McDonald, Dave Petty, Hugh Thompson, Moses Bailey, and John Thompson were on trial in the meantime and the jury was out only about ten minutes when a verdict of guilty against them was returned with the exception of John Thompson.
            The case against Bill Jenkins was tried separately, he having employed a different lawyer from the rest, and the jury brought in a verdict of guilty against him in about ten minutes’ time.
            Court then adjourned until Monday morning next.
            The grand jury this afternoon took up the case of Henry Delegal, charged with rape, and about whom the entire trouble at Darien originated.  The jury did not conclude its labors and court adjourned until Monday.
            Lawyers for the defense of the rioters today intimated that they would endeavor to secure new trials for the negroes and asked the court when they could make a motion to that effect.  Judge Seabrook stated that he thought they had better wait until all the cases had been tried and sentences were passed before the lawyers began to consider propositions for new trials.  He state, however, that he was not exactly clear on that point and he would let the lawyers know later.
            Judge Seabrook is rushing things at Darien.  Three juries a day are sitting and the trials are being pushed night and day, although it will probably take all next week to get through with them.  Then the murder case is to come up, followed by the rape case.

BRUNSWICK FOLKS VERY INDIGNANT—Editorial in a Negro Newspaper Conveys a Threat—ITS AUTHOR IS WELL KNOWN—As a Very Bad Negro, Who Has Caused Trouble Before—GOOD MEN OF HIS RACE AGAINST HIM—Attacks the Mocks Family and States That Negroes of Brunswick Are Ripe for a Row.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 2—(Special)—The people of Brunswick have perhaps never been so deeply aroused and indignant as they are today from an editorial publication in The Brunswick Herald, edited by Henry A. Hagler, a well-known negro, in which he states that “there are upward of 200 negroes well armed in Brunswick, who are ready and sworn to protect us with the last drop of their blood.”
            The editorial in question is a second one of the like character, the first having appeared last week, during which Hagler wrote very strongly regarding a case now pending in the courts, here against Mr. J.B. Mock, who is being tried for an alleged offense of assaulting a young negro girl.  Hagler seems to have the idea that the Mock family are after him, and the editorial starts out directed at them, but includes all the whites of Brunswick, in a desperate effort to bring a bloody conflict between the whites and blacks of this county.  The editorial in full reads:
            THE MOCKS ARE MAD—“Tell Hagler to see me, and see me damn quick,” the is the message that reached me this week while out in Camden county soliciting subscribers from one of the Mocks, of whom we wrote last week as having raped a little negro girl in his store in Brunswick some days ago.  Judging from the past record of the Mocks, they are not yet the angels we would like them to be, but we were fully acquainted with this fact when the former article was written, and for the information of the whole crowd of Mocks we state that we will be in Brunswick about the middle of next week; that we have a brace of revolvers and Winchesters, and with assurances of kindest consideration we state that the first person that disturbs the even tenor of the way will have the early opportunity of being fanned by the gentle zephyrs from the delectable mountains.  It is not our intention to be discourteous to any one; no gentleman would.  We wish to be fair and impartial to all mankind and in return all mankind must treat us as a man, not as a pigmy; a gentleman, not a lackey.  If the Mocks have any grievances against us, let them be written out and sent to our office, and they will receive consideration.  Threats with us count for nothing.  We know now how we are situated, and for the benefit of the Mocks and any other hothead who would rush in where angels fear to tread, we will state that there is upward of 200 negroes well armed in Brunswick who are sworn to protect us with the last drop of their life blood.  It behooves the Messrs. Mocks, et al, to awake to the fact that times and conditions with the negro have changed.  They are now not the arrant coward they once were.  They have reached the conclusion that the cause of one is the cause of all, and that since they are doomed to die anyway, they may as well leave some vacant homes other than theirs when they are ushered into the eternity.  We guess this is enough said.
            CAUSED CONSIDERABLE COMMENT—When the editorial appeared on the streets it created a wave of intense comment amongst the whites and blacks of Brunswick.  The white people, and the better class of colored people alike, felt outraged at the attempt of Hagler to bring on trouble between the whites and blacks of this community, and on every corner the talk was heard as men gathered in groups.
            Tonight correspondent’s offices were visited by Deputy Revenue Collector W.H. Matthews and Deputy Collector of Customs Eugene Belcher, the latter of whom is chairman of the republican eleventh district congressional committee, and they, on behalf of the colored people, denounce Hagler as a crazy man who was irresponsible for his attacks and whom the colored race all condemned for efforts to cause trouble.  They stated that they colored people would call a meeting for Monday and pass resolutions condemning Hagler’s utterances.
            Hagler’s history is one of an effort to arouse the whites against the blacks.  Bill Pledger, the noted republican leader of Atlanta, seized his office there for his writings against prominent people, and in Brunswick the sheriff has his office, and Hagler publishes The Herald at Charlotte, N.C.  From Charlotte The Herald is mailed to Brunswick for distribution.  Hagler is the same negro who aroused the whites of the south so greatly several years ago by the bitterness of his attack in his Atlanta paper against the memory of Jefferson Davis.  It was at the time of the removal of the ex-president’s remains to Virginia, and the day the casket passed through Atlanta the editorial appeared.  It inflamed the whites and began Hagler’s downward career in Atlanta.  He then embittered John H. Devereaux, collector of customs at Savannah; Henry A. Rucker, collector at Atlanta, and many of the leading colored men in the state against him by the savagery of his attacks on them personally and against President McKinley.
            Hagler is a firebrand in any community, and the sentiment of both the whites and better class of colored people here is that Brunswick does not want him any longer.
            Following so closely on the Darien race trouble, his writings are like a match to a powder magazine.
            Tonight the leading negroes of Brunswick furnished your correspondent with a card denouncing The Herald’s article as untrue, and stating that they are law-abiding citizens, and do not want trouble with the whites.



The Atlanta Constitution; Tuesday 5 September 1899

Pg. 4 col. 1

JUDGE SEABROOK GRANTS THE DELEGALS A CHANGE OF VENUE—Slayers of Deputy Sheriff Townsend Will Be Arraigned for Trial in Effingham County—DECREE CAUSES SENSATION—Prisoners Will Be Carried to Savannah Today for Safe-Keeping—CASES TO COME UP WEDNESDAY WEEK—Judge Declares He Does not Question Wisdom of Governor Candler in Sending Troops to Darien, but Fears a Fair Trial Is Impossible.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 4—(Special)—“I am opposed to trying cases that involve human life, where the shadow of the courthouse falls upon the military,” was in substance the statement made by Judge Seabrook from he bench of McIntosh superior court today, as he announced his decision to grant a change of venue in the cases against John Delegal, Ed Delegal, and Mirrandy Delegal, under indictment for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend.
            This statement created a stir in the courtroom and great discussion on all sides.  Judge Seabrook followed it with the declaration that he did not question the wisdom of Governor Candler in sending the military forces to Darien at the time he did to protect the place, neither did he mean to criticize the judgment displayed by Governor Candler in calling out the military, but for the reason given and for other reasons he did not think necessary to mention from the bench, he had decided to grant the change of venue to the accused and set the case against them for trial in Effingham county superior court on Wednesday week, September 13th.
            The calling of the murder case today was something of a surprise and attorneys for the defense immediately sprang their plea for a change of venue.
            Judge Twiggs, for the defense, opened with the declaration that the accused could not secure an impartial trial in McIntosh county, due to the inflamed condition of the public mind, and in support of this argument presented affidavits from Captain Gleason, Captain West and others of the First Georgia regiment, who were present from Savannah during the exciting times that followed the murder of Deputy Townsend, and cited the fact that Henry Delegal and other prisoners had been removed to Savannah for safe keeping.
            The three prisoners had been brought to the courtroom under a military escort of twelve men and the courtroom was crowded with spectators.
            When the defense summoned Colonel Lawton, who is in charge of the entire military forces at Darien, there was a buzz of excitement.  Colonel Lawton, when questioned by the defense, made a statement to the effect that he preferred not to testify in regard to the case at all.  He said in substance that occupying the position he did in the adjustment of the troubles in McIntosh county, he did not think it would be proper for him to testify and he firmly requested to be excused.  The defense decided to grant the request, and Colonel Lawton stepped from the stand.
            Attorney Charlton, for the prosecution, stated that as the defense had not offered any facts in evidence, only surmises and suppositions that the accused could not get a fair trial, the prosecution did not feel it necessary to offer counter evidence, but if the court wanted counter evidence presented the attorneys for the prosecution would have to have a little time to prepare it, as the plea for a change of venue was unexpected.  Judge Seabrook gave the prosecution until 4 o’clock this afternoon to present counter evidence.
            In the interval the court took up the cases for riot against Ben Brown, Bob Odistal, Harper Gordon, Henry Gordon, and Freeman Elverson.  The jury convicted three and acquitted Bob Odistal and Ben Brown.  This evening the cases against Jim Ross, Morris Seabroe, Dan Johnson, Kit Alexander and Ed Follien were tried.  Four were found guilty and the court ordered Ed Follien discharged.  There are eight more rioters now in jail and they will be tried tomorrow.  Indictments are out now for several more, and these will be tried as soon as they are arrested.
            Wednesday morning the case against Henry Delegal, charged with raping the white woman, will be called.  Advices from Darien tonight are that the military forces will, in all probability, leave tomorrow for Savannah, taking the Delegals to Savannah jail.



The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 6 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 4

DARIEN RIOTERS GIVEN TERMS—Twenty-Two of the Convicted Negroes Sentenced—SIX ARE HEAVILY FINED—One Thousand Dollars or Twelve Months Imposed on the Leaders—SIXTEEN GOT OFF A SHADE LIGHTER—The Case Against Harry Delegal, Charged with Assaulting White Woman, Will Be Taken Up When the Court Convenes Today.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 5—(Special)—Sentences were passed on twenty-two rioters at Darien today, six being fined one thousand dollars each or twelve months on the chain gang and sixteen being fined two hundred and fifty dollars each or twelve months in the gang.  Two others are out on bond and were not present to have sentences passed.  It is presumed that they will not show up and it is hardly probable that any of the convicted ones will be able to pay their fines.
            The ring-leaders who got the thousand dollar sentences were Jonas Green, James Wylly, Ben Dunham, Charles McDonald, Joseph Kimmon, Charles Turner.  The others sentenced were Moses Miller Jr., Hugh Thompson, Dave Petty, James Bailey, Freeman Elverson, Sharper Gordon, Henry Golden, James Ross, Kit Alexander, Dan Johnson, Horace Seabroe, Levi Mitchell, Charles Baptist, Marshall Dorsey and two women, Maria Currey and Louisa Underwood.
            In passing sentence Judge Seabrook took occasion to deliver the rioters and the spectators a lecture on the necessity of upholding the law at all times and the penalty that must follow any violation of it.  The trial of the last batch of eight rioters today, the conviction of four and passing of sentences on the twenty-two, were the main features of the court proceedings, and tomorrow the court will take up the case of Henry Delegal, charged with raping the white woman.
            Colonel Lawton left Darien today with the remainder of his military forces, it being in his judgment unnecessary for the military to remain longer.  Henry Delegal was brought over from Savannah on tonight’s train under a military escort of forty men and these will probably remain throughout his trial.

DELEGALS ALL IN ONE JAIL—Prisoners Held at Darien Have Been Transferred to Savannah.

            Savannah, Ga., September 5—(Special)—John Delegal, Eddie Delegal and Mary Delegal, their mother, arrived from Darien at 1:30 o’clock this afternoon.  They were immediately placed in the Chatham county jail, where they will be held until the day of their trial in Effingham county.  Colonel A.R. Lawton, Lieutenant Edward A. Leonard and the Liberty Independent troop, thirty-eight strong, came from Darien with the prisoners.  They were met at the depot by Sergeant of Police Owen Reilly, and a squad of eleven patrolmen.  The “red maria” attracted a great deal of attention as it hurried down Liberty street loaded with blue coats.  Many persons thought there was a riot and that this was the reason for the assembling of the officers of the law.
            “It is needless for me to march them through the streets of Savannah and attract a crowd.  You are fully able to take care of them and transport them to the jail without any excitement,” said Colonel Lawton to Sergeant Reilly.
            The patrolmen formed in double ranks and the Delegals were handed over to them.  They were handcuffed to each other and were escorted by Deputy Sheriff T.A. Baily, of Darien.  Mary Delegal, the mother of the two boys, followed behind.  She was not shackled.  Up to this time Henry Delegal, who is charged with rape, did not know that his wife and youngest son, Eddie, were under arrest.  He was in the corridor on the first floor looking through the bars.  The sight of his wife and two boys startled him.  He could hardly believe his own eyes.
            “Praise to God, my whole family is in this place; God will do right and justice is my hope,” he said.
            Colonel Lawton announced on his arrival that he was home to stay.  The commanding officer of the First Georgia regiment, who has been in Darien almost since the trouble first started two weeks ago, looked quite fatigued.  He stated that everything was quiet at Darien and that the trouble had all ended.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 7 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 3

IS HARD TO SECURE A JURY—McIntosh Residents Are Prejudiced Against Henry Delegal.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 6—(Special)—Trouble is being experienced in McIntosh county in securing a jury to try Henry Delegal.  Today over seventy jurors were summoned and out of that number only eleven have been secured.  The jurors go down mostly for cause and about nine-tenths of them admit their prejudice in the case.
            Court has adjourned until tomorrow to give the sheriff another chance to bring in men and that official is actively at work tonight hunting available material to present to the court tomorrow.



The Atlanta Constitution; Friday 8 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 2

DELEGAL’S CASE WITH JURY—Defense Offered No Evidence, but Prisoner Makes Statement.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 7—(Special)—The twelfth juror in the case against Henry Delegal was secured in McIntosh court today and after a heated trial behind closed doors the case is late tonight in the hands of the jury.  There is a belief that it will result in a mistrial.  The woman’s character precludes the probability of the jury agreeing on the case tonight at least.  The trial opened today with the woman’s father on the stand and the impression made by his testimony was unfavorable to the prosecution.  The woman was then placed on the stand and told a story of Delegal having forced his way into her house on the night of December 2d last.
            The defense offered no evidence beyond the statement of the accused and he denied the charge against him.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 9 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 4

DELEGAL GETS A MISTRIAL—Jury Was Unable To Agree and Change of Venue Was Granted.

            Brunswick Ga September 8—(Special)—The Jury in the case of Henry Delegal returned a statement that they stood seven for conviction and five for acquittal after being out all last night.  Judge Seabrook ordered a mistrial.  Declared on motion for change of venue it was granted and the case set for re-hearing at the special term of Effingham court the same week that the Delegal murderers are to be tried.  Judge Seabrook and all the Savannah attorneys returned to Savannah today.  Delegal was carried back under military escort and lodged in Savannah jail.
            Effingham’s special term of court begins next Wednesday.  The prisoners will all be removed next Tuesday night.



The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 13 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 2

DELEGALS ARRIVE AT GUYTON—Will Be Placed on Trial for Their Lives Today.

            Guyton, Ga., September 12—(Special)—Sheriff W.W. Griffin, assisted by Deputies L.B. Smith and J.J. Usher, of this county, arrived here from Savannah at 3 o’clock this evening, with Henry and John Delegal, the alleged murder and rapist, on their way to Springfield, where they will be placed upon trial tomorrow morning for their lives.  It will be remembered that old man Henry Delegal was placed upon trial a few days ago at a special term of McIntosh superior court for an assault upon a white woman, and a mistrial resulted, whereupon a change of venue was made by Judge Seabrook to this county.  The brothers and friends of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, who was killed by John Delegal, in McIntosh county, a few days ago, accompanied the sheriff’s posse to Springfield and will be present at the trial tomorrow morning.



The Atlanta Constitution; Friday 15 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 3

JOHN DELEGAL GOES FOR LIFE—Convicted of the Murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend—DURING THE DARIEN RIOT—Jury Recommended Him To Mercy of the Court—AND THIS SAVED HIM FROM GALLOWS—Henry Delegal, Charged with Rape, Was Placed on Trial Yesterday Afternoon at Guyton—All the Evidence Has Been Taken.

            Guyton, Ga., September 14—The case of John Delegal of the Darien rioters sent to the Effingham court on change of venue from McIntosh county was concluded today in a verdict of guilty of murder with a recommendation to the mercy of the court.  He was sentenced to life imprisonment.  John Delegal it will be remembered shot and killed Deputy Sheriff Townsend, who went to arrest him during the time of the riots.  His brother and sister, who were indicted with him, were acquitted.
            The case of Henry Delegal for rape which, after a mistrial in Darien last week, was sent to this county on a change of venue was taken up this afternoon.  This covers the case out of which grew the riots.  There was no trouble in securing a jury and the evidence was quickly submitted.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 16 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 2

HENRY DELEGAL IS SET FREE—JURY BROUGHT IN A VERDICT OF NOT GUILTY—Crime Charged Against Him Caused the Recent Riot at Darien.

            Guyton, Ga., September 15—Henry Delegal, colored, was today acquitted in the Effingham court of the charge of criminal assault upon a white woman in McIntosh county.  This was the affair out of which grew the Darien riots.  Arguments of the attorneys were made at a late hour last night, and the jury remained locked up until noon today when a verdict of not guilty was returned.
            The cases of Edward and Melinda Delegal, charged with being accessories to the murder of Sheriff Townsend, were begun this afternoon.  These are the last the [sic] Darien riot cases.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 17 September 1899

Pg. 7 col. 4

EDWARD DELEGAL FOR LIFE—Convicted as Accessory to Murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend.

            Guyton, Ga., September 16—The Darien riot cases were cleared up today by the Effingham court.  Edward Delegal was convicted as accessory in the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, of Darien, and sentenced to life imprisonment.  Malinda Delegal, his mother, indicted under the same charge, was acquitted.  A summary of the riot trials show:  Henry Delegal, for criminal assault, acquitted; John and Edward Delegal, for murder, sentenced to the penitentiary for life, and twenty-eight rioters sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.



The Kansas City Journal (Kansas City, MO); Saturday 14 October 1899

Pg. 7 col. 5

TERRORIZED BY A NEGRESS—Georgia Community in Deadly Fear of a Crazy Woman Who Has a Gun.

            BRUNSWICK, GA., Oct. 13.—The section of Glynn county around Sapp’s still is being terrorized by a crazy negro woman, stark naked, roaming the woods, shooting at any one she sees.  Already one man has fallen dead before her pistol, while two other negroes, her husband and a brother, have been wounded by her bullets.
            The woman’s name is Mary Eason.  A few days ago she became violently insane, stole the weapon with which she is now armed and a box of cartridges from her husband and was oof to the swamp.  Persons go armed in the neighborhood and houses are guarded as protection for the women and children.



The Brunswick Times; Saturday 30 June 1900

Pg. 4 col. 5

NEGRO DAY AT THE FAIR—A Fine Program Has Been Arranged for the Occasion—PROF. W.H. COUNCIL ORATOR—Will Deliver an Address to the Colored People of This Section of the State

            The mid-summer fair of the Southeastern Fair Association will close this evening, and the last day, in point of attendance, promises to be the best of the week.
            This is Negro day, and every colored person in this section, as well as many from other counties, will go to the fair grounds and take in the sights. Everything is in shape, and none of the exhibits will be moved until next week. The colored people will have a chance of seeing every feature of the fair, and too a special program has been arranged for their benefit.
            Prof. W.H Council, of Alabama, will deliver an address to his race, and it is predicted that there will be several thousand within the sound of his voice. The colored orator is truly a wonder and those who have heard him, say that he will surpass Booker Washington. Many of the white people of Brunswick will go to the fair grounds for the sole purpose of hearing Prof. Council speak.
            All of the program which has been carried out this week will be in effect today, with the exception of the Fifth regiment band, which left for Atlanta last night. The Glynn cornet band will furnish music for today. They will be assisted by several out-of-town organizations.
            There will be two games of base ball [sic] played today, between Savannah and Brunswick. One will occur in the morning and the other in the afternoon.
            The new colored military company of Brunswick will make it’s first appearance in the parade today.



The Brunswick Times-Call; Friday 29 March 1901

Pg. 1 col. 6


            Two cases occupied nearly the entire day in the city court yesterday. Harry Walters, charged with keeping open a tippling house on the Sabbath was acquitted. Joe Bazzell, the negro who did the stealing from the Douglas Hardware company was found guilty and sentenced to eleven months on the chaingang. These cases ended the criminal docket and the civil side was taken up. The first case tried was that of Samuel Dent vs. John Currie for defamation of character. This case is now on trial.



The Brunswick Times-Call; Saturday 30 March 1901

Pg. 1 col. 6

A LONG CASE—The Case of Samuel Dent vs. Mr. John Currie Has Ended.

            The case of Samuel Dent vs. Mr. John Currie, which started in the City court Thursday ended yesterday.
            The defendant sued Mr. Currie for $2,000 for defamation of character. It seems that the latter endeavored to have Dent indicted for cow stealing and after the grand jury failed to find a true bill suit was entered against Mr. Currie. After being out only a few minutes the jury brought in a verdict for the defendant.



The Brunswick Times-Call; Thursday 2 May 1901

Pg. 1 col. 6

WHITE MAN KILLED BY BLOW FROM A NEGRO—Fatal Difficulty Near Bladen Tuesday Night—NEGRO IS STILL AT LARGE—The Dead Man Was a Brother to Mrs. Joseph Lasserre of This City

            At Owens’ store, four miles from Bladen on the F.C. and P. railroad Tuesday night, Mr. Brown, brother of Mrs. Joseph Lasserre, of this city, was brained by a negro and the murderer is still at large.
            Mr. Brown clerks in the store and when he refused the negro credit it was the sign for a fuss.  After abusing Mr. Brown considerably he showed fight and reaching for a scantling he struck him in the head scattering his brains for many yards around.
            As soon as he committed the terrible crime the negro made good his escape and up to the present has not been captured.
            The murdered man was formerly from Camden county.  He has visited Brunswick on several occasions and had many friends here who will be grieved to hear of the terrible affair.



The Brunswick Times-Call; Friday 3 May 1901

Pg. 1 col. 2

MURDERER OF BROWN GIVES UP TO SHERIFF—An Old Negro Surrenders to Authorities—TELLS A PECULIAR STORY—Says He Never Struck Mr. Brown With Scantling, But Only a Blow With His Fist

            There is in the murderer’s cell of the Glynn county jail at present an old-time-Georgia darkey, who says he is 63 years old, but from all appearances, he is not a day less than 80.
            And this old negro is on a very serious charge, one that may cost him his life, but he does not seem to realize what he has done.
            This old negro, Charley Harvey by name, is the man who murdered Mr. Brown at Owens’ store, near Bladen, on last Tuesday night, a full account of which appeared in yesterday’s TIMES-CALL.  Harvey was not seen after the murder was committed until yesterday morning, when he came to Brunswick and surrendered to Sheriff Berrie.
            A representative of the TIMES-CALL went to the jail to see the old negro, and he was found asleep in his cell, and it took several good knocks on the iron door to awake him from his slumbers.  The reporter told the old-timer that he wanted an honest account of how the killing occurred, and he started off:
            “Well, boss, I never did think dat I would be behind dese bars for killin’ a white man, but I is, I spose,” said Harvey, and then he went on to tell his story, which, in substance, was as follows:
            Mr. Brown was employed as a clerk in Mr. Owens’ store, and the negro was also employed by Mr. Owens at his residence.  He wanted some whiskey, and says that Mr. Owens told him to go to the store and get it, but Mr. Brown refused to let the darkey have it without the money, and a quarrel was the result.  According to the negro’s statement, he was followed out of the store by Mr. Brown, and was struck across the head twice by him with a piece of wood, although he showed no signs of any blows.  The negro says that he then picked up a piece of scantling, but that Brown took it away from him, and he hit him (Brown) with his fist just above the right ear, and that he fell to the ground, his head hitting heavily on the hard ground, “and if he am dead, boss, dat is jes what kilt him,” said the negro.  Harvey said that he then left the scene of the difficulty and as soon as he was informed that Mr. Brown was dead, he started to Brunswick to surrender to the sheriff, and rented a boat to com over from Fancy Bluff.  He reached the city about 10:30 o’clock yesterday morning, went directly to the jail, and told the above story.
            So far, we have heard of no eye witnesses to the killing, and it is, therefore, impossible to give Brown’s side of the case.  The negro said that there were two people who saw it all, but if it is true, they have not let it be known.



The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 12 June 1901

Pg. 2 col. 3

GRIFFIN TO BE HANGED FRIDAY—Slayer of Conductor Latimer Confesses and Is Ready To Die.

            Brunswick, Ga., June 11—(Special)—Tricy Griffin, the negro slayer of Conductor Latimer, is to hang on Friday, and the scaffold has been erected in the jail yard.  The hanging will be private.  Griffin has confessed that he killed Conductor Latimer and says he is now willing to die.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 15 June 1901

Pg. 5 col. 4

GRIFFIN STRANGLED TO DEATH—Slayer of Conductor Latimer is Hanged at Brunswick.

            Brunswick, Ga., June 14—(Special)—Tricy Griffin, convicted of the murder of Conductor Latimer, was hanged in the jail here today at noon, in the presence of about forty people, including Detectives Conally and Scarlett, of Atlanta, who effected his capture and conviction.  Prior to the hour set for the hanging, the streets surrounding were well filled with people anxious to catch a glimpse of the condemned man.
            Griffin was kept in his cell until a short time before the execution, when he was brought into the jail corridor to prepare for the death trap.  He was allowed to talk to the crowds outside the jail fence, and to many of these he said goodby [sic].
            In the jail corridor Griffin reviewed the act which sent him to the gallows at length and said that he did not intend to kill Conductor Latimer, but only meant to frighten him.  He attributed all his present trouble to women, cards and whisky.  Griffin was led to the trap and unflinchingly stood while the black cap was fastened and the noose adjusted by Deputy Sheriff Price of Wayne county.  The drop was sprung and Griffin’s body shot downward to recoil from the jerk.  It was seen that the knot had slipped from under the jawbone to the back of his neck.  This prolonged his death evidently by strangulation, and it was about five minutes before Drs. Blanton and Blaine [sic] pronounced life extinct.  The body was cut down and placed in a coffin for burial.  This ended the first legal hanging in Glynn county in seventy years.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 14 August 1901

Pg. 1 col. 4


            One of the boldest robberies ever recorded in Brunswick occurred yesterday morning about 9 o’clock, when two negroes entered the home of Mr. James Shriver, near Palmetto cemetery.
            Mr. Shriver was at work in his field at the time and saw the two negroes enter his house. Not having any weapon on his person he hastened to his nearest neighbor, and secured a shot gun. On his return he saw the two negroes still in the house. As soon as they saw Mr. Shriver, one drew his pistol and fired, one of the bullets passed through the brim of Mr. Shriver’s hat. He fired the gun at the daring negro, who stood before him with an armful of clothing, etc., which he had taken from the house. Mr. Shriver’s aim was good and the shot took effect in the negro’s face, but did not seem to seriously injure him. Only one barrel of the shotgun was loaded and Mr. Shriver was therefore at the mercy of the negro, who, with his postil in the white man’s face, demanded him to give up the gun, which of course did.
            The negro then, with two suits of clothes, the gun and several other things, made for the nearby woods. The other negro made good his escape while the fight was in progress.
            Mr. Shriver came to the city and reported the affair to the authorities, who at once started to work on the case. Mr. Shriver did not know either one of the negroes by name, but gave the officers a very good descrigtion [sic], and it is thought that they will be captured, as one of the negroes as a load of gunshot in his face.
            The affair created considerable excitement in the neighborhood of the cemetery as nothing of the kind has ever before occurred. The negroes saw Mr. Shriver at work in his field and although it was broad open day, they thought it a good time to make the steal. Mr. Shriver could not tell exactly what the negroes stole but missed two suits of clothes and many other things.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 15 August 1901

Pg. 1 col. 6

ARE STILL AT LARGE—Negroes Who Had Difficulty With Mr. Shriver Have Not Been Captured.

            The two negroes who entered the home of Mr. Shriver on Tuesday have neither been captured, although the officers have been hard at work on the case.
            Deputy Sheriff Pyles spent all of Tuesday night in and around Everett City, where he thought he would catch the wounded negro, but he was not seen anywhere in that neighborhood.
            It is the general impression of the officers that the wounded negro is somewhere in the city and they are still looking for him.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 22 August 1901

Pg. 1 col. 3

ANOTHER PRISONER CAUGHT—Sheriff Berrie Captures Tom Johnson Wanted for Shooting a Negro.

            Sheriff Berrie yesterday placed in jail Tom Johnson, a negro who was wanted for shooting another negro some days ago.
            The sheriff was at his home when he saw Johnson passing by. The negro had with him the shot gun which was taken from Mr. Shriver by the two negro burglars last week.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 29 April 1902

Pg. 1 col. 3

CAPTURED A THIEF—“Baby Graham, Colored, Placed Behind the Bars.

            Officer Luther Lamb, early Sunday morning, captured “Baby” Graham, a negro well known in criminal circles in Brunswick and Glynn county. Graham Saturday night robbed a negro woman of her groceries. The case was reported to the officers and Policeman Lamb soon had him behind the bars.
            Graham is a bad negro, and will no doubt serve a term on the chaingang. He is now under bond on the charge of assault with intent to kill. He is also the negro who was tried at the last session of the superior court for being implicated in the Shriver robbery, but was acquitted as there was no one who could identify him. Since the trial, however, it is understood that the negro has made the statement that he was a party to the robbery.
            Officer Lamb is also of the opinion that in capturing Graham he has the man who has been entering the suburban stores lately, three or four of them having been entered during the past few weeks.



The Brunswick News; Sunday 21 September 1902

pg. 1 col. 3

BRUNSWICK NEGROES THERE – A Number of Them Were in the Stampede at Birmingham

            A number of well known Brunswick negroes were in the great stampede at Birmingham Friday night, in which 78 people were killed and 80 injured, but it is not known whether or not any of the Brunswick negroes were injured.
            The negroes were there attending the national convention of Baptists. Two members of the choir became engaged in a fight. Some one cried: “They are fighting,” and the delegates understood it “There is fire.” Everyone made a run for the doors and the above number were killed and injured in the stampede.
            The full list of fatalities has not been ascertained, therefore it is not known whether or not any of the local negroes were injured.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 22 November 1902

Pg. 1 col. 7

MAD WITH MOTHER DROWNED CHILD—PECULIAR MURDER CASE AT FANCY BLUFF, THIS COUNTY, YESTERDAY—WOMAN IS NOW IN JAIL—She Was Brought Here Early This Morning by M.T. Scarlett—Says She is Innocent of the Charge Against Her.

            News was received in the city at an early hour this morning of a peculiar murder case which occurred at Fancy Bluff yesterday morning, and Bessie Gale, a negro girl about 18 years of age, is in the county jail charged with the crime.
            Her victim is a little negro girl about 5 years old. The storry [sic] as told by M.T. Scarlet, who brought the woman over this morning, is as follows:
            It seems that a few days ago Julia Dunham, mother of the child, and Bessie Gale, the accused, had a quarrel and bad blood has existed between them since.
            Yesterday morning the mother of the child was at work, and an older sister sent the little one to its mother. The child never arrived and a search followed. The tracks of the girl were traced for a few hundred yards down the road.
            There the foot prints of the little negro were joined by those of a woman. The two branched off and their tracks lead to a little creek about a quarter of a mile from the road. There the child was found, drowned. The tracks of the woman were traced to the scene, and it is thought that, being mad with the mother of the child, the woman took the little one’s life for revenge.
            On the child’s body were several marks of violence which indicate that the little one was forced into the water.
            The affair caused considerable excitement in the vicinity and the colored population of the place was very indignant.
            The Gale woman claims that she is innocent and says she never saw the child during the day. There were no eye witnesses to the affair and it will no doubt be a hard mater [sic] to prove her guilty, still the negroes of Fancy Bluff are strong of the belief that she drowned the chcild [sic].



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 25 November 1902

Pg. 1 col. 7

PRELIMINARY HEARING—Bessie Gale, Colored, to Be Tried on the Charge of Murder.

            Bessie Gale the young negro girl who is charged with drowning a child at Fancy Bluff a few days ago, will be given a preliminary hearing before Justice Conoly [sic] tomorrow morning.
            Coroner Jenning [sic] went over to Fancy Bluff Saturday and held an inquest over the body of the child, and while the jury was unable to secure any evidence that would show conclusively that the woman was guilty, a verdict was returned charging her with the crime.
            A number of witnesses have been summoned from the place and the case will no doubt be a very interesting one. Attorney Max Isaac will represent the Gale woman.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 26 November 1902

Pg. 4 col. 5

PRELIMINARY HEARING TODAY—Bessie Gale, the negro woman charged with murdering a child at Fancy Bluff last week, will be given a preliminary hearing before Justice Conoly [sic] today. The case has attracted considerable attention and a large crowd will no doubt attend the trial.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 27 November 1902

Pg. 2 col. 2


            The case of Bessie Gale, charged with the murder of Martha Dunham, a 6-year-old child, at Fancy Bluff, last week, was yesterday preliminarily investigated in Justice Conoly’s [sic] court.
            This appears to be as flagrant and as heinous a case of murder as has ever occurred in Glynn county, and we feel that it is our duty to invoke the stern hand of the law in the matter referred to.
            From the evidence in traduced yesterday it seems that Bessie Gale, a full-grown young negress, for the simple reason that a feud existed between her family and that of the Dunhams, not only murdered a helpless child of six years, but before doing so unmercifully beat the little tot into insensibility and then threw the body into the bayou a few yards away.
            Glynn county has been recalcitrant for many years in the manner of punishment to her murderers and although at least two dozen of such crimes have been committed within the confines of the county in the last decade only one murderer has been put to death during a period of fifty years.
            The execution of a human being is a serious proposition, at the same time we feel that the law of the land should prevail and while we are not passing judgment on Bessie Gale, at the same time. If she is guilty of the reprehensible crime with which she stands charged we trust and we indulge the hope that a Glynn county jury will “render under Caesar those things which are Caesar’s."



The Brunswick News; Thursday 27 November 1902

pg. 1 col. 4


            The case of Bessie Gale, the Fancy Bluff negress, charged with the murder of little Martha Dunham, was preliminarily heard in the Glynn superior court room yesterday, with Justice of the Peace J.W. Conoly presiding. Solicitor Colson, of the city court, appeared in behalf of the state, and Attorney Max Isaac represented the defendant.
            The accused might best be described as a totally ignorant negro woman of some eighteen years. She appeared in the court room yesterday morning decidedly ungroomed, shows the beastly instinct and is a very unpleasant defendant to say the least of it.
            While in court yesterday she appeared absolutely indifferent as to what was happening, and when damaging testimony was introduced displayed absolutely no concern.
            The circumstances leading up to this case are of a sensational nature and show an utter abandonment on the part of the defendant.
            It appears that the families of Gale and Dunham, who reside near the bluff at Fancy Bluff had had some trouble because it was alleged that one of the Dunham children had stolen a Gale chicken and had sold it to the family of Mr. Ratcliffe, who lives nearby.
            When the Gales were advised of this difference they sought the Dunhams, confessed that one of their children had sold the chicken as stated above, and promptly refunded to the Dunhams fifteen cents, the amount received for the chicken.
            It seems, however, that Bessie Gale, was not satisfied with this and openly stated that unless the chicken was returned one of the Dunham children would be missing.
            On the afternoon of the murder the Gale woman appeared at the Dunham home and seeing little Martha alone called her and taking her some hundred yards form [sic] home beat her into insensibility and finally threw the body into a little bayou near the house. As soon as the child was missed the parents began to search and securing a valuable clue very soon located the dead body of their child in some two feet of water.
            The coroner’s jury was summoned, and, upon investigation, found that the body was terribly mutilated and was one mass of wounds about the neck and face. A verdict of murder was returned and the hearing yesterday was attended by a large number of Fancy Bluff people.
            Some fifteen or twenty women were examined during the trial yesterday, which continued until late in the afternoon and Judge Conoly finally he[??] the defendant for murder and she was bound over to the coming session of the superior court.
            The crime, from all accounts, is a dastardly one, and it seems very likely that the gallows awaits the defendant.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 2 June 1903

Pg. 1 col. 2

NEGRO GOT 25 YEARS—Colored Poisoner to Serve a Long Term in Penitentiary.

            Will Adams, the negro who has been in the Glynn county jail for several weeks, charged with poisoning a number of people at [sic] social party given at the residence of Mrs. J.K. Nightengale, an account of which appeared exclusively in the News at the time, was arraigned in the superior court for trial yesterday, and he plead [sic] guilty and was sentenced to serve twenty-five years in the penitentiary.
            Three cases were made against Adams and sixteen could have been made, as that is the number that he poisoned. In each cases [sic] he entered a plea of guilty and in two of these cases he was sentenced to serve ten years and five on the other.
            Adams also implicates the cook, Johannah Macedon. The negro claims that he purchased the poison and placed it in the cream at her request with the intention of poisoning the family instead of the visitors. The woman was arrested and placed in jail yesterday afternoon.
            The negro will be sent to the penitentiary to serve his long sentence as soon as an officer comes for him.

[according to a Savannah paper, they used “Rough on Rats” as the poison—ALH]



The Savannah Morning News; 3 June 1903

Pg. 2 col. 1

PRISONER GETS 25 YEARS—Will Adams Convicted for His Wholesale Murder Attempt.

            Brunswick, Ga., June 2.—In the Superior Court yesterday, Will Adams, the negro who poisoned a number of prominent people at a social party at few weeks ago, was arraigned and sentenced to twenty-five years in the penitentiary.
            He pleaded guilty to the charge, there being three cases against him, but there could have been sixteen, as that is the number of persons that he poisoned. He stated that he placed Rough on Rats in the ice cream to poison the cook, and not the guests at the party, but this tale is not believed to be true.
            The party was given at the residence of Mrs. J.K. Nightengale, one of the most prominent families in the city. Eighteen or twenty guests were present, and the following morning a number became suddenly ill. An investigation revealed that they had been poisoned. The police department was at once notified, and late in the afternoon succeeded in placing the negro in jail. It was discovered that he had purchased Rough on Rats, slipped into the residence of Mrs. Nightengale and placed the poisonous drug in the ice cream, which he knew would be served at the entertainment. A number of the guests were ill for several days but they all recovered.
            Joe Story, the white man who has been confined in jail for two years on the charge of killing Hamp Shriver, also white, and who has twice before faced a jury, both times a mistrial being declared, will be arraigned again to-morrow. It is generally thought that it will be difficult to secure a jury.



The Brunswick Daily News; Saturday 3 December 1904

Pg. 3 col. 3

            Lee Blue, a negro who has been wanted by the local authorities for some time, charged with stabbing Will Skipper a young white man, has been arrested in Tampa on the charge of highway robbery.  An officer will probably be sent for the criminal.



The Atlanta Georgian (Atlanta, GA); Monday 10 September 1906

Pg. 7 col. 1


To the Editor of The Georgian:

            Permit me a few words in your columns on the “Reign of Terror” question.
            First, what shall be done with the negro rapist, who assaults a white woman?
            Second, what shall be done with the white man who lives with negro women and is the father of mulatto children?
            The solution of the one demands the solution of the other.
            They are inseparable. Their results, unmolested, would in time bring about the same end, namely, racial equality.
            You may search history through all ages and you will f ind this truth. Where two races live on the same soil it is only a question of time until the higher will pull the lower up to its standard, or the lower will drag the higher down to its level. If the negro remains amongst us, one of these two things will inevitably happen in time, therefore, I say, as the United States owns the Philippines and the majority of the inhabitants of those islands are negroes, why not send all the negroes to the Philippine Islands, giving them in exchange there the same value in property that they possessed here and bring to the United States all the whites now residing in the Philippines, giving them the same value in property here that they possessed there, and, if necessary, put on a pro rata taxation on the whites of the United States to pay their transportation? I, for one, would be willing to pay my just share. This taxation could be extended over ten or twenty years, if necessary.
            Castrating the negro males would never do. The animal passions of the negro females not finding gratification with their equals would seek, more than ever, their superiors, which would mean more dangers for wayward men and innocent young boys, and—more mulattos.
            If you castrate the negro male you must also unsex the female, and if the object is extermination, why not experiment them outright and be done with it? Better, I say, remove them from our midst before it is too late.
            Increasing the police force in Atlanta and Fulton county will not solve the problem. An outrage is just as likely to occur in South Carolina, South Georgia or Alabama as Atlanta. It is a national question, and must be settled by the nation.
            Forcing the negro to co-operate with you in catching and punishing the rapist is not a remedy. Co-operation makes the remaining negroes more united in brotherly feeling. Hence co-operation is one step nearer to assimilation.
            Every white man who is guilty of co-habitation with a negro females is partially responsible for every terrible outrage on our noble white women, and a just God will some day hold him so.
            The solution of the first question demands also the solution of the second.
            Faithfully yours, for purity, justice, reverence for our noble women and the welfare of my country, I am a subscriber. Yours truly, E.J. Leben, Gainesville, Ga.



The Brunswick News; Friday 27 December 1907

Pg. 1 col. 2


            Luther Foreman, a negro, who is a stranger in this city, was shot by Officer Jere Wilchar Wednesday night. It was at first through that the negro had been seriously and probably fatally wounded, but it developed yesterday that his wounds were only slight one [sic] and he will easily recover.
            The negro, it appears, went to the hoe of Sol Gazaway, the negro saloonist, and attempted to take charge. He was pretty well under the influence of whiskey and raised such a disturbance that the other negroes sent in a call to the police police [sic] station. Officer Wilchar responded to the call.
            When Officer Wilchar arrived he found the negro turning things up side down, and when he saw the officer he declared that he would kill him before he would go to jail. As the policeman advanced towards him Foreman reached to his hip pocket, when the officer pulled his pistol and quickly fired. The negro then made his way for an axe which was in a corner of the room and Officer Wilchar fired the second time, the bullet striking the negro in the face but only made a flesh wound.
            Foreman then picked up the axe and was advancing on the officed [sic] when the third shot was fired which brought the negro to the floor of the room.
            He was a little later removed to the city jail and then carried to the hospital. An examination was made yesterday and it was discovered that both the bullets had only inflicted flesh wounds and the negro will be out again in a few days.



The Brunswick News; Friday 27 December 1907

Pg. 1 col. 3


            Another victim has been added to the number killed in the row at a turpentine still on the Coast Line, just above Waycross Tuesday, an account of which appeared in The News Wednesday morning. The third victim was Will Waddell, one of the negroes who played a prominent part in the fight.
            The following sent out from Waycross yesterday about the affair will be of interest:
            “The number of victims of the row among drunken negroes at Hinson & Co.’s turpentine still yesterday has been increased by the death of Will Waddell, colored, who shot and killed Wallace Dyal, the white man. Waddell had been arrested by deputies sent from Waycross to the scene of the trouble and was in a buggy with Deputy C.E. Cason, when some one slipped up from the back and, placing a pistol almost within touch of the negro’s head, fired, blowing off his head and scattering his brains over the deputy.
            The person who did the shooting was seen by Cason just before the shot was fired. Cason had stopped his horse on a public road near Millwood early this morning en route to Waycross with the prisoner, but he does not know whether it was a negro trying to shoot him or some person bent on avenging the death of Dyal.
            The negro had previously shown a tendency to resist the officer, trying twice to jump from the buggy.
            No open threats were made in the presence of the officer, but it was generally talked among the negroes that they would attempt to take whatever prisoners the officers had this morning near Fairfax. The feeling against the negroes involved in the death of Dyal was so intense at and near the scene of the disorder that justice would probably have been dealt out to whatever negroes were held by the infuriated citizens.
            Son Waddell, a relation of the negro killed this morning and the instigator of the whole riot, has been arrested by Sheriff Woodard and brought to Ware county jail. He barely escaped Millwood with his life and but for the unusual crowd at the station at train time he would have been dealt with. As it was, attempts were made to get his life, but the officer managed to bring him to Waycross.



The Macon Daily Telegraph; Tuesday 23 February 1909

Pg. 8 col. 1

STRICKLAND SAYS HE WAS ARCH ANGEL—Jeff Davis Man Held for Murder, Tells Remarkable Tale.

            HAZLEHURST, Ga., Feb. 22.—Jeff Davis superior court convened this morning.  Judge T.A. Parker presiding and J.H. Thomas, the newly appointed solicitor general, appearing for the state.
            Rev. DeFoor opened court with prayer.
            Four murder cases are ready for trial.  A.D. Strickland, who killed John Cole and was soon afterward adjudged insane and sent to the asylum, is well and back ready for trial.  He says the whole time from before the date of the homicide to his awakening at Milledgeville is a blank; that when his mind becomes rational it appeared to him that he had reached heaven, having had all sorts of delusions during his insanity.  He can recollect signing checks for millions of dollars and feeling like he owned the world; not only that but he occupied an archangel’s place in heaven.
            The case of the state against Walter Carter for the homicide of Elias Mobley, which resulted in a mistrial when tried before, will likely be tried this week.
            Carrie Miller and John Supple, colored, will be tried for the killing of other negroes.
            Frank Hall, who is charged with having burglarized the southern depot and Wilson Hardware store, has been captured after a lively chase in Florida and after being shot in the leg is here for trial.
            In addition to this there are fifty misdemeanor cases and seventy-six civil cases on the docket and ready for trial.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 23 June 1910

Pg. 1 cols 3 & 4


            Charley Polite, a young negro boy about 15 years of age, is suffering from the result of a 22-calibre rifle bullet in his back, and, as a result, it is expected that Charley and several other of his companions will stop stealing peaches from the yards of various families in Dixville. Though cautioned various times by the residents, the little negroes have kept up their petty thefts, and not only have they been stealing peaches, but they’ve been into other mischief in the neighborhood and were rather “sassy” when spoken to by the owners.
            Yesterday morning two or three of the little negroes were in the yard of Mrs. Susan Way on George street. A half dozen times recently Mrs. Way has driven the boys from her peach trees, but they seemed determined to get the peaches as rapidly as they would ripen. The boys were chased from the yard and were told that if they returned they would be fired upon. Throwing several bricks at the residence the boys left but in less than a half hour they returned.
            One of the ladies in the house saw the boys in the yard and in order to frighten them she secured a small rifle which was kept in the house and fired through a window. She had no intention of hitting the boy but the bullet, after going through a board on the fence, entered the back of the Polite negro. He was almost frightened to death and left the yard screaming at the top of his voice.
            It developed that the bullet had entered about middle way the back, casing quite a painful wound. It is not thought, however, that it will result seriously.
            It is hardly probable that the boys will be after any more peaches in Mrs. Way’s yard.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 2 August 1911

Pg. 1 col. 1


            Cumberland island is stirred from one end to the other as the result of what is thought to have been a dynamitic explosion at the home of William Albertie and a subsequent duel between this negro, and Mr. Ed Faber , all of which occurred Monday, news of which was received in the city yesterday .As a result of the explosion and the duel William Albertie, his wife [sic]and daughter are all injured, the former and latter suffering from wounds received from shots fired by Mr. Fader from his shotgun, and the other woman having been injured by the explosion.
            Various reports of the explosion and the duel were received in the city yesterday. One was to the effect that one of the injured negroes was dead, but this proved false as they were all living yesterday afternoon, but it is understood that Albertie and his daughter are both dangerously injured while the wife of Albertie is only slightly injured.


            To a News reporter, Mr. Fader related the entire occurrence, the explosion, or what he knew of it, the attack upon his wife and the final duel between himself and the negroes.
            It seems that early Monday morning, about 2 o’clock, a terrific explosion occurred at the home of the negro Albertie. The entire western portion of the house was almost wrecked; a trunk in one of the rooms was blown clear through the roof of the house. Fortunately, Albertie and his wife were asleep in another room while the daughter was not at home. The woman was injured by the explosion, but not seriously.
            Mr. Fader states that he spent Sunday at Little Cumberland, there being present in the house besides himself Lighthouse Keeper Robertson, C.F. and Marvin Wylder. He spent the night at the lighthouse, intending to go out for clams early Monday morning. He says he was taken slightly ill during the night and went into Mr. Robertson’s room for some medicine. He happened to look at the clock and it was ten minutes of two, just ten minutes before the explosion.


            In the meantime, however, his wife, who was at home alone, heard of the explosion at the negro house. The negro woman was her washerwoman and learning that she had been injured, Mrs. Fader secured some liniment, bandages and went to the negro home to render what assistance she could. When she reached there, though, she was startled when the negro woman, cursing and raging, started at her with a hatchet, charging that she and her husband had dynamited the house.
            Mrs. Fader hurried back to her home, and when her husband arrived she told him what had happened. Mr. Fader had planned to go out after some hogs, and, accompanied by his wife, he left with his horse and buggy, taking along his shotgun loaded with buckshot.
            He claims that when he passed the Albertie home that the man was standing in the door with a Winchester rifle, while the wife stood at a window also with a gun. As soon as they saw Mr. Fader and his wife they opened fire upon them, two of the bullets passing through the buggy.
            Mr. Fader and his wife jumped from the buggy and as quickly as possible he secured his shotgun and returned the fire. Several shots were fired, with the result that Albertie and his daughter were both seriously wounded, while the wife of the negro, already slightly inured by the explosion, escaped the buckshot which flew through the house.
            This is the story of the affair as told by Mr. Fader, who has already employed counsel to represent him in the event he is arrested.
            As to the explosion he knew nothing of it. He said it would have been impossible for him to have done it as he was at the lighthouse, several miles away. He thinks, however, that it was the work of some of the other negroes on the island and is at a loss to understand why the negroes charged it to him, as he had not had any previous trouble with them.
            Reports from Cumberland are to the effect that the explosion was a terrific one. Everybody is of the opinion that it was caused by dynamite, but people on the island are at a loss to understand who did it or what their motive could have been.



The Brunswick News; Sunday 13 August 1911

Pg. 8 col. 3

            DAN GRANT IS GONE—Guard Way of Hinesville, came over the early part of last week for Dan Grant, the Glynn county negro, who murdered another in the country some time ago, and carried him to Hinesville where he will be put on the gang. Grant was sentenced for ninety-nine years.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 24 October 1911

Pg. 1 col. 2

MISTRIAL IN FADER CASE—Interacting Trial Occurred at St. Marys Last Week.

            One of the most interesting cases tried during the session of Camden superior court last week was that of the state vs. Ed Fader, of this city, charged with assault with intent to murder.
            It will be remembered that a few months ago Mr. Fader engaged in a duel with negroes on Cumberland, wounding two of them. The trouble was brought about by some one dynamiting the home of the negroes, and they claimed that is was done by Fader, who, in turn, claimed that he was not even on the island at the time.
            In the trial last week considerable evidence was introduced and the case was hard fought, recruiting in a mistrial. It is understood that the jury stood eight for acquittal and four for conviction. Fader was represented by Whitfield & Dart, of this city, while S.C. Townsend, of St. Marys, assisted Solicitor Thomas in the prosecution.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 9 November 1911

Pg. 2 col. 4

NEGROES IN SHOOTING SCRAPE—Carl Flowers Shot and Badly Injured by Zenora Junis.

            Carl Flowers, a well-known negro man, baker at the bakery of G.A. Faber, was shot and seriously injured yesterday afternoon near the corner of G and Amherst streets by Zenora Junis, a young negress. Flowers’s [sic] wound appears to be quite serious, but it is not thought that it will result fatally.
            The negro woman has been arrested and placed in jail and will not be given a preliminary hearing until the result of the injury is known. Just what caused the trouble is not known, but it sees that the two got into a dispute which soon resulted in a fight. The negress secured a pistol and fired at Flowers, the bullet taking effect in the left shoulder. .Dr. Christie was summoned and dressed the wound.



The Brunswick News; Friday 1 March 1912

Pg. 1 col. 5


            A case involving the colored society people of the city, the two branches, the light face and the black man who thinks, because he happens to be dark he cannot roll in the upper ten social circles, will be given an airing in Justice Lambright’s court this afternoon, when Murray Polite will be tried on the charge of assault with intent to murder, while Grant Allen, the well-known barber, is acting as the prosecutor in the case.
            Behind the case is a long story among the colored society of the city, which brings out the fact that an effort is being made to divide the mulatto from the ebony hue of the city. It seems that in the past the two branches of the race have been mixing socially, but recently a colored literary society was organized, and the black man was eliminated. This brought about some trouble, as the black people who had heretofore rolled in the uppder society set felt offended at the action of their lighter brothers, and several little near-flights have been the result.
            At any rate, Grant Allen, who is one of the leaders of the new literary society, and Murray Polite, who seems to have been eliminated, became at outs over the affair. On Wednesday night, it seems, Police called at Allen’s home on Gloucester street and asked for a conference. Some words passed, and it seems that Allen stepped back into his front door and forthwith came a regular shower of brickbats. The front door glass was smashed into smithereens and for a time it appeared that the entire house would be wrecked.
            Yesterday, Allen took out warrants charging Police with assault with intent to murder. Polite, on the other hand, claimed that he did not hurl the bricks. He says he was coming down the front steps when some other negroes came along in front of the house and started the bombardment, and that he was not mixed in it in any way.
            These facts, however, will be brought out at the preliminary hearing today, and Brunswick’s colored society set is wtching [sic] the case with interest. Allen is represented by Major R.E. Dart, while Judge Max Isaac will appear for Polite.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 2 March 1912

Pg. 1 col. 6

LOCAL NEGROES ARE WROUGHT UP OVER TROUBLE—DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BLACKS AND MULATTOES GROWING SERIOUS—Murray Polite, Who Was Given Preliminary Hearing Yesterday, Escaped After His Bond Had Been Fixed at $1,000.

            Thought it is denied by the better class of both races, and though efforts are being made to check the trouble before it causes serious trouble, it is a fact nevertheless, that the differences between the Brunswick negroes, the mulattoes and the blacks, is rapidly becoming serious, and has reached such a point that talk of lynchings [sic] has been freely indulged in.
            While no publicity has been given to this trouble until yesterday, when The News published an article relative to the trouble between Grant Allen and Murray Polite, at the same time it appears that trouble has been brewing for some time and two or three serous affrays have been narrowly averted.
            When Murray Polite was arraigned before Justice Lambright yesterday morning on the charge of assault with intent to murder, some of the facts which have caused the trouble were brought out, but behind it all is a long story which is arousing the two classes of negroes in the city.
            Polite as we stated in these columns yesterday morning, was charged with going to the home of Grant Allen on Gloucester street and hurling bricks at him, smashing in the front door and doing other damage. After hearing the evidence in the case, Justice Lambright bound the negro over to the superior court under a bond of $1,000, and while his attorney, Judge Max Isaac, was preparing the bond, which was to have been signed, the negro escaped from the courtroom and has not since been seen. He was in the custody of an officer, and after the trial, it was announced that the necessary bond would be furnished. The amount of it, however, no doubt frightened the young negro, and, while the officers were not looking, he quietly walked out of the courtroom and made his escape, and though a thorough search has been made, he has not been captured.
            It is a fact that certain mulattoes have recently drawn the color line in colored social circles, and this fact has brought on all the trouble. That any such action has been taken has been denied by a number of Brunswick’s best-known negroes, who are endeavoring to settle the trouble before it reaches a serious stage. In this connection the following was handed The News yesterday for publication:

Editor News:
            Please allow us space in your paper to correct the impression made by an article that appeared in your issue of March 1, touching upon the social conditions of the colored citizens of our peaceful city. In said article it is made to appear that there is a line drawn between the mulattoes and blacks, and we desire to correct this unfortunate impression. No statement of this kind has ever been made and God forbid that such will ever come to pass. We simply desire to live such lives as will commend us to the better thinking people of both races. We want it understood that the door of hope is open to every negro man and woman who intends to live as law-abiding citizens.

            I.E. Nash, M.D.
            R.N. Jackson, M.D.
            R.S. Fuller,
            C.A. Shaw,
            C.F. Hoskins, D.D.S.
            J.W. Buggs, M.D.
            M. Mollette.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 7 November 1912

Pg. 1 col. 3


            Dottie Willis, proprietress of a house in the restricted district, together with an inmate of her establishment, while in a drunnen [sic] rage on Tuesday night started in to “clean up” a rival house in the neighborhood and from the police report of the affair, she certainly carried out her purpose.
            The Willis woman seriously injured an inmate of the place, shot at the colored maid and broke up all the furniture in sight.  She continued on her rampage after arrest, breaking out the window glass in the woman’s department at the city jail and destroyed some property.  Her hearing in police court has been continued until Friday and she also faces various charges in the county court.
            While some people look upon this class of women as a necessary evil, there is most assuredly no room in this community for a woman with such a vicious nature and she should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law for her unwarranted outbreak and ordered from the city.



The Brunswick News; Friday 8 November 1912

Pg. 12 (or 8) col. 2

HELD TO CITY COURT—Justice Lambright yesterday held Dottie Willis in $650 bond and Laura Green in $200 bond for appearance at the November term of the city court.  These are the women from the restricted district charged with “shooting up” another establishment.



The Brunswick News; Sunday 10 November 1912

Pg. 5 col. 4

DOES ANYBODY HERE KNOW JAMES?—The News is in receipt of communication dated Brookman, Glynn county, November 7, stating that Jas. Dunham, age 87, was married on that date to Tevenier Green, age 54.  This is Mr. Dunham’s third matrimonial venture.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 10 December 1912

Pg. 1 col. 6

IN PISTOL DUEL ONE NEGRO DEAD ANOTHER DYING—GUN BATTLE HELD AT CLOSE RANGE WITH SERIOUS RESULTS—FOUGHT ABOUT A WOMAN—Harmon Robinson is the Dead Man While Tom Reynolds, Alias Delegal Cannot Live But a Few Hours.  Happens Yesterday Afternoon.

            In a pistol duel at close range one man was killed yesterday afternoon about 5 o’clock and the other so badly wounded he cannot live but a few hours, so the doctors say.
            The shooting occurred at the home of Harmon Robinson, the dead man, and the other party in the duel was Tom Reynolds, alias Delegal, both of who mare well known middle-age negroes.
            It seems that bad blood had existed for along time, Robinson accusing Reynolds with intmacy [sic] with his wife.  The wounded man went to the house of the dead man to see Will Smith, who occupies a part of it, and shortly after his arrival the shooting started.  They were in a small room and it was a close range affair.
            Robinson was struck in the breast by one bullet, but died in a few minutes.  Reynolds was hit three times through the lungs, in the stomach and his arm, the bullet breaking this member.  With the three bullets in his body the wounded man rushed out of the house and went to his own home, 1604 Stonewall, where he was found by the police.
            While Will Smith and Robinson’s wife were in the house at the time of the shooting they did not see it.  The shooting caused a great deal of excitement among the colored people and hundred gathered around the scene of the affray.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 11 December 1912

Pg. 1 col. 4


            Tom Reynolds, the negro who shot and killed Harmon Robinson in a pistol duel Monday afternoon, was yesterday exonerated by a coroner’s jury who, after looking into the case and summoning all witnesses possible, came to the conclusion that Reynolds fired in self-defense.
            The inquest was held at the home of Reynolds, who himself was seriously wounded, having been struck by five bullets from the revolver of Robinson.  It developed at the inquest that Reynolds did not fire upon Robinson until he had been struck by two bullets, when he opened fire on the dead negro.
            The condition of Reynolds was reported much improved and it is now probable that he will recover.  The remains of Robinson were interred yesterday afternoon.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 12 December 1912

Pg. 1 col. 5

CRAZY WEST INDIA NEGRO—Now in Jail and Authorities are Investigating.

            James Samuel Hedge, a West India negro, is giving the authorities quite a lot of trouble.  He is crazy and if not a citizen of this county, of course he could not be sent to the asylum.
            Ordinary Dart has taken up the matter with Immigration Inspector Johnson and if he is not a citizen he will be deported.
            Hedge claims that he came here on the schooner Carrie Strong some time ago and that he has a family in the West Indies.  If this is true the federal government will see that he is taken away from American soil at the earliest possible moment.

CRAZY NEGRO FROM ST. SIMONS—Had Been Rambling Around for Several Days.

            An insane unknown negro is confined in the Glynn county jail, and who he is or where he came from is a mystery.  The man has been on St. Simon(s) rambling around for the past several days and Deputy Sheriff Owens went over and returned with him yesterday.
            The negro insists that he has murdered a man, but whether this is true or not is, of course, unknown.  One thing is certain, however, he is crazy and will probably be sent to the asylum.

Pg. 8 col. 2

REYNOLDS STILL LIVING—Tom Reynolds, the negro who shot and killed Harmon Robinson and who was badly wounded himself is still alive and the chances for his recovery are good.  As the coroner’s jury exonerated Reynolds he has not been placed under police surveillance.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 1 April 1914

Pg. 1 cols. 2-3

THREE PRISONERS ESCAPE FROM GLYNN COUNTY JAIL—Secreted Themselves In Unused Cell and Rushed Out as Jailer Opened Door.

            Three negro prisoners escaped from the county jail yesterday morning shortly after 5 o’clock, when Jailer Lowe opened the door to the cage to release the trusty who works around the jail.
            The men, John Hicks and Joe Young, charged with entering the Georgia Hardware company and Will Moore charged with stealing from the Wright & Gowen Co., had hidden themselves in an unused cell the night before, the door of which is not in working order and when Mr. Lowe opened the cage door they rushed out of the cell, which is the first on the right adjoining the door, and reached the door that opens into the front of the jail.  This door was locked, but the key had been left in the lock and one of the men, reaching his hand through the bars, unlocked it and thus opened the way to the street.
            As the men rushed past him, Mr. Lowe drew his revolver and ordered them to halt, Hicks stopped, saying he was coming back and begging Mr. Lowe not to shoot.  Young ran up the stairs to the second floor as Moore was reaching through the bars to unlock the outside door.
            As Moore unlocked the door, Hicks instead of coming back, turned and ran, Mr. Lowe firing at him twice.  Young came back down the stairs and all three men escaped as Mr. Lowe was locking the door in the cage under the fear that some of the other prisoners were out of their cells.
            No blame whatever can be attached to Mr. Lowe in the matter as every ordinary precaution had been taken, the fortunate part of the affair being the fact that the men did not assault the jailer in making their escape.
            Every avenue of escape from the city is being guarded and there is little doubt that the men will be apprehended and returned to jail within a short time, as all are known to the police and county officers, and a determined hunt for them is now on.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 3 June 1914

Pg. 1 col. 4

 PINKNEY RECEIVES LIFE SENTENCE--Was ably defended by Judge Gale--State made out strong case 

            Ansel Pinkney, charged with the murder of Sadie Wooten in McCullough’s store at Pennick, was placed on trial in superior court yesterday afternoon, the jury returning a verdict at 7:30 o’clock last night for murder in the first degree with a recommendation for mercy which means life imprisonment.
            Pinkney was ably defended by Judge A.D. Gale, as the state made out a strong case the consensus of opinion being that the jury would return a verdict carrying with it the death penalty.
            Court will convene at 9 o’clock this morning with Judge C.B. Conyers presiding, and exceptionally large number of criminal cases being on docket, which it is thought it will take some weeks to clear.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 16 May 1916

Pg. 1 col. 6


            Nelson Higgenbothan [sic] a negro whose home is at 2124 Albany street, has been missing for six weeks and his wife, Annie, fears he met with foul play or an accident. He disappeared from home shortly after leaving for a visit with a relative, and no word from him has been received.
            Nelson was a well known and generally respected negro. He had been in the service of the Atlantic Coast Line railway since a mere boy, but was relieved some time ago and given a monthly pension of $11. He has now missed two payments and his wife feels certain that something has happened to him.



The Savannah Tribune; Saturday 17 June 1916

Pg. 4 col. 2

            Brunswick is being well represented in the northern states these days with a large number that is already there, yet there are a few more to go.  Miss Leola Menidy, Miss Ellen Dennis, Miss Sally Ried and Mrs. Eldora Floyd will leave Friday for points in the north.

            Miss Leola Buggs is spending her vacation with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Adolphus C. Buggs Miss Buggs is one of the teachers of Coleman Institute at Gisbland, La.  She reports having had much success her first year in teaching music.  Miss Buggs is a graduate of Fisk University.

            The closing exercise of Risley school last Friday night was excellent from every point of view.  The teachers deserve much credit.  Notwithstanding the number of hours each teacher is engaged in her duties each participant displayed well his part.  Since the leaving of Prof. Whithead as principal, the work has been entirely in the hands of Miss C.I. McIntyre.  There ought to be ome [sic] request made to the board of education by the colored citizens of Brunswick in reference to our public school system, for conditions are bad.  To search the record of Risley one would find that the board has not done one thing for the colored people but remodeled and painted what was given by northern philanthropists.  There are as many colored children as white and only one school for them.  The grand jury recommends but the recommendations fail to materialize.



The Brunswick News; Sunday 8 April 1917

Pg. 6 col. 3


            When fire threatened little two-year-old Audrie Tatum, peacefully sleeping in her father’s, F.L. Tatum, home 1102 P street, at 9 o’clock yesterday morning. Florine McIntyre, a loyal negress, employed as cook, dared the flames and carried the babe to safety outdoors.
            The negress had been scrubbing the kitchen floor and was unaware that fire had aught from a defective flue until a white neighbor, Miss Hattie Edwards, rushed over and gave warning, after which she sent in a call for the fire department.
            The fireman had to stretch m ore than a thousand feet of hose to be able to play water on the flames, and, owing to the late alarm, about half of the home was destroyed before they arrived. The home being uninhabitable, Mr. Tatum removed salvaged furnishings to 205 Gloucester street, above his place of business, the Georgia Hardware Co.
            Owing to expenses incurred by illness of his wife, who died about three weeks ago following long hospital treatment, the insurance on the house has been allowed to lapse and the fire is a loss of hundreds of dollars.
            The faithful colored employe [sic], whose first thought was for her employer’s child, has been employed by Mr. Tatum for five months. He states she has a life job now if she wants it.



The Savannah Tribune; Tuesday 25 June 1921

Pg. 2 col. 2

            Mrs. Madison Scarlett and her daughter, Miss Annie M. Scarlett left Washington last week to spend some time with her son, Geo. Scarlett, who is practicing law in that city.  Miss Scarlett is a recent graduate of Howard University.  They will return next month.

            The engagement of Prof. S.C. Mitchell, principal of Selden Institute to Miss Ella McLeod is announced.  Their wedding will take place June 29, 9 o’clock at the Presbyterian church, Cordele, Ga.  Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell will be at home Selden Institute, Brunswick, Ga., after July 1.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 2 November 1926

Pg. 8 col. 2


            Jack Bailey, colored, for thirty-five years living near Brookman, and a resident of this county all of his life, is strangely missing from his home and the relatives of the old negro who is known throughout the section, are using every effort to locate him.
            Bailey, it seems, mysteriously disappeared from his home near Brookman on October 17, and although members of his family have made every possible effort to locate some trace of him, they have failed.  Bailey was 68 years of age.  His sons, in the city today seeking information about him, stated that his mind was slightly affected and they fear he rambled away from his home and was unable to return.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 9 December 1926

Pg. 1 col. 7

TWO NEGROES ARE HELD FOR KILLING OF CALVIN DOLLY—Sam Cornelius and R.H. Robinson were ordered held, Felix Benjamin was detained as a witness and Jake Melvin was released yesterday afternoon by a coroner’s jury which investigated the killing Saturday of Calvin Dolly, colored, who was stabbed to death at his home, corner of J and Bartow streets.

            The evidence before the jury was strong against the two negroes who were held charged with the crime.  One witness stated that Cornelius was the man who inflicted the fatal wound, saying that he stabbed Dolly in the back with a butcher knife.  Robinson, it seems, was one of the principals in the fight which resulted in the murder, while Benjamin is one of the most important witnesses.
            The case will likely be tried at the session of the superior court in January.



The Brunswick News; Friday 27 May 1927

Pg. 6 col. 3

ARTHUR BURGESS GIVEN FREEDOM—After being in the Glynn county jail for one year, Arthur Burgess, negro, was ordered liberated today by Solicitor General B.W. Gibbs and he will be out in time to attend his mother’s funeral.  She died at Sterling last night.

            At a previous session of the superior court Burgess was found guilty of voluntary manslaughter in connection with the death of Mrs. Mollies Crosby, white, who had been beaten so terribly about the head she died at the city hospital in a few hours after the attack which occurred at her home several miles in the country.
            Attorneys representing Burgess carried the case to the supreme court and this tribunal ruled that the evidence under which conviction resulted was insufficient and ordered a new trial but inasmuch as no additional evidence has been secured by the state the solicitor decided to liberate Burgess.



The Brunswick News; Sunday 29 May 1927

Pg. 8 col. 3

MEMORIAL HIGH SCHOOL, COLORED, TO CLOSE FRIDAY—B.F. Hubert, president of the Georgia Industrial College, will deliver the commencement address at the Colored Memorial school on next Friday, June 3.

            The school has experienced one of the most successful years in its history and at this closing twenty young pupils will have completed the junior high school department.  It might be interesting to know that this city school has a department of domestic science and domestic art for the girls and a composite trades course for the boys.  The entire class that will finish the academic department will also finish their respective trades.
            The board of education has under erection a five unit trades building which is being built by student labor.  This work by the boys has attracted statewide attention.  The boys who do the work are less than high school grade, and have done every phase of the work necessary to complete the building.  The building has ample space when completed to care for over a hundred students in some profitable industry.
            The parent-teacher association of the school has been very active in the promotion of the school.  It has made ample provision for many of the necessary things which tend to make school work better.  There has been hearty cooperation in helping keep up the attendance in the school.



The Brunswick News; Friday 12 April 1929

Pg. 6 col. 3

ATTEMPT TO BURN COLORED SCHOOL THWARTED TODAY—A deliberate attempt to burn the handsome new colored Memorial school, corner of Albany and I streets, was made at an early hour this morning and had it not been for the fact that some colored residents in the vicinity were awake rather late and observed the flickering lights of the fire the attempt might have proved successful.

            As it was a large hole, probably five feet in diameter, was burned in the floor of the assembly room of the school.  The neighbors who observed the fire sent in an alarm and the fire department responded at once and extinguished the blaze.  An investigation followed and Chief J.H. Harrison stated this morning that the fire was of incendiary origin beyond question.  Wood had been piled in the center of the room and the match applied and the fire was burning into the floor when the department arrived.  It was fortunate that the blaze was observed by neighbors before it had time to gain good headway.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 8 July 1930

Pg. 8 col. 4

Cato Wilson Shoots Wife When She Refuses to Make Up With Him

    Madeline Wilson, a negress about 25 years of age, died at the City hospital early last night from wounds inflicted by her husband, Cato Wilson, Sunday night, and officers are now searching for the negro on a charge of murder.
    The shooting took place at the home of the woman, 1404 Wolf street, at 9:30 o'clock Sunday night.  Wilson left immediately and all efforts to locate him have failed.
    It seems that Wilson and his wife separated in Savannah some time ago, the woman coming to this city, her home, and the husband remaining in Savannah.  Saturday he came here and tried to persuade his wife to return to Savannah with him.  He visited her Sunday and was at the house and, the woman told officers after the shooting, apparently was in a good humor, no quarrel having occurred between them.
    Just as Wilson was ready to leave the house, supposedly to return to Savannah, he drew his revolver.  "Goodbye, I'll meet you in hell," he said, and with that remark fired twice, one of the bullets entering the woman's left shoulder and the other penetrated the small of her back.
    Immediately the negro left the scene, while the woman was carried to the hospital, where it was at once realized that her condition was serious.
    Cato is well known in police circles, having been in jail here on two or three occasions, and officers believe he will be captured within a few days.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 9 July 1930

Pg. 8 col.2


    Police today continued to search for the whereabouts of Cato Wilson, colored, who Sunday night shot and killed his wife Madeline.
    Due to the fact that he is fairly well known in police circles by his past record, Wilson probably will soon be arrested and charged with murder.
    Wilson shot his wife after they had apparently ended a quarrel, which had its beginning in a separation several months ago.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 10 July 1930

Pg. 8, col. 4

    The following is a list of names of babies born in the city and county during the month of June, 1930, who have been properly registered according to the law. If your baby’s name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
    Colored:  Abraham Mollette, Jr., James Ellis, Eddie James Harris, Jr., Shelly Fernack, Bertha Mungin, Barbara Naomi Owens, Mary Whaley, Birdie Vesta Hitchcock, Elmo Lucius Polite, Jr.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 5 November 1931

Pg. 3 col. 5

NEGRO ORDERED HELD—Monroe, Ga., Nov. 5 [illegible] A coroner’s jury here late yesterday ordered Raymond Bloodsaw, negro, held for grand jury investigation in the death of Harold Conner, 20, white, who was run down and killed by an automobile. Opal Jackson, Bloodsaw’s companion, was released on $250 bond. Conner is survived by his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Walter Conner, and four brothers and one sister, all residents of this community.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 2 November 1933

Pg. 8 col. 1


            Glynn county police officers yesterday afternoon swooned down on a moonshine still which was in full operation; steam was pouring from the improvised stack, liquor was flowing through the pipes and into a container and four or five men were busily engaged in its operation. But they hurriedly departed on sight of the officers.
            The raid was made by Chief Godwin and Officer Coleman and the still was located in the Evelyn Plantation enclosure along the Altamaha delta 12 miles from the city. The still, though not an unusually large one, was modern in every respect, and it was steamed up to full capacity when the officers put in their appearance.
The men seen busily engaged around the still made a break when the officers appeared, but two of them were captured, a third, not present, was later arrested, while the officers hope to round up others connected with the still.
            The two men arrested were Howard Barwick and S.O. Jenkins, both of whom live at Dock Junction. They were brought to the city and released on bond.
            The third man arrested was John Rogers, colored, who resides in a house near the still and who is caretaker of the old plantation. Rogers was not present at the time, but was picked up later. He insists he had no connection with the illicit business whatever. He is in jail unable to provide the necessary bond.
            The officers captured 200 gallons of liquor, 1,800 gallons of beer, 18 barrels of mash, which was at the still ready to be run, and 12 additional barrels were located in a nearby barn.
            The still, officers reported, appeared to have been run steadily and it is believed it has been operated on full time since it was installed, thought to have been about two months ago.



The Brunswick News; 12 February 1934


        Four Glynn county negroes were drowned and five others had a narrow escape in a frightful accident late Saturday afternoon when a large automobile in which they were riding crashed through the railing on South Brunswick River bridge, six miles south of the city, and plunged into the icy waters below.
        The four negroes who lost their lives were: Carrie Jackson, George Burns, Horace Lamar and his wife Annie May Lamar. Those who escaped were Jimmie Jackson, husband of one of the drowned woman, Sheppard Maxwell, Clarence Mack, Robert Mack, and Jack Wiggins.
        All of the negroes resided in the Brookman section of the county and they were well known, both by the white and colored residents of that section of the city, and all of them had good reputations.
        The accident was attributed to the wet and slippery condition of the bridge, which was covered with ice as a result of the freeze Saturday. Jimmie Jackson was at the wheel of the large car. The party of negroes had been to Brunswick to do their Saturday shopping and were returning to their homes. Jackson, who owned and who was driving the car, said as he approached the top of the slippery bridge he observed a truck mounting the south end, and he pulled his car slightly to the right to pass the truck. He said the car started to skidding on the icy bridge and he realized he could not apply the brakes, for fear it would wreck the car. He said he endeavored to right the machine, as it whirled from one to the other side of the bridge, but he was unable to control it. When within about 25 feet of the end, he said, the car headed directly into the railing, and crashing it. The big car took a nose dive into the almost frozen waters with its nine passengers.
        There was a wild scramble as the automobile struck the bottom. The front of the machine was submerged, while a portion of the rear protruded from the water. The five negroes who escaped and reached shore extricated themselves with difficulty. Some of them said they cam through the top, others claimed they made their exit through windows, and all insisted it was impossible to open the doors to permit those trapped in the car to escape. Jackson said he was caught under the wheel and that it was some time before he could extricate himself and escape.
        Assistance soon arrived, but it was feared the four missing negroes had been drowned, and there was no way of making an immediate search. A wrecker was summoned to the scene but it was impossible to pull the heavy car from the bottom of the river an dark ended operations until Sunday morning.
        Early yesterday the car was pulled to the banks of the river and a search was made for the missing victims. Carrie Jackson was found in the car, but the other three bodies had floated out. The woman had a death grip on a top post in the car. About noon the bodies of the other three negroes were found. Low water had left them on the river bank near the scene where they lost their lives.
        The five negroes who escaped were not seriously injured. One or two of them received cuts and bruises. Sheppard Maxwell, however, was almost frozen during the time he was in the water, and he suffered to such an extent that he was carried to the City Hospital yesterday for treatment.



The Brunswick News; July 1934


        The following is a list of names of babies born in Brunswick and Glynn county during the month of June 1934, who have been properly registered according to law. If your baby’s name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
Colored—Clarence Green, Dorothy Henrietta Blue, Jeannette Leonard, Vivian Marie Crittenden, Jewel May Streeter, Lamar Jariel Moody, Jr., Theresa Louise Lawrence, Walter Ben Jackson, Ed Bines, Jr.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 10 July 1935

Pg. 8 col. 4

BIRTH STATISTICS—The following is a list of names of babies born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Ga., during the month of June, 1935, who have been properly registered according to law.  If your baby’s name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
            Colored—Lolabell Mack, Elworth Speakman, Vanderline Williams, Helen Geneva Brewer, Fannie Pearl Williams, Eleanor Eugenia Dukes.



Margaret Davis Cate; Record Group 1, Series 1, Folder 126—Negroes
This article clipped from an unnamed newspaper, possibly between 1935-1955.

MOSES DALLAS, NEGRO PILOT, DIED AS CONFEDERATE HERO—Former Slave Guided Raiding Party Under Lieutenant Pelot in Capture of Federal Gunboat “Water Witch” in Ossabaw Sound.

            Capture of the United States gunboat Water Witch by a group of Confederate Navy personnel on the night of June 3, 1864, off the Georgia Coast has been described in the official reports as “the most spirited incident of the last year of the war in Georgia waters.”  The accounts given by the respective commanding officers fully bear out this description.
            The Union gunboat was one of the Unites States Navy’s most popular vessels, a fine side-wheel steamer mounting four guns and having a crew of about eighty.  She had taken upart [sic] in the Paraguay War in 1855 and also in Commodore Hollins’ attack on the Confederate fleet in the Mississippi Passes in October of 1861.  At the time of her capture she was under the command of Lieut. Pendergrast, U.S.N., and was doing blockade duty in Ossabaw Sound between the mouths of the Ogeechee and Vernon rivers.


            A rumor having reached the Confederate command that a federal war vessel was in the lower reaches of the Ogeechee river near the famous Fort McAllister, it was decided to seek her out and to endeavor to take her by surprise.
            To this end seven ship’s boats were manned by fifteen officers and 117 seamen from a Confederate squadron based in the Savannah river who rowed these small crafts to the vicinity of the location of the gunboat.
            The attacking party was under the command of Lieut. Thomas Postell Pelot, of Savannah, who was in boat number one.  With him were the assistant engineer and Moses Dallas, the Negro Pilot, who guided them over the treacherous sandbars successfully and came up with the Union vessel at anchor in Ossabaw Sound.  The night was rainy and very dark, the only illumination coming from the flashes of lightning, but Dallas put the seven small boats alongside the Water Witch without any delay, four on  the starboard side and three on the port.


            The attackers boarded the vessel with difficulty, Dallas being one of those who was shot down before gaining the deck.  Lieut. Pelot and Lieut. Pendergrast were engaged in a duel with sabers when during a very brilliant flash of lightning the paymaster of the gunboat was able to kill Lieut. Pelot with a pistol shot.
            Lieut. Price succeeded to the command when Lieut. Pelot was killed and the commander of the gunboat surrendered the vessel shortly afterwards.  The Confederate lost six killed and twelve wounded.  The Federals lost two killed and twelve wounded.  Only one Federal escaped.  A Negro seaman, named McIntosh, jumped overboard when the fighting began, probably deeming discretion the better part of valor, and swam several miles to Ossabaw Island where he was picked up next day by the U.S.S. Fernandina.


            Lieut. Price’s report of the battle states that since his pilot, Moses Dallas, had been killed he was forced to get one of the ship’s quartermasters to steer the vessel into safer waters of the Vernon river, on account of the danger from recapture by nearby Union war vessels.  This acting pilot ran the ship aground on the Raccoon Key at the height of high tide and Price was forced to jettison many barrels of pork and beef as well as many other supplies which were sorely needed by the Confederates.  The ship was taken up the Vernon river and put under the protecting guns of Beaulieu Battery.  The wounded Union men and the Confederate wounded were sent in to the Savannah hospitals.
            Moses Dallas must have been a resident of the Georgia coastal area since he apparently was so well informed as to the channels of the Vernon and Ogeechee rivers and the sandbars of Ossabaw Sound.  His ability as a pilot was established by his being chosen by Lieut. Pelot to put him aboard the gunboat, and it is likely that had Dallas survived the fighting the ship would not have been grounded on Raccoon Key with the necessary loss of some of the “spoils” of the battle.


            While the Confederates abstained from arming their Negroes there were hundreds of instances where Negroes followed their masters into the armed services and did valiant service as hostlers and cooks.  They were not forced to follow this course but did so on account of the loyalty they felt toward their masters.  Many thousands of the Negroes joined the armed forces of the Federals and were contemptuous of those who sided with the Confederates.  Dallas was a free many by 1864 and was not compelled to act as pilot for the Confederates who captured the Water Witch and must therefore have been urged by some sense of loyalty to the Southern men who had treated him with fairness and consideration.  However, his own people seem never to have sung his praises and but for the reports of the commanding officer of the two naval units involved Dallas would indeed have been an unsung hero.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 29 January 1936

Pg. 8 col. 3

NEGRO IS WOUNDED BY ACCIDENTALLY SHOOTING HIMSELF—Soloman Singleton, colored, is in the City Hospital with a painful and probably serious bullet wound as the result of an accident at his home, 2119 Cochran avenue, today.

            Singleton was accidentally shot by his cousin, Ellis Cash, who was detained by police and released after an investigation.  Singleton, it seems, had an old revolver, which he handed to Cash for examination, when it was accidentally discharged, the bullet entering Singleton’s abdomen.  He was carried to the hospital for treatment, but the full extent of the wound is not yet known.



The Brunswick News; Monday 18 April 1938

Pg. 8, col. 4


        Risley High school, colored, has been placed on the list of accredited negro high schools by the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, it was announced in a letter received today by Supt. Geo. W. Wannamaker from the chairman of the association's committee on approval of negro schools.
        The letter announced that the local negro high school was placed on the list at the recent meeting of the association held in Dallas, Texas.
        This is the first time the negro high school here has attained this high rating and it is a distinct compliment to the principal and teachers at the school, as it is stated requirements for being placed on the list are very strict.  There are not more than a dozen negro high schools in the state that have been given such a high rating.  Improvements of the school building and additions to the curriculum are partly responsible for the placing of the school on the accredited list.
        C.V. Troup, one of the best known negro educators in the state, is the principal of Risley school.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 20 April 1938

Pg. 8 cols. 2-4


          A burglar entered the home of Dr. M.E. Winchester, Glynn county health commissioner, in Windsor Park last night, quietly went to his bedroom and removed his trousers, taking them to the first floor, where he rifled the pockets, securing $50.  While in the bedroom the thief also stole one or two other articles.
          Entrance was made through a window in the rear of the residence.  The thief used matches to find his way about the home, striking them promiscuously on newly painted walls in one or two of the rooms of the residence.
          The robbery was discovered early this morning and police were called.  An investigation revealed that the thief had also endeavored to enter the home of T.H. Missildine, located directly in the rear of the Winchester home, but apparently he was frightened away by a barking dog.  Footprints of a barefooted man were found at windows of the Missildine home.  Back of his garage were found the shoes of the burglar, who evidently removed them before he entered the home of Dr. Winchester and was frightened away by the barking dog before he could secure them after he entered the home.


        The unique Christian record of serviced by Deaconess Anna Alexander, only negro deaconess in the Episcopal church in America, is one which is attracting attention in southeast Georgia, the story being told by the Rev. Howard Harper, rector of Grace Episcopal Church, Waycross, and editor of "The Church in Georgia," published by the Episcopal diocese of Georgia.
        The deaconess is located at Pennick, ten miles north of Brunswick, and has established an unique record during the many years she has been there.
        The Rev. Mr. Harper, having visited the unusual Pennick community, gives the story as follows:
        "Back in the early 1890's a young colored girl, living in the rural district of Pennick, ten miles from Brunswick, felt keenly the need for the Episcopal church among her people.  That girl was Anna Alexander, a school teacher from Darien, who had been baptized and brought up in St. Cyprian's church at Darien.
        "As a result of her work and influence, and Episcopal service was held by a lay reader[?] from St. Athanasius, Brunswick, on September 9, 1894[?], in the Baptist church building.  Early in 1900 Anna opened a school in the same Baptist building, but it was definitely an Episcopal school, in which colored children learned their catechism, church history and the other things which a Christian ought to know and believe to his soul's health.  The soul's health has always been the first concern of Anna Alexander as she has gone about giving her life to the colored people of her section.
        "In September, 1902, the school moved into its present building, built by Anna's own hands.
        "The Church of Good Shepherd building came in 1928[?], and the house in which Anna lived in 19??.  By this time Anna had long (since 1901) been Deaconess Alexander, the only negro deaconess in the American church.
        "The peculiarity of the Pennick community is that it is made up entirely of negro farmers who are not tenants, but who own their own land.  Among these people Deaconess Alexander ministers to forty-five communicants and daily instructs thirty-two children.
        "The contributions of the people in 19?7[?] totaled $??, of which $4? was sent to the general church fund.
        "Sunday services at Good Shepherd are conducted by the Rev. J.G. Perry of St. Athanasius, Brunswick."



The Brunswick News; Thursday 21 April 1938

Pg. 8, col. 2

TWO NEGRO BURGLARS QUICKLY CAPTURED; Police Round Up Pair, One an Escaped Convict, Who Robbed Winchester Home

          Speedy and clever work on the part of the Brunswick police department yesterday afternoon landed in jail two negroes, one of them according to his statement, an escaped convict, who are charged with burglarizing the home of Dr. M.E. Winchester, Glynn county health commissioner, in Windsor Park Tuesday night.
          Police Chief J.E. Register said the negroes were listed as E.J. Hamilton, who said he faced a long chaingang sentence, and Joe Carswell. Both negroes, the chief said, formerly resided in Macon.  Carswell has been in and out of Brunswick for about a year and Hamilton, he told police chief, came here about 10 days ago following his escape from a chaingang at Soperton.
          A valuable wrist watch stolen in the Winchester home was recovered, but the two negroes had only about $2.00 of the money stolen left when they were arrested, Chief Register said.  Dr. Winchester reported that about $35.00 was stolen from his trousers pockets.  The negro, one of the two, who entered the home secured the trousers in the bedroom and carried them to the first floor, leaving them on the kitchen floor after stealing the money and removing the belt.
          An effort to sell the watch to a downtown merchant about 6 o'clock yesterday afternoon resulted in the capture of the two negroes.  The police department had advised all dealers in the city where it was believed an effort would be made to dispose of the watch to be on the lookout for it, and late yesterday Carswell attempted to sell it.  Officers were advised and the negro was captured, and he informed officers where they could locate Hamilton.  He was found in a room occupied by Carswell, and when the officers arrived he was hidden behind a trunk.
          Both negroes deny the robbery of the Winchester home, and each declares the other secured the watch.  Carswell said he knew nothing about it, except that Hamilton gave him the watch to sell, and Hamilton declares the watch was stolen by Carswell.  Chief Register believes both negroes were connected with the burglary, on watching outside while the other entered the residence.
          Hamilton told the police chief he escaped from Soperton about ten days ago.  He was serving a 40 year sentence, having been convicted on two hold-up and one burglary charge, he said.  When arrested Hamilton had on the belt removed from Dr. Winchester's trousers.  Being too large for him, the escaped convict trimmed it down to his size.
          Chief Register is of the opinion that the two negroes are connected with one or two other robberies committed in the city recently, and a further investigation is now in progress.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 10 February 1940

Pg. 8 col. 4


            The following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Georgia, during the month of January, 1940, who have been properly registered according to law.  If your baby’s name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
Colored:  Essie Mae Riley, James Ellis Walker, Gwendolyn Loretta Murphy, Bobbie Sykes, Barbara Marie Miller, Queen Esther Mack, Johnnie Will Crooks, Jr., Elliott McGowen, Jr., Shirley Ann Jackson, James Edward Jaudon, Franklyn David Russell, Carolyn Evangeline Rooks.



The Brunswick News; Friday 29 March 1940

Pg. 6 col. 1


            A hearing on a motion for new trial for George Clayborn, negro, convicted of murder in connection with the slaying of Dr. Charles H. Lee, of Christ church, Frederica, will be resumed before Judge Gordon Knox of Glynn superior court, at Hazlehurst tomorrow, and it is expected a decision will be rendered.
            The hearing was taken up before Judge Knox on Saturday, March 16, and after attorneys for the negro, Farr & Mitchell, of this city, introduced a decision by the United States supreme court, covering what is alleged to be a similar case in Florida in which the lower court was reversed, attorneys asked for a continuance of two weeks in order to secure and study the decision of the high court, and the hearing was recessed until tomorrow.
            The decision, on which now seems to depend the granting of a new trial, granted a new trial to a Florida man on the grounds that he was convicted on statements attributed to him, which, it was alleged, were not freely made and which were secured under duress.
            Attorneys for Clayborn claim the entire verdict in his trial was based upon a series of confessions made by him, and they allege they were secured by cross-examination and under duress. They argued at the previous hearing that the case of the local negro and the case from Florida decided by the high court were similar, and on these grounds they urged that a new trial be granted.
            Attorneys for the state at the time claimed they had not reviewed the decision of the U.S. court in the Florida case. They also contended that confessions and statements of Clayborn were freely made; that he was not cross-examined by officers or others, and that no efforts were made to force him to confess to the murder of the aged island rector.
            Attorneys in the case expressed the opinion today that Judge Knox will render his decision following the hearing tomorrow. It is understood the judge has also reviewed the decision of the U.S. court and is therefore familiar with it. He will probably write his decision at the close of the hearing, it was intimated today.
            If Clayborn is granted a new trial, it is probably it will occur at the regular May session of the local superior court.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 6 April 1940

Pg. 8 col. 3


            Judge Gordon Knox, of Glynn superior court, said over long distance telephone from his home at Hazlehurst today that he would render his decision on Monday or Tuesday on the motion for new trial of George Clayborn, negro, convicted of the murder of Dr. Charles H. Lee, rector of Christ church, Frederica.
            The motion was heard before Judge Knox last Saturday, and he announced at the time his decision would be rendered within ten days. He has been presiding over Camden superior court this week, he said, and had not had time to complete studying the record in the case and writing his decision. He indicated, however, that he was ready to submit his decision and said he would write it within the next couple of days.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 10 August 1940

BIRTH STATISTICS--The following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Georgia during the month of July, 1940, who have been properly registered according to law.  If you baby's name does not appears you should communicate with your physician or the health department.

Colored:  Claudine Mae Cash, William Lee Crittendon, Mary Nell Hardy, Herbert Lee Jackson, Oliva Baker, Leona Luetta Bloodworth, Evelyn Olivia Green, William Theopholus Brown, James Noble, Jr., Bettie Jean Hardee, Emma Mygenia Collins, Billie DeWitt Martin, Marilyn Louise Young.



The Brunswick News; Friday 10 January 1941

Pg. 8, col. 3

BIRTH STATISTICS--The following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Georgia, during the month of December, 1940, who have been properly registered according to law.  If your baby's name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:

Colored:  John Henry Jones, Willie Lee Wright, Gernice Lamar Gamble, Robert Lee Smith, William Jerome Vickers, Janie Lee Massie, Edward Owes, Annie Louise Philson, Zenna Emily Bradley, Joseph Henry Jaudon.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 10 November 1943

Pg. 3 col. 7

BIRTH STATISTICS—The following names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn county during the month of October, 1943, have been properly registered according to law.  If your child’s name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
            Colored—Patricia Ann Hadley, Cary Plummer, Sonya Elaine Haynes, Joe Ann Bethel, Vivian Saunders, Louticia Mae Edwards, Betty Jean Edwards, Doretha Richardson, Lauretia Rovene Bryant, Barbara Jean Gibbs, Charles Edwards Warrens, Charles Otis Kelley, John Lee Singleton, Jr., Robert Burton Cain, Earl Leroy Wilson, Gilbert Davis, Jr., Theodore Roosevelt Kitchen, David Lee Noble, Georgia Elizabeth Golden, Dorothy Louise Baisden, Ozie Lee Evelyn Jones.



The Brunswick News; Friday 10 December 1943

Pg. 8 col. 5

BIRTH STATISTICS—The following list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn County, Georgia, during the month of November, 1943, have been properly registered according to law.  If your child’s name does not appear you should consult your family physician or the health department.
            Colored—Robert Edward Lee; Majorie Beatrice Hunter; Louise Cornelia Wynn; Rosa Lee Mangram; LaVerne Tillman Jones; Marian Luvenia Strickland; Henry Tresvant, 3rd; Patricia Ann Stephens; Evelyn Royal; Vivian Lennette Carr; John Gibson Tresvant; Joe Melvin Heath.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 11 January 1944

Pg. 8 col. 4

BIRTH STATISTICS—The following list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn county, Georgia, during the month of December, 1943, have been properly registered according to law.  If your child’s name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department:
            Colored—Robert Wesley Thompson; Bettie Gene Oglesby; Robert Corbit Baisden; Fred Morgan, Jr.; John Ivory Merrell; Margaret Elizabeth Jordan; Herbert Williams; John Wesley Johnson; Minnie Lee Alston; Herbert Floyd, Jr.; Viola May Bens; Rose Marie Walker; Tommie Lee Herring; Janie Delores Street; Bobby Jean Cobb; Edna Mae Mathis; Betty Jean Franklyn; Freddie Paul Wesley; Marian Lula Ford; Marvin Lucius Ford.



The Brunswick News; Monday 20 November 1944

Pg. 8 col. 2-4


            Another murder was entered on Glynn county’s criminal record early Sunday morning when one Negro is reported by police to have stabbed another to death.
            LeRoy Pound is the Negro who lost his life, and Joe Robinson is held in jail on a murder charge.  The difficulty occurred on L street shortly after 2:30 o’clock Sunday.
            Police have not completed the investigation, but they have ascertained it seems as if Robinson was standing on L street, when Pound approached him.  The latter was said to have been mumbling, probably talking to himself, when according to the police record, Robinson jumped on him.  He wielded a knife, and inflicted several gashes, one of which was fatal.  Pound lived for only a short time.
            Whether the two Negroes had had a previous altercation is not known.  An investigation of the tragedy is being continued.


            City Police Officer W.T. Smith was painfully but not seriously stabbed Saturday afternoon when he attempted to arrest Julius Green, colored, on Monk, near Oglethorpe street.
            The police officer had been called to the scene to investigate a motor accident, and he was informed that a negro, under the influence of whiskey, was causing a disturbance down the street.  Officer Smith went to investigate, and when he approached Green the negro had a knife in his hand and immediately attacked the officer.  He inflicted wounds about the shoulder, on the arm and in the back.  The negro then attempted to escape.
            Officer Ross Edwards arrived at the scene about that time, and arrested the negro before he could get away.  The officers reported that while he was drinking, the negro was not drunk.



The Brunswick News; Monday 2 July 1945

Pg. 8 cols. 4 & 5

NEGRO USED BIG PIECE OF LUMBER TO KILL ANOTHER—Eddie Baker, local negro, is dead, and police are searching for Daris Cooper, also colored, who is wanted on a murder charge in connection with the slaying of the former Saturday night.
            Cooper is said to have used a piece of two by five lumber, five feet long, to deliver a death blow to Baker.
            According to a police report of the tragedy, the two negroes started a fight about 10 o’clock Saturday night at Monk and Wolf streets.  Discontinuing the battle for a few minutes they walked up to Monk and Albany streets, where the fight was resumed.  Police were told that Cooper administered a terrific glow with the large piece of lumber, inflicting a long and wide cut in Baker’s head.  The injured negro was carried to the City Hospital where he died Sunday morning.  Cooper made his get-away after striking Baker, police said.
            The tragedy was investigated by officers Burch, Branch and Berhard.

NEGROES STABBED IN 4-MAN BATTLE—Two negroes were stabbed, one of them seriously, in a four-man battle on Monk street Saturday.

            Police said Louis Cuthbert, Harry Warts and Lonnie Proudfoot were fighting Angus Young at Luke Miller’s place.  Cuthbert is alleged to have drawn a knife during the melee and stabbed Young, whereupon the latter drew a knife and also wielded it, stabbing Cuthbert in the side, but not seriously.  He was treated at the City Hospital and then placed in jail, as were the other principals, except Young, who is still in the hospital.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 20 February 1947

Pg. 8 cols. 4 & 5


            A local negro, William Henry Morrison, whose father has been employed at the Brunswick Marine Construction Company for the past 30 years, has attained considerable note in the field of popular music, it has been learned here.
            Morrison, who was born and grew up in Brunswick, later studied music in New York, and more lately played in several orchestras, including the well-known bands of Louis Armstrong and Cab Calloway.  Under the name “Chick” Morrison, the negro musician, who plays the drums, has recently organized and is leading his own band, and is currently being featured at New York City’s Café Zanzibar.
            He has made a number of recordings of popular songs which are being distributed throughout the country by record manufacturers.
            One of Chick’s popular recordings will be played during the recorded program over Radio Station WMOG tomorrow afternoon between 1 and 1:30 o’clock.


            City Police are holding a 25-year-old colored woman listed as Jewel Wiggins on a charge of assault with intent to murder following her arrest Tuesday night in connection with the stabbing of Fred Williams, colored.
            Officers Ben Bruns and J.C. Harris said the stabbing occurred at the Tick-Tock Café at 1604 Albany street, and that Williams was taken to the hospital suffering a knife wound in the chest.  The Wiggins woman was also a defendant in a disorderly conduct charge at a Police Court hearing yesterday in which several negroes were arrested for being disorderly in “The Good Shepherd’s Rest,” former headquarters of “Reverend Gibson,” who left Brunswick after several encounters with local police several months ago.
            A white woman who said she is the wife of a sailor aboard a Navy ship formerly stationed here, was charged with reckless driving, being drunk, and getting into a fight wit another woman prisoner after being place in jail.  She was sentenced to pay fines totaling $100 or serve 60 days in jail.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 11 June 1947

Pg. 8 col. 5


            The following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn County, Georgia, during the month of May 1947, who are properly registered according to law.  If you [sic] baby’s name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the health department.
Colored—Vivian Louise Jones, Katharene Louise Demery, Ruth Wing, Ruby Wing, William Philmore, Jr., Catharine Miller, George Elwood Florence, Theophilus Herrington, Mary Louise Holmes, Harold Sams, Willie James McMullen, Dan Delano Franklin, Tommie Dunham, Jr., Viola Jean King, Barbara Jean Jackson, Helen Ruth Burns, Isaac Thomas Mungin.



The Brunswick News; Friday 11 July 1947

Pg. 8 cols. 1 & 2

[Article is VERY hard to read—ALH] 

SIX NEGRO CONVICTS KILLED AT LOCAL CAMP—Seven others injured by guards who open fire when prisoners attempt to make escape. 

            Superior Court Judge Gordon Knox telephoned The News this afternoon that he had called the Glynn county grand jury to convene at 10 o’clock Wednesday morning to investigate the killing of six prisoners and the wounding of seven others at the nearby state prison camp yesterday afternoon.
            Judge Knox said the last grand jury had not been discharged, but had been excused subject to call.
            When Warden H.G. Worthy of the State Highway Camp No. 18 strode into a group of unruly negro convicts about 8:30 o’clock yesterday afternoon, Willie Bell, a long-timer and reported trouble-maker, lunged at him.  The warden shot Bell with his pistol, and immediately half a dozen other armed prison guards opened fire on the convicts with shotguns and pistols.
            A few second later the firing had ceased and five of the colored convicts lay dead, eight others were wounded, one dying during the night at the city hospital.  Bell received only a minor wound in the leg.
            Witnesses said at the first shot by Warden Worthy, the prisoners broke in all directions, men scrambling over the nearby bunk house.  Three of the dead negroes lay where they fell in front of the bunk house.  Another was killed under the house and had to be dragged out, and the fifth managed to crawl under the house to a 10-foot wire fence on the other side.  He was shot climbing the fence and fell dead on the outside.
            The wounded lay where they fell, some under the bunk house building, others sprawled in front of it.  Fourteen of the group of 27 prisoners in the group were not hit  by the bullets and crouched or lay still on the ground as guards rounded them up and herded them into the bunk house.
            Events followed in rapid-fire order when news of the shootings was telephoned out to newspapers an hour and a half later.  The Association for the Advancement of Colored People, through its local chapter, engaged Attorney C.J. Cogdell, and is demanding a full investigation.  The solicitor general will be called on to investigate, and Judge Gordon Knox will be [illegible] to convene a special session of the grand jury Monday.  Mr. Cogdell also said he would ask the Georgia Bureau of Investigation to investigate.
            The association also expects to call on the U.S. District attorney and Attorney General Tom Clark to look into the matter.  Telephone calls to the convict camp, to local county police, and to newspaper men[?] in Brunswick came last night from three major news services, the AP, the UF, the INS, and from such newspapers as PM, the New York Daily News, the Chicago Tribune, and other papers including one in Philadelphia.
            Coroner J.D. Baldwin began the investigation today with an inquest.  Attorney Vance Mitchell was on hand when the coroner’s jury convened., stating that he represented Warden Worthy and the state.
            The prison camp is located near Anguilla, about 12 miles from Brunswick.  All ambulances in Brunswick and several doctors were summoned to the camp immediately after the shooting to treat the wounded.  There are about 75 convicts, all colored, in the camp, who work on highway maintenance in gangs of varying numbers.
            Warden Worthy said he had received a group of new prisoners yesterday, mostly long-timers who had been making trouble.  He said when the men returned to the stockade yesterday afternoon they were cursing and refused to obey orders.  He then summoned help from county police, he said, and County Chief Russell B. Henderson and two county officers came to the camp to stand by.
            The group of prisoners was standing near the door to the bunk house, he said, and refused to line up as ordered, or obey other orders of the guards and warden.  When Chief Henderson arrived he said he talked to the prisoners and told them to do what the warden said.  He said Willie Bell did most of the talking and cursing, and the warden entered the group to get Bell out and away from the other prisoners.
            “I warned them not to put their hands on the warden because we would be playing for keeps,” he said, “Then when Capt. Worthy walked in among them, Bell lunged at him and the shooting started, it all happened so quick it was hard to see what took place. The shooting was over in what seemed like no time.”
        Chief Henderson who was armed with a sub-machine gun said he held his fire, and that numbers of the county police who were there did not fire either. The prisoners were unarmed except for a few short pieces of rod and a hickory stick.
        The bunk house, before which the men were standing, is about 100 feet long and 25 feet wide and is set on pillows almost two feet above the ground. Apparently many of the prisoners scrambled under the bunk house either in an effort to escape or to avoid the fire of guards.
        Attracted by the ambulances and early reports of the shooting, several hundred people converged at the camp a little later in automobiles, curious to see what had caused the excitement. County police and prison guards kept most of the people outside the stockade gates.
        Warden Worthy refused to permit news cameramen to take any pictures inside the stockade. Later when Coroner Baldwin arrived, after the wounded men had been picked up an taken to the hospital in ambulances, the coroner said that pictures could be taken, and the photographers were permitted to take pictures of the scene.
        H.B. Duvalt
[?] of Atlanta, convict supervisor of the state highway department, arrived here this morning to confer with Warden Worthy and get the official report of the incident.
        The warden said he pleaded with the prisoners for nearly an hour to obey his orders before county police arrived, but the men only cussed and threatened him


            Warden H.G Worthy listed the following as the five convicts who were killed by guards yesterday afternoon at State Highway Camp 18 near Anguilla.
            Jonah Smith, Fulton county, sentenced to 28 years in 1938 for burglary.  Five previous escapes.
            Henry Manson, Colquitt county, sentenced to 26 years in 1945 for breaking and entering.  Three previous escapes.
            Willie Wright, Fulton county, sentenced to 12 to 15 years in 1944 for burglary and grand larceny.  One previous escape.
            James Smith, Fulton county, sentenced to 15 years in 1942 for burglary.  Two previous escapes.
            George Patterson, Fulton county, sentenced to three to seven years in 1943, charge unlisted.
            Edward Neal, the sixth, from Fulton county, died last night at the hospital.  He was serving a one to tow year term for robbery and a five year stabbing sentence.
            Two of the wounded were taken to jail after being treated at the hospital.  Those who remained at the hospital were listed as:
            West Johnson, Willie Frank Chambers, Ben Stephens, Willie Brooks, and Ben Benford.  Their records were not available immediately.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 29 October 1947

Pg. 8 col. 1 & pg. 3 col. 5


            The State Board of Corrections today was granted temporary use of the former Glynn county stockade, scene of the July 11 slayings of eight negro prisoners, to house convict laborers who will work on Jekyll Island.
            Charles A. Williams, state director of corrections, announced at the same time in a letter to the county commission that the Board of Corrections plans to establish a permanent camp on the island for its upkeep.  Only convicts with meritorious conduct records will be placed there, he said.
            In approving the reopening of the Anguilla camp at a called meeting the commission in its unanimously adopted resolution declared that it was untrue that “permanent re-establishment is contemplated.”
            The resolution specifies that “certain white prison labor only will be made promptly available to do the necessary work on the magnificent Jekyll Island Park facility prior to the scheduled opening of January 1.”
            Commissioners also voted to permit the Board of Corrections to remove needed equipment from the Anguilla stockade when facilities for a permanent camp on Jekyll Island are available.
            Occupancy of the stockade by Jekyll convict workers is expected to begin in the immediate future.
            Mr. Williams informed the commission that a personal survey of the island facilities had convinced him that it would be impractical to quarter prison laborers there before a permanent camp can be constructed.  The chief factor against such a step at the present time, he said, are that relatives of the convicts would be unable to visit them and no adequate medical attention could be given.
            Member of a negro delegation that protested reopening of the camp when the issue was discussed in a commission session Saturday appeared at the meeting today and registered their approval of the action permitting a temporary use of the stockade to quarter white prisoners only.
            They had objected saying reestablishment of the camp would create a “feeling of insecurity” and might precipitate another incident like that of July 11 when eight negroes were killed in an alleged escape.
            In addressing remarks to members of the delegation Commissioner Ray Whittle emphasized that the reopening would not be permanent and billeting of the convicts on the island is not feasible at the present time.
            Whereas the slain negro convicts were subject to State Highway Department, employee[?], the white prisoners to be used in developing Jekyll Island will be under the supervision of trained Board of Correction guards.
            The commissioners resolution declares, “In granting this particular request of the Board of Corrections, the county commission wishes to emphasize its determination to extend all possible assistance to the state in promptly making the Jekyll Park attraction fully available to the public.”
            In answer to the question of using only free labor the resolution points out it is the responsibility of the Board of Corrections that “prisoners are usefully worked on public properties during the period of their discharge of their debt to society.”



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 4 November 1947

Pg. 8 col. 1

NEGRO’S DEATH TO BE INVESTIGATED—An inquest into the death of an elderly negro, who was struck by an automobile on Glynn avenue Sunday afternoon, will be held at 8 a.m.[?] Saturday.

            Major Holmes, the car victim, died at the City Hospital yesterday less than 24 hours after he was hit.
            Ernest Graves, driver of the automobile which knocked the negro’s body into the air before it fell to the pavement, has been charged with reckless driving and retained on a $300[?] bond.



The Brunswick News; Monday 11 April 1949

Pg. 3 col. 2


            Oliver Alexander, 23-year-old negro, was held today on a charge of cow stealing, County Police Chief W.H. Norris reported.
            Chief Norris said Paul Nobles, another negro, who lives in the Pennick section, discovered yesterday afternoon that his month-old calf had been butchered in the woods near his home.
            Investigating officers searched Alexander’s house and found the beef there, Chief Norris said.
            Cow stealing is a felony offense.



The Brunswick News; Monday 20 March 1950

Pg. 10 col. 3


            A negro was seriously injured but six other negro boys escaped unhurt when a truck overturned on State Highway 99 near Sterling yesterday afternoon, Glynn Police Chief W.H. Norris reported.
            The injured man was Arthur Lee Best of Needwood, driver of the truck.
            Chief Norris said Best and the six negro boys, ranging in ages from six to thirteen were riding towards Sterling at a moderate rate of speed.  Suddenly the wheels rolled into a soft bed of sand, and Best lost control of the vehicle.
            As the truck overturned, the driver was hurtled upon the ground, and the machine toppled over on him.  At the same time the negro boys were thrown clear of the wreckage.
            An ambulance was called, Chief Norris said, and Best was taken to City Hospital, where he is believed to be suffering from internal injuries.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 11 July 1950

Pg. 3 col. 3


            The following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn county during the month of June, 1950, who have been properly registered according to law.  If your child’s name does not appear, you should communicate with your physician or the health department.
            Colored—Margaret Weems, Peggy Davis Cohen, Alford Bowe, Harriett Rosetta Carroll, Delores Jones, Patricia Diane Jones, Irene Mangram, Richard Porter Cooper, Bertie Mae Pasco, Gerald LaVerne Lawrence, Sallie Ann Life, Herbert Lee Chapple, Samuel George Allen, Paul Jerome Lawrence, Jaunita Stephens, Hubert Washington, Harold Washington, Sandra Faye Johnson, Melvin Gordon Smith, Willie Frances Kitchen, Gloria Dianne Sullivan, Shirley Marie Bacon.



The Brunswick News; Thursday 07 June 1951

Pg. 14 col. 2

THEFT ON RIVER BANK—Fishing Trip Eventful; No Thanks to Fish

            Jud Branch of 2518 Wolf Street a Brunswick Negro, can talk about an eventful fishing trip that he had yesterday, but take note that the fish contributed nothing to the excitement.
            On the contrary, he hardly had arrived at a point on the bank of the Altamaha river in the vicinity of Everett City when his equipment and other possessions were stolen.
            Charged with larceny in connection with the theft, county police reported, is another Negro, 23 year-old Oliver Alexander of the Pennick community.
            Police said Branch encountered Alexander when he was walking to the Altamaha and spoke to him. Alexander told him he was hunting.
            Branch proceeded to the river and deposited his possessions on the bank. He went off for a few minutes, and when he returned, they were missing.
            Police said he suspected Alexander of the theft and did nothing more than come back to Brunswick, where he signed a warrant charging the young Pennick Negro with larceny.
            The missing articles, valued at $71, were a watch, fishing line, driver’s license, artificial bait, billfold, $8 in cash and a tackle box.
            The warrant was turned over to county police and they aroused Alexander at 5 o’clock this morning. Officers said with little ado he took them to a point in the woods where he had buried some of the missing articles.
            Subsequently he was placed in the county jail.
            Police said Alexander was arrested in 1948 on a charge of burglary in connection with the theft of clothes and in 1949 on a charge of stealing cows.



The Brunswick News; Monday 3 November 1952

Pg. 12 col. 1


            A 28-year-old Negro is being held by city police on charges of murdering another Negro, Delma Conaway, during an argument Saturday night, according to Chief J.E. Register.
            Henry Lee Blue is charged with fatally wounding Conaway with four shots from a .22 caliber weapon during an argument at 1919 Gordon Street.
            The Negro was turned over to local law enforcement officers yesterday by an uncle who resides in the Needwood community, the chief said.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 23 February 1953

Pg. 8 col. 5


            A 25-year-old Negro woman is being held by county police on charges of critically wounding Willie Mathews, 29, Negro, at a colored night spot on the Jesup Highway early today.
            Willidene Mathews, 25, 1711 G street, is accused of cutting Mathews with a switch blade at about 2 a.m. today, according to Chief O.E. Burch.
            Mathews, who lives at 1925 Albany street, is reported in fair condition at City Hospital.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 26 September 1953

Pg. 8 col. 6


            Funeral services for a colored resident here today went through as planned, with the aid of boats.
            Those attending the services, held at a home facing the railroad tracks east of Albany and south of Prince Street, were taken to and from the home by boat.  Water surrounded the entire block.
            It was also planned to remove the casket from the home by boat at the time of burial.



The Brunswick News; Monday 28 September 1953

Pg. 10 col. 6


            Funeral services for a colored woman, Daisy Williams, where held yesterday, but burial had to be delayed until today.  The grave couldn’t be dug previously because of heavy rains.
            The procession went to the cemetery at Spring Bluff before it was found that the ground was too soupy to dig.  The grave was dug today by walling the ground.



The Brunswick News; Monday 9 August 1954

Pg. 12 col.  & pg. 3 col. 2

FIRE BURNS OUT RISLEY HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING—Smoke Overcomes fireman As Flames Win Long Fight [Photo of building included with original article—ALH]

            Raging flames destroyed the Risley High School building this morning despite a desperate battle by firemen to halt the blaze.
            Heavy smoke poured from the windows of the 400 pupil building in the earlier stage of the hours-long losing battle put up by the firemen and a fireman was overcome by it when he entered despite the protection of a gas mask.  D.M. (Buck) Haddock was carried from the building by fellow firemen and rushed to the Brunswick hospital by an ambulance where he was reported to be in good condition.
            Towering flames burst through the roof of the school as the fire gained headway and poured form opened windows.  Later the roof began falling in and finally the floor of the second floor collapsed.  Large crowds gathered to watch the battle.
            Four fire engines were dispatched to the scene by the city Fire Department and a truck of the Atlantic Sign Company, operated by Bill Peek, arrived to provide needed assistance with a hydraulic telescope ladder.  A fire truck from Glynco arrived by 11 o’clock in answer to a call for help from County School Superintendent R.E. Hood, but its assistance was not needed.  Fire chief J.W. Greenfield directed the fire-fighting operations.  Fire hoses were strung around the building like spaghetti and five were often in operation at the same time but low water pressure hampered the firemen’s efforts.
            By 11:30 o’clock the building was gutted with only the walls left standing, and these were cracked in places from the tremendous heat.
            Mr. Hood said this school building was covered by $75,000 insurance.  He added the building probably could be repaired for that amount.  It was expected that damage to the first floor was mostly water damage and that this part of thee building could be repaired.  In any case the walls were still standing and the two ends of the building seemed not to have suffered much damage.
            A place for pupils who attend the school will be found somehow, Mr. Hood said, and plans still call for them to start to school Sept. 1.
            Possibilities on handling the 400 students without classrooms include the utilization of nearby churches and the gym.  The building will be rebuilt as quickly as possible, Mr. Hood predicted.
            Smoke was reported coming from the school building at 8:40 a.m. and the first fire truck was dispatched immediately.  A second truck sped to the scene at 8:50 o’clock and a third and fourth went at 9:20 o’clock and 10:25 o’clock respectively.
            The fire apparently started in a chemical store room downstairs next to the science room and broke through the ceiling into the second floor.  Its origin could not be immediately determined.  When the firemen first arrived heavy smoke was pouring from the windows but no flames were visible outside.
            Gaining headway, however, the flames spread through the upper north wing and at 10:15 o’clock burst through the roof and blazed with tremendous heat.  Working its way down the length of the building in the face of the firemen’s hoses, the blaze destroyed the entire roof and at 10:50 o’clock burst through to the lower floor with renewed fury.
            Efforts in the latter stages of the battle were directed towards saving the walls of the building but these began cracking in several places.

[Photo Caption—GRAPHIC PICTURE TELLS THREE STORIES—As today’s fire raked through the second story of the Risley Negro High School building, gutting the structure, a News photographer obtained this three-story-in-one view.  The flames are shown eating their way towards the south end of the building at the left, after gutting the north end.  The picture was made from the rear of the Albany Street building, erected 20 years ago with a PWA grant.  The second story is the problems of school officials, already deep in a building expansion program for Negro students here.  In the right foreground are seen R.E. Hood, county superintendent (right), architect J.L. Robeson, and school board business manager J.M. Hodges (left), discussing replacement plans.  The third story is the contribution by Bill Peek of the Atlanta Sign Company of the hydraulic mobile extension ladder, owned by his firm and seen in use dangerously close to the fire.  The local fire department is without such equipment.]



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 27 December 1955

Pg. 8 col. 6

PATROL REPORTS FOUR DEAD, 12 INJURED IN AREA—Figures Added to State Totals From Only Two Wrecks

            Word of four highway fatalities and 12 injuries was forwarded by the state patrol station here today for statewide accident tabulation of the extended Christmas weekend.
            The deaths and injuries, Trooper C.H. Farrar said, mounted from only two accidents within the Brunswick station’s four-county area.
            Catherine White, 31, colored, of 2310 Albany Street, was fatally injured when her car was involved in a head-on collision on U.S. Highway 17, Blythe Island, late Friday.
            In a second wreck, Grant Baxter Hill, 29, of Rt. 3, Jesup, (formerly of Brunswick) Betty Daniels, 10, and her brother, Luther Daniels Jr., 16, of Screven, were killed at the intersection of Georgia 169 and the Pine Street Extension, less than one mile north of Jesup. The Jesup accident occurred at 5 p.m. Saturday.
            Troopers reported Mr. Hill was traveling north in a 1949 model car on Georgia 169 at the time. According to a witness in the car behind Mr. Hill’s, the Daniels car came from the south and struck Mr. Hill’s vehicle broadside, W.E. Bland, Madray Springs, told investigating troopers, young Daniels appeared to have run a stop sign.
            Injured were Mrs. J.L. Daniels, mother of the driver, and the car-owner, O.M. Goff, also of Screven. Both were reported taken to McCreny’s Hospital in Jesup with head injuries. Mr. Goff being in critical condition. Mr. Hill was traveling alone. Both cars were demolished, troopers said.
            In the Blythe Island accident, each car carried large families bound for Christmas gatherings. The southbound car was driven by C.G. Bowen, Florence, S.C., who suffered chest injuries. Mr. Bowen was described as being in fairly good condition today by Brunswick hospital attendants. His wife who broke both legs and suffered chest injuries, was said to be in poor condition.
            Pearl Bowen, 15, a daughter, received an eye injury, while another daughter, Martha Ann, 12, suffered head injuries. The conditions of both were termed good. A third girl in the car, Jeanette Bunch, 14, also of Florence, received a broken wrist. Her condition, too, was termed good.
            Earl White, colored, driver of the second car, was in fair condition today recovering from chest injuries. The four White children were also described as being in fair condition at the Brunswick hospital. Catherine White, 13, had a fractured right thigh, Lavonia White, 9, head injuries, James White, 8, face, head and thigh injuries, and Kenneth, 7, various injuries.
            Aaron Malacow, Nixon, N.J., told county police White started around his truck-trailer and met the Bowen car head-on. Damage in both fatal accidents was estimated at $1,600 by the state patrol.
            On the state level 21 persons lost their lives in traffic accidents during the weekend, giving Georgia a year’s toll of 1,013 highway fatalities this year with five days still remaining in 1955. The toll is record-breaking, having already surpassed by five the previous record set in 1952.



The Brunswick News; Monday 12 March 1956

Pg. 10 cols. 1 & 2


          The following is a list of names of children born in Brunswick and Glynn County, Georgia, during the month of February, 1956, who have been properly registered according to law.  If your child's name does not appear you should communicate with your physician or the Health Department.

Colored ATKINSON, Clinton Lavesta; JACKSON, Cleo Rosa Lee; BACON, Gloria Ann; JONES, Yolanda Sabrina; BROWN, Deborah Dianne; McKNIGHT, Rogers Henry; CANNON, Ruthe Mae; MORTEN, Larry Lawrence; COOPER, Edwin Jerome; MURRAY, Ronald Leon; DAVIS, Gwennesse Leon; THOMAS, Reena Lynett; DAVIS, Irma Beatrice; THOMPSON, Janet; DUDLEY, Gwendolyn Lawana; WASHINGTON, Philip Leon; EVANS, John Westley Jr.



The Brunswick News; Monday 7 November 1958

Pg. 10 cols. 2 & 3


            A five-year-old K Street girl received minor injuries Saturday night when she darted in front of an oncoming car and was knocked to the ground, police reported.
            Elender Shaw, colored, of 1707 K Street ran across L St. at the Lee St. intersection.  A car driven by William L. Echols of Jacksonville skidded about 30 feet before hitting the child, police said.


            Jimmy Riley and his musicians packed their empty instrument cases, picked up their marbles and left the King and Prince Hotel during the weekend.
            It was the Riley group who was victimized June 5 when burglars removed their instruments from the patio storage hall.  The only sign of the night-time intruders was a warped string bass fiddle that floated onto the shore the next day.  All else had vanished in the musical mystery.
            Gone out with the tide, so far as anyone knows, were a saxophone, violin, clarinet, cymbals and drum accessories in addition to the fiddle.  Total value was put at more than $1,000.
            Gadi Timers, hotel manager, toasted the generosity of local musicians who by lending their instruments permitted the Riley combo to go on the very next night.  To the average listener there was no noticeable change in the group’s performance, he said.  But all that is water under the fiddle.



The Brunswick News; Monday 19 November 1962

Pg. 12 cols. 2-3


            Authorities today were flooded with inquiries from Negro couples interested in adopting a newborn colored infant found abandoned in a housing project trash can yesterday.  The infant was believed only two hours old when found.
            The infant’s crying attracted the attention of Eddie Brantley, Negro, 74 Brooklyn Homes, as he walked along Albany Street near the McIntyre Court colored housing project, according to Officer Bruno Lewallen.
            Brantley followed the sound until he reached a row of four cans behind one of the project buildings.  He removed the lid and found the baby beneath a bag of garbage.  Officer Lewallen reported.  The infant, a boy, was stuffed into a paper bag.
            Officers E.W. Butler and J.L. Fountain, first to reach the scene, wiped the infant clean of coffee grounds, egg shells and potato peelings and summoned an ambulance.
            The four pound, eight-ounce baby was reported in good condition after an examination at the Brunswick hospital.
            Meanwhile, police hunted for clues to the mother’s identity.  Chief Rex Deaver indicated a suspect had been uncovered by coluored [sic] policemen and may be arrested for questioning today.
            Juvenile Court authorities said several couples have been given questionnaires leading to possible adoption of the infant, labeled “Baby X” at the hospital.  Police said telephones have been flooded with inquiries.
            Chief Deaver said misdemeanor charges of neglect and abandonment plus a possible attempted murder charge will be filed against the mother if she is found.
            Joining the investigation was officer J.M. Turner.



The Brunswick News; Friday 22 October 1965

Pg. 5 col. 7


            A 67-year-old Brunswick Negro escaped with only a small head laceration and a bruised shoulder last night when a train struck and shoved his auto 138 feet down the tracks at the L Street and Cochran Avenue grade crossing, city police reported.
            Henry Ernest Dent, of 1009 I St., was treated at the Brunswick hospital for his injuries after the Southern Railway System train operated by George W. Brown of Brunswick struck Dent’s 1957 model auto in its side about 7:30 p.m., according to officers W.R. King and R.L. Rhodes.
            Brown told police that he sounded his southbound engine’s horn twice as he noticed the headlights of Dent’s auto approaching the crossing from the east, but that Dent apparently was not trying to stop his car and it continued on into the path of the engine. Dent said .he saw the train about the time he heard the horn, police records show.
            Damage to the auto was put at $500, and to the locomotive, $75.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 20 December 1969

Pg. 3 col. 3


            Thomas E. McCloud, son of Raymond McCloud, of Brunswick, was among the 75 doctoral candidates who received their Ph.D. degrees from Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich., this week.
            McCloud graduated from Risley High School. He received his B.S. and M.A. degrees from the University of Illinois, and earned his doctorate at Wayne State in the field of evaluative research.



The Brunswick News; Monday 14 December 1970

Pg. 9A col. 5


            Mr. and Mrs. Deston Cohen announce the engagement of their daughter, Miss Patricia Ann Cohen, to Lee James Armstrong, Jr., son of Mrs. Ruby Armstrong of Townsend and of the late Lee J. Armstrong Sr.
            The bride-elect is the granddaughter of Mr. and Mrs. George Carmenar of Brunswick and of Mrs. Alice Cohen and the late Culliar [sic] Cohen White of Oke [sic].
            Her fiancé is the grandson of Mrs. Bessie Proctor and the late Ruben Mofell of Crescent.
            Miss Cohen is a 1970 graduate of Glynn Academy and is a freshman at Fort Valley State College.
            Mr. Armstrong graduated form Risley High School in 1967 and attended Brunswick Junior College. He is stationed with the U.S. Navy in Bainbridge, Md.
            A Christmas day wedding is planned at two o’clock at the Pillar and Ground of Truth Church. Friends and relatives are invited.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 23 February 1971

Pg. 12 cols. 3 & 4


            Born during the turbulent years following the War Between the States, Emma Jenkins, daughter of slaves owned by Glynn County families, yesterday celebrated her 100th birthday.
            She passed the century mark at the Goodwill Nursing Home here with a small party arranged by the Glynn County Department of Family and Children Services.
            Lorna Spivey of the DFCS carried a three-tiered birthday cake and a corsage to the nursing home, where Miss Jenkins opened presents honoring her attainment of the century mark.
            Miss Jenkins was born in Beaufort, S.C. of parents originally from Brunswick who had been taken to Beaufort by Union Soldiers.
            Her mother, Roxie Anne McHaley Jenkins, was owned by the Burnette [sic] family and her father George Jenkins, was owned by the duBignon family here.
            Miss Jenkins and her two sisters and one brother were all born in Beaufort, and when she was two years old, the family returned to Brunswick, where her father purchased a plot of land on Brooklyn St. or what is now known as I and Bartow Sts.
            The centenarian said when she grew up she bought a piece of land at F St and Norwich Lane.
            Miss Jenkins went to work for Mrs. Mary Francis at the age of 14 years, she said, and was head cook in Mrs. Francis’ boarding house for men working in an acid plant and the ship yard here.
            She recalls getting up at 4 a.m. to get “short orders” ready for the men because they did not come to the boarding house for lunch.
            She also served as a maid in the old Oglethorpe Hotel for seven years and eight months with the main duty of taking care of 19 rooms on the second floor.
            After her job with the hotel, Miss Jenkins did “day jobs” and retired from active work at the age of 67.
            She said she lived alone most of her life, but when she lost her eyesight and no longer could take care of herself, was admitted to the Goodwill Nursing Home in 1963.
            At her birthday party yesterday she was wishing everyone else well, and hoping all her friends would also reach their 100th birthday.
            When asked to what she attributed her long life, the 100-year-old Negro woman replied “I’ve just suffered through”.
            She added though, “Good health has helped a lot.” She also said she has quite a few good years left.
            Miss Jenkins, though blind and unable to walk, talks with clarity, and has adequate hearing to carry on a coherent conversation. Her memory is extremely good.



The Brunswick News; Saturday 29 April 1972

Pg. 14 col. 6


            Three local men are dead today, and another hospitalized with multiple broken bones as a result of an early morning two-car collision on the F.J. Torras Causeway.
            City police said Lester Grovner, 29, of 3019 Amherst St., Dennis C. Williams, Jr., 28 of 1826 Lee St., and Timothy Hillery, 25, of 2212 Wolf St. were dead on arrival at the Brunswick hospital early this morning.
            Grovner was driver of the car in which three men were riding when it was struck in the front by a vehicle operated by 23 year old Steve R. Anderson of Glynnvilla Apts. according to police reports.
            Police said the Grovner vehicle was traveling east on the causeway and the Anderson auto was traveling west.
            According to police reports, the Anderson vehicle left approximately 129 feet of skid marks before crossing the center line into the path of the Grovner car.
            Police said after the collision Anderson’s vehicle caught fire.  Anderson was thrown a few feet from the burning vehicle they said.
            Police estimate $2,150 damage to the Grovner vehicle and $1,895 to the Anderson automobile.
            Anderson is reportedly in “fairly good” condition at the Brunswick hospital.
            Police offered no explanation as to why Anderson might have skidded into the other lane.



The Brunswick News; Monday 1 May 1972

Pg. 1A col. 1 & pg. 5A col. 2


            Seventeen persons died in accidents during the weekend in Georgia, all of them in traffic.
            A head-on collision on Interstate 95 at College Park killed two persons Sunday night.  Police identified the victims as Lonnie L. Waller, 19 and eight months old Demitrion Brown.
            Another College Park accident killed Stephen M. Griffith, 22, Saturday.  Police said his car collided with an earth moving machine.
            Steve Cross, 30, of Macon died Saturday night when he lost control of his car and rammed into a parked tractor trailer truck in downtown Macon.
            A head-on collision Saturday killed 31 year old Clara Dunson and 5 year old Lisa Erwin, both of Bogart.  The accident occurred north of Bogart.
            The state patrol said Wiley Martin, 39, of Waynesboro died Saturday night when his car went out of control on Georgia 56 about five miles south of Waynesboro.
            Pedestrian accidents killed two Georgians, George Lively, 21, of Doraville, was struck and killed by a car near the Atlanta city limits on Nesbitt Ferry Road late Saturday.  And William Turner, 45, of Lake Park was struck and killed about seven miles north of Statesville on Georgia 11 in Echols County.
            A two-car collision just east of Sumner on U.S. 83 took the life of three year old Joe Isaza on Saturday.
            Killed in a head-on collision two miles west of Clayton on Georgia 2 was Hayne Sanders, 36, of Hiawasee.
            A head-on wreck on a Brunswick causeway killed three men.  They were identified as Dennis Williams, 28, Lester Grovner, 29, and Timothy Hillery, 25, all of Brunswick.
            Early Saturday, a hit and run driver struck and killed 26 year old Robert Michael Maddox of Lanett, Ala.  He was walking along Georgia 103 about seven miles south of West Point.
            Ricky Proctor, 18, of Dawsonville, was killed Saturday when his car went out of control on a curve and struck an embankment about four miles north of Dawsonville on U.S. 19.
            One year old Christie Lavon Holden of Moultrie died in a three-car accident Friday night near Moultrie on Georgia 33.
            The Associated Press counts accidental deaths each weekend from 6 p.m. Friday until midnight Sunday.



The Brunswick News; Monday 28 May 1973

Pg. 12 col. 3


            Mr. and Mrs. George Francis announce the engagement of their daughter, Iona Ozella, to Charlie O. Bess, Jr., son of Mr. and Mrs. Charlie O. Bess, Sr. of Brunswick.
            Miss Francis is a 971 graduate of Glynn Academy and a former employee of the F.B.I. She attended Brunswick Junior College and is presently employed at J.S. Tabor Clothing Store as secretary and bookkeeper.
            Mr. Bess is a 1971 graduate of Brunswick high School and presently serving in the U.S. Navy.
            The wedding is planned for June 16 at 6 p.m. at Shiloh Baptist Church. A reception will follow in the E.C. Tillman Fellowship Hall. Friends and relatives of the couple are invited.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 18 January 1977

Pg. 12 col. 6


            Property owners at New Hope Plantation today announced plans to deed an old slave graveyard on the premises to either the Glynn County government or any historical organization who will agree to preserve the site as an historical monument.
            Captain Harry Liles, first mortgage holder on the property and Ralph Grover, current legal owner, said today the only provisions they require for any person or institution wishing to take possession of the cemetery is that no new graves be added and the area be maintained regularly.
            The announcement came in the wake of dissention concerning the development of the site. As The News reported earlier, when Grover purchased the land from Liles, renovations and landscaping Grover performed allegedly involved the removal of an undetermined number of tombstones from the graveyard and the plowing under of a portion of the land. Liles sought a legal restraint stopping Grover from development of the area.
            Grover said today he wishes to divest himself of all interest in the land, but with the provision that the cemetery area be set aside and maintained by an official body.



The Brunswick News; Friday 21 January 1977

Pg. 12 col. 6


            Anne Shelander, of the Coastal Georgia Historical Society, has asked clarification on the CGHS’s interest in the New Hope Plantation Cemetery, as reported in Thursday’s edition of The News.
            “As an historical organization, we are interested in anything historical,” Miss Shelander said, “however, our interest was misconstrued by the cemetery’s owner. We would like to be considered as having an interest in this, but, as yet, it extends only as far as inquiry."



The Brunswick News; Friday 29 August 1980

Pg. 2A cols. 7-8


            Three men were indicted for separate slayings, two on murder charges and one on motor vehicle homicide, by a Glynn County Grand Jury yesterday.
            Gary H. Odum, 27 and Bracie Lee Adams, 30, were charged with murder in two separate cases. Odum is accused of the beating death of his father, W.C. Odum, 53. An autopsy report concluded the victim had died from internal injuries inflicted on his rib cage.
            Adams was indicted in the shooting death of Michael Mangrum, Mangrum had reportedly accused Adams of slashing his car tires the night before the July shooting incident, and had gone to Adam’s house for a confrontation. Mangrum was shot with a .357 magnum pistol.
            John Robert Nichols, 28, was indicted in connection with the hit-and-run death of 14-year-old Charles (Chuck) Lee Creel who was riding his bicycle on Ga. Highway 303 at the time of the incident. Witnesses told police they had seen Nichol’s 1971 Plymouth Fury strike the boy on his bike. Nichols is charged with homicide by motor vehicle in the first degree.
            All three men are currently being held under bond at the Glynn County Detention Center.



The Brunswick News; Wednesday 20 June 1984

Pg. 8A col. 3

            Mr. and Mrs. Terrell Carmena announce the birth of a daughter, Felica Benita, on June 1.
            Grandparents are Mr. and Mrs. Jeff Wallace of St. Simons Island, and Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Green of Southern Road.
            Mrs. Carmena is the former Barbara Wallace.



The Brunswick News; Friday 7 November 1986

Pg. 3A col. 3


            A Brunswick man has been arrested on a charge of kidnapping in connection with an Oct. 24 incident.
            Woodrow Wilson Cobb Jr., 34, of Route 5, Box 166, was arrested by Brunswick police Thursday at 3:10 p.m.
            According to Lt. Jesse H. Wofford, chief of the city’s police detective division, Cobb was charged after a 29-year-old Brunswick woman reported to police she had been kidnapped at gunpoint from the Two Spot Lounge on L Street.
            Shirley Benchman of Brunswick told police she and a friend had been at the establishment Oct. 24 when she was approached by Cobb, who was her ex-boyfriend, Wofford said.
            Cobb produced a gun and made Ms. Benchman go with him to a car in the 2100 block of Johnson Street, then drove her to a Sterling residence, Wofford said.
            Ms. Benchman and Cobb got out of the vehicle and argued, and Cobb allegedly shot at the woman, Wofford said.
            Cobb eventually returned Ms. Benchman to her residence, he said. Ms. Benchman reported the incident to the city police and then took out a warrant against Cobb, Wofford said.
            Cobb is being held in the Glyn [sic] County Detention Center without bond.



The Brunswick News; Friday 7 July 1989

Pg. 8A col. 7


            The descendants of Flora Brown and Dave Spearing will hold a family reunion July 7-9.
            Earlier today, the family toured Hofwyl-Broadfield Plantation. At 6 p.m., they will gather at the home of Henry and Martha Jones, 2527 Cherry St. in Brunswick for a seafood get-together.
            On Saturday at 11 a.m., they will meet in the gym at Selden Park. A group picture will be taken promptly at 11. A buffet luncheon will be served at noon.
            On Sunday at 11 a.m., they will attend services at the Needwood Baptist Church in Needwood. AT 1 p.m. they will gather at the South Dunes picnic area on Jekyll Island for a picnic.
            For more information, call Marsha Jones [phone number omitted—ALH].



The Brunswick News; Monday 3 July 1995

Pg. 7A cols. 1 &2


            Mary Moses Walker of Brunswick and Jerry Walker of Key West, Fla., announce the forthcoming marriage of their daughter, Anita Bernette Walker, to Enous Leon Bess, son of Mr. and Mrs. C.D. [sic] Bess Sr. of Brunswick.
            The bride-elect is the granddaughter of the late William Frederick Moses, the late Mabel Moses, and the late Fannie Walker. She is a graduate of Glynn Academy and is employed by Motel 6.
            Mr. Bess is the grandson of the late Mr. and Mrs. E.H. Mackey of Glenwood, the late Charlie Bess and the late Louisa Bess, formerly of Needwood Community. He is a graduate of Glynn Academy and is employed by Sweat’s Furniture Inc.
            A 6 p.m. wedding is planned July 29 on the lawn of the new Glynn County Courthouse. A reception will follow at Mr. Jay’s Lounge at 7 p.m.
            Friends and relatives of the couple are invited to attend.



The Brunswick News; Monday 24 February 1997

Pg. 7A col. 1


            Rubelle Carroll announces the engagement of her daughter, Harriet Carroll Drummond, to Alex Dewayne Weston, son of Connie B. Weston and Alexander J. Weston.
            Ms. Drummond is the daughter of the late Ernest Carroll, formerly of Fancy Bluff, and is the granddaughter of the late James and Mamie Hopkins Sr. and the late William and Tina Carroll. She is a graduate of Risley High School and attended Coastal Georgia Community College. She is employed by Southeast Georgia Regional Medical Center in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit.
            Mr. Weston is a graduate of Brunswick high School and attended Augusta Tech. He is the grandson of Elethia Byard and the late Walter Byard and the late Joseph Weston and the late Edna Spearing.
            A March 22 wedding is planned at First African Baptist Church. A reception will follow at Comfort Inn.



The Brunswick News; Tuesday 5 August 1997

Pg. 6A col. 5

            Vallee Williams and Terrell Carmena Jr. announce the birth of a daughter, T’yana Latrell, July 14.
Grandparents are Kenneth Williams, Willie P. Allen, and Terrell and Barbara Carmena.







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