Thursday 8 June 1837; Vol. 1, No. 1
Pg. 1 Col. 1
PROSPECTUS OF THE BRUNSWICK ADVOCATE—A WEEKLY PAPER—PUBLISHED
AT BRUNSWICK, GLYNN—COUNTY, GEORGIA
The causes which render necessary the establishment of this Press, and its
claims to the support of the public, can best be presented by the statement of a
Brunswick possesses a harbor, which
for accessibility, spaciousness and security, is unequalled on the Southern
Coast. This, of itself would be sufficient to render its growth rapid, and its
importance permanent; for the best port South of the Potomac must become the
site of a great commercial city. But when to this is added the singular salubrity of the climate, free from those noxious exhalations generated by the
union of salt and river waters and which are indeed "charnel airs" to a white
population, it must be admitted that Brunswick contains all the requisites for a
healthy and populous city. Thus much has been the work of Nature; but already
Art has begun to lend her aid to this favored spot, and the industry of man bids
fair to increase its capacities, and add to its importance a hundred fold. In a
few months, a canal will open to the harbor of Brunswick the vast and fertile
country through which flow the Altamaha, and its great tributaries. A Rail Road
will shortly be commenced, terminating at Pensacola, thus uniting the waters of
the Gulf of Mexico with the Atlantic Ocean. Other Rail Roads intersecting the
State in various directions, will make Brunswick their depot, and a large
portion of the trade from the Valley of the Mississippi will yet find its way to
her wharves. Such, in a few words, are the principal causes which will operate
in rendering Brunswick the principal city of the South. But while its advantages
are so numerous and obvious, there have been found individuals and presses
prompted by selfish fears and interested motives, to oppose an undertaking which
must add so much to the importance and prosperity of the State. Their united
powers are now applied to thwart in every possible manner, this great public
benefit. Misrepresentation and ridicule, invective and denunciation have been
heaped on Brunswick and its friends. To counteract these efforts by the
publication and wide dissemination of the facts—to present the claims of
Brunswick to the confidence and favor of the public, to furnish information
relating to all the great works of Internal Improvement now going on through the
State, and to aid in developing the resourced of Georgia, will be the leading
objects of this Press.
Such being its end and aim, any
interference in the party politics of the day would be improper and impolite.
Brunswick has received benefits from—it has friends in all parties, and every
consideration is opposed to rendering its Press the organ of a party. To the
citizens of Georgia—and not the members of a party—to the friends of
Brunswick—to the advocates of Internal Improvement—to the considerate and
reflecting—do we apply for aid and support.
TERMS—Three dollars per annum in
advance or four dollars at the end of the year.
J.W. FROST, Editor
DAVIS & SHORT, Publishers
Pg. 1 cols. 3 & 4
[excerpts from a larger article on the suitableness of various ports]
SAVANNAH, GEORGIA.—The bar at the north of the
Savannah river is the deepest and most accessible of any on the Southern coast.
The average depth is 19 feet at low water and hence, with a full tied, a frigate
may pass in safety. But although thus favored at the entrance, these advantages
are soon lost in ascending the river. The first point of effectual defence,
salubrity, and locality of a navy yard, is Cockspur island, situated within five
miles of the bar, and two miles within the river; but a frigate cannot reach
this point, by reason of an extensive sand-bank half a mile below it, on which
but 14 feet at low water can be obtained. In ascending still father up, the
shoals are frequent and of less draught of water; and the river at first
brackish becomes fresh; and hence, in so low a latitude, and surrounded by
marshes, is unhealthy in summer.
DARIEN, GEORGIA—Merchant ships of heavy burden can
enter the port of Darien; but it is unsuitable to naval purposes, by reason of
its unfavorable locality, being surrounded by swamps and morasses and on account
of its being placed on a fresh water river, which in so low a latitude, must
cause unhealthiness. The port of Darien can have no greater pretension than the
ingress of a sloop of war; and, hence, cannot compete with the deeper harbor in
the same State.
BRUNSWICK, GEORGIA—The waters forming the port of
Brunswick are generally designated as Turtle river; but properly speaking, it is
an arm of the sea, which entering between the islands of Jekyl and St. Simon’s,
flows into the interior for upwards of 20 miles, forming a wide deep and swift
column. As no fresh water river empties into this basin, it is always salt, free
from freshets and alluvial deposits; and hence from an early period of time, no
change whatever has been perceptible in the soundings or general character of
the port. From the large islands of St. Simon’s and Jekyl, (which are distant
from each other about one mile,) and running seaward for about six miles, are
jutting two extensive sand pits. At low water portions of them are laid bare;
and unless the sea is unusually smooth, they form, in nearly their whole extent,
lines of continuous breakers. Between the spit-heads we found 22 feet at low
water. Proceeding towards the land, by traversing the whole breadth of the
channel, the soundings gradually shoaled to 18 feet, which is the least draught
of water found in the channel-way. About one mile within the spit-heads, is “the
middle ground,” which is a bank of sand resting on the southern or Jekyl spit,
and jutting into the channel0way some 200 fathoms; but leaving a sufficiently
wide 18 feet passage towards the St. Simon’s or nothern [sic] spit, for a large
ship even with an adverse wind; the middle ground has but 14 feet at low water.
Entering still further up the soundings gradually grow deeper, so that when
between the islands it has obtained a depth of 19 fathoms. The vessel is now in
safety. On the right of St. Simon’s sound, which, together with similar water
courses still further north, affords a safe internal navigation to steamboats,
and craft to Savannah and Charleston. To the left is the arm of the sea (called
the Turtle river,) from which, by Jekyl and Cumberland sound, is a southern
internal navigation as far as St. Mary’s. The [illegible] from [illegible] to
the mouth of the harbor, is nearly west north-west keeping the northern breakers
on board; the channel then runs south and southwesterly, and making a short turn
to the north-west, we arrive at the town of Brunswick—insignificant at present,
but destined, we believe through her rail-road and canal, to future importance.
A shoal of soft mud, close to and below the town, on which but 12 feet can be
found at low water, seems to indicate some other point in the harbor as a more
suitable position for a navy yard. We believe Blythe’s island, on the opposite
shore, to be the most eligible. It contains some hundred acres covered with
timber, and every way convenient for wharves, docks, &c, and for a nursery of
the live oak; it is distant from Brunswick two miles, and has bold water to
within a few fathoms of the shore. There is no doubt that the port may be
strongly fortified. The island of St. Simon’s and Jekyll present suitable
positions for extensive works; and a sand shoal two miles within and in the
centre of the river (dry at low water,) affords a third basis for a powerful defence, and steam batteries will complete the whole. The average rise of the
tide is six feet, which gives, at high water, on the bar, 24 feet; sufficient
for a frigate. It is deemed healthy; and the absence of a fresh water river, or
fresh water swamps, seem to justify the opinion.
ST. MARY’S, GEORGIA—The harbor of St. Mary’s, on the
south frontier of Georgia, has a bar very similar to that of Charleston, in its
general features and depth of water; it is subject to the same vicissitudes from
great gales. In 20 years the ship channel has been forced to the southward; and
the site of the passage, where formerly passed the largest sloop of war in the
navy, is now filled up to eight feet. Under the most favorable circumstances of
wind and tide, the present ship channel may be stated at 14 feet at low water,
the average rise of the tide is six feet. The localities are unfavorable for the
establishment of a navy yard; and regarding the harbor in every light, we feel
compelled to express an opinion adversely of St. Mary’s as a port suitable for
Pg. 2 Cols. 2, 3 & 4
TO THE PUBLIC—A full and candid avowal of the course he intends
to pursue, is always required from every conductor of a Press. The justice of
that demand we acknowledge, and are willing to meet it promptly and fairly. In
fact the Prospectus for this paper issued some months since, gave an outline of
our opinions on those topics which will come within the “verge and scope” of our
design. However, in conformity to a well established usage, and in accordance
with our own feelings, we make in this our first number, a public declaration of
the principles which are to control the columns of this paper.
As its name imports, its leading
object will be to advocate the cause of Brunswick and present for the
consideration of the whole country, the eminent advantages which this port
possesses, both for a commercial city and a naval depot. This we shall attempt
to perform by the statement of facts and their legitimate deductions.
Discussions on this subject we anticipate, and shall be happy to meet on this
ground all gentlemanly opponents—all others will receive that treatment
to which their contemptible character entitles them.
Believing that the growth and
importance of Brunswick is commensurate with, and inseparable from the
prosperity of Georgia, we shall do all in our power, to aid in her onward march
that State, to which nature has so generously supplied all the elements of
wealth and greatness. The encouragement and assistance rendered by the State, to
the various works of Internal Improvement within her limits, bespeak and
enlightened legislation, and must speedily result in giving to Georgia that
“rank and place” in the Union, which her favorable position and vast resources
claim for her. The Internal Improvements of the State consequently will be
entitled to a large space in our columns, and all information respecting them
will be furnished to our readers.
We shall studiously avoid party
politics as well from inclination, as principle. The fate of Brunswick depends
in no degree upon the success or defeat of any of the parties now agitating the
country. No political scheme is connected with her rise, and whatever may be the
benefits to result from the building up of another city on the Southern coast,
those benefits will be felt by the nation and not solely by a party. Our course
in this respect, we are aware, will be regarded by some with suspicion.—This,
we are willing to bear, until “that old common arbitrator Time,” shall determine
its injustice. We know that it is a task beset with danger and difficulty, to
conduct a Press in this country without participating in those exciting
contests, which from the nature of our free institutions, must continually
arise. Yet were all other considerations wanting,
“The danger’s self were lure alone.”
While to others we leave the distinctions and rewards bestowed on the successful
politician, we shall be content to labor in a humbler sphere, and to seek our
reward in the consciousness of striving at least for the improvement of society
and the development of now [sic] sources of wealth and strength of the country.
For the articles which purport to be
Editorials, we shall hold ourself personally accountable to all aggrieved; but
for communications, the writers must be responsible, and papers intended for
publication in the Advocate must, in every instance, be accompanied by the name
of the author. This rule will be rigidly enforced, for though willing to answer
for our own offences, we have not the slightest idea of bearing the burdens
which belong to others.
Having spoken thus frankly, we shall
leave it for the Public to pass sentence on our future course, and by that
decision, we shall cheerfully abide.
THE PROSPECTS OF BRUNSWICK—It is but recently that public
attention has been at all directed to this point, as presenting the necessary
requisites for an important city. In fact the Northern merchants and ship
masters were ignorant that so fine a harbor was to be found on the Southern
coast. But that ignorance is rapidly vanishing, and Brunswick is now exciting in
New England that feeling in its favor, which exists in this State. The various
documents emanating from the highest sources that have become extensively
circulated present in a clear manner the great advantages this [illegible] and
[illegible] carry convictions? to every unbiased [illegible] of the importance
which Brunswick is destined at no distant day to possess, and the influence she
must wield in the commercial operations of this country.
So fully has this subject been
canvassed by the Commissioners of the State, by Col. Loami Baldwin and by
the Navy Commissioners, that our task is merely to give a transcript of their
investigations and compress their conclusions into the compass of a newspaper
The want has long been felt of a city
at once offering security to the ship and crews engaged in
carrying on the trade of the South. — The sickliness of the present cities to
strangers during the hot months, is a fact so well known, that it cannot be
thought invidious in us to speak of it. This fact so well known at the South,
admits of most painful proof in every New England village, by the many bereaved
families, that mourn the loss of some dear member who has added another to the
victims of a deadly climate, dying in a strange land far away from the scenes
and friends of his childhood, and finding a neglected grave in the “Potter’s
The causes of this unhealthiness are
believed to be the mingling of the fresh with the salt water, and the presence
of stagnant pools.—The Southern cities are without an exception at the mouths of
the rivers, usually at the head of tide water, and with rice plantations in the
neighborhood. Now these causes must always operate to make the climate dangerous
to strangers, and whatever may be the advantages offered by good harbors and an
extensive back country, those can be but imperfectly improved, if merchant ships
and strangers can enter them, only during a portion of the year.—
Brunswick possesses this advantage;
that it is situated on an arm of the sea, with a high dry sand bluff and its
shore washed by the waves of the ocean, rolling in with every tide from the
Atlantic. Turtle River as this arm has been erroneously named, is not a
river, but in every particular a Bay. It extends into the interior about
twenty miles from St. Simons Sound, and with deep water for the greater part of
the distance, receiving a small quantity of fresh water from the Buffalo Swamp,
but not sufficient to diminish in any sensible degree, the saltness [sic] of sea
water. In the recent plan of the city and harbor, drafted by Mr. G.R. Baldwin,
the late Engineer, “Oglethorpe Bay,” has been substituted for that of “Turtle
River.” The name of Oglethorpe was selected as a mark of respect to the memory
of the Father of Georgia, the Philanthropist, Warrior and Statesman, whose
character attracts such universal admiration and is held so deservedly dear,
associated as it is with that “immortal band” who planted the Colonies of
America. From the other great cause of sickness, stagnant water, we are also
happily freed. The few ponds in the neighborhood have all been drained at a
considerable expense, and scarce a trace of them remains. And we feel not the
slightest hesitation in pronouncing this as healthy a port as any in the
The entrance into the harbor is
pronounced by all competent judges, as one of the least intricate in the
country. The outer bar is five miles from St. Simons Light, and consists of two
sand spits projecting that distance into the sea from St. Simons and Jekyl
Islands, with a channel way between sufficiently wide for any ship to boat up.
Several brigs of ordinary draught have been navigated by the masters to the
inner harbor without a pilot, and this too without a single buoy to mark the
course. These men all pronounce it by far the best harbor on the coast, and when
the channel shall be properly marked by buoys and beacons, no difficulty can
occur in the navigation. The harbor is completely landlocked as much so as any
in the country, and the security afforded to cotton ships and cotton boats is
perfect. This is the opinion expressed by intelligent shipmasters and cotton
factors, and we can hardly imagine how any one in his sober senses, can
have the effrontery to talk of the danger to which cotton boats must be
subjected in this harbor.
The only cause which has retained
Brunswick in such obscurity, and completely checked its growth, has been the
want of communication with the back country. To obtain this, a canal of twelve
miles is now cutting from Oglethorpe Bay to the Southern Branch of the Altamaha,
which must give us the trade of that noble river, extending as it does into the
heart of the State. It is fully expected that such arrangements will be made as
to bring here much of the cotton now sent from Augusta to Charleston and the
Rail Road to the Gulf of Mexico, will as a matter of course, take much of the
produce now shipped from New Orleans and the ports on the Gulf. Of this we shall
speak more fully in a future number. These works must undoubtedly be retarded
for the present by the frightfully deranged state of the business and currency
of the country. But this cannot always continue, and with the return of
confidence and order, they will be prosecuted with renewed energy and activity.
The sale of CITY LOTS took place
on the 25th of May, and not withstanding the unparalleled pressure of
the times, a large concourse of persons assembled, and thirty seven lots were
sold at an average price of three hundred and fifty dollars each. This price
which in ordinary times would be deemed small, is still as high as at the time
and under the circumstances, could be reasonable expected.— We undertake to say
that lots in any of our cities North or South, would [illegible] on the 25th
ult.[?] if [illegible] up at Public Auction [illegible] brought our quarter[?]
part as much as they might have been sold for six months since. They may be
worth as much to day as ever they were, but money cannot be procured and
consequently no sales can be effected. If such is the depreciation of property
elsewhere, why should Brunswick be exempt from the general sufferings. Had there
been any appearance of such a state of affairs as now exist, at the time when
the Directors of the Brunswick Company determined on a sale, that course would
have been entirely different. But having advertised the sale and led the public
to anticipate that lots could then be procured, they preferred selling a few at
what they deemed a small price, rather than not meet that expectation. The lots
were offered according on the terms and the result we have given above. The
Company is content the purchasers are satisfied and really for the life of us,
we cannot imagine what other parties there are to the trade. We do know that the
effect of the sale was to raise the price of some lots held by individuals a
hundred percent. Should the money pressure be in any degree relieved, there will
in the Autumn be another sale, when the lots will doubtless advance very much on
In the afternoon a large company sat
down to the first dinner furnished at the Oglethorpe House. After the removal of
the cloth, two brief Addresses were made in reply to complimentary toasts by
Hon. THOMAS BUTLER KING, of Glynn, and Hon. SEABORN JONES, of
Columbus. Mr. King, by the generous zeal he has manifested for the
success of Brunswick has called down upon himself the enmity of those whose
pecuniary interests are opposed to the opening of a new post in Georgia, but
this only gives him a better title to that respect which he enjoys both at the
North and the South.
After the sale a race took place in
the harbor between the boats of two of the “Island Lords,” which afforded much
pleasure. The “Goddess of Liberty,” the successful boat is owned by Col.
Dubignon, of Jekyl Island—she is dug out of a Cypress log, and is the most
perfect model of symmetry we have ever seen. She has been victorious at several
of the races of the St. Simons’ Club and deserves for her beauty alone to win
the prize. The ‘Aquatic Club,’ some months since, offered a challenge to the New
Yorkers of $10,000, the contest to take place in Savannah river during the month
of November next, which has not yet been met. We hope the White-hall boatmen
will not permit this banter to remain unnoticed.
Pg. 2 col. 5
THE VISIT OF THE STEAMER OCMULGEE—On the tenth of May,
Brunswick was honored by a visit from this fine boat freighted with many of the
ladies and gentlemen of Darien. The Oglethorpe House at that time was not fully
completed, and however desirous the gentlemen of Brunswick might be to manifest
their gratification at the honor, it was entirely out of their power to do it,
save by words. Diligent search was made for a swivel even, to welcome our
visitors but in vain.
“OGLETHORPE HOUSE” is the name of the Hotel erected in Brunswick during the
last Winter. We doubt if there is in the whole country a house superior to it in
point of comfort or even elegance. It is sixty feet in length by fifty in width,
built of wood, four stories high, and a basement of brick. A piazza ten feet
wide on each side of three stories, protects the rooms from the sun and affords
a delightful promenade, while from the cupola is opened an extensive and
beautiful prospect of the Sound and Islands. Wide entries extending through the
building, and windows springing from the floors nearly to the ceilings, permit
the free circulation of the breeze, which blows daily from the ocean, mitigating
the intensity of the Summer heat. “Mine host,” MR. DAVIS, has long
carried on the business in the immediate neighborhood of Boston, and brings with
him the reputation of an attentive and obliging landlord. Gentlemen and families
will find this an agreeable residence during the Summer, and every exertion will
be made for their comfort not only y the host but by those who intend to pass
the season here.
The Schooner Exit, Capt. Sisson, arrived in our harbor on Tuesday,
having on board Lieuts. T. Pettigru and D.N. Ingraham, of the U.S.
Navy and Capt. Hubbard, of the St. Mary’s Revenue boat. These gentlemen
have been appointed to examine the different harbors on the coast with a view of
ascertaining what additional facilities are required for their save navigations.
Pg. 3 col. 4
NOTICE—A MEETING of the State Rights Party of Glynn County, will take place
at Bethel, on SATURDAY, the twenty-fourth instant, for the purpose of nominating
candidates to represent said County, in the next Legislature.
June 8, 1837.
FOR SALE—500 ACRES of PINE LAND on College Creek. For particulars enquire at
this office. June 8.
$10 REWARD—LOST from the piazza of Mrs. Lamb’s house, a russet
leather VALISE, containing a few articles of clothing, a dressing case and a
file of papers and three memorandum books, of no use to any person but the
owner. Whoever will return the papers and books either with or without the other
articles, shall receive the above reward of ten dollars and no questions asked
on application to this office. Brunswick, June 8, 1837.
TO THE BOAT CLUBS OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK—GENTLEMEN:—”The Aquatic Club of
Georgia,” having frequently heard of the fleetness of your Boats and skill of
your Oarsmen are desirous of comparing the speed of one of their Boats, with the
speed of one of yours, on the following terms:
They propose to run their four Oared
Canoe Boat “Lizard,” one straight mile opposite the City of Savannah, in fair
and calm weather, against any four Oared Plank Boat built in the City of New
York, not over 27 feet 3 inches on the keel, (which is the length of the
Lizzard’s) for Ten Thousand Dollars a side—Two thousand forfeit.
The race to take place in the month
of November next. Should the day that may be agreed not be fair and calm, the
race to take place on the first fair and calm day thereafter.
The stakes to be deposited in one of
the Banks in Savannah, on or before the 1st day of October next.
Should the terms proposed be
acceptable, address Chas. R. Floyd, Jeffersonton, Camden Co, Ga. And
particulars can be arranged by correspondence.
CHAS. R. FLOYD } Secretaries
HENRY DUBIGNON} A.C.G
Pg. 3 col. 5
“OGLETHORPE HOUSE,” BRUNSWICK, GA.—THIS new and elegant establishment having
been fitted and furnished in a superb style, is now open for the reception of
company under the direction of the subscriber. The situation of the House is
airy and the prospect delightful. The rooms will be found extremely cool and
comfortable during the heat of the summer, and board for families or single
gentlemen may be taken by the week or single day, and no pains nor expense will
be spared to make the house an agreeable retreat for all those who may honor the
subscriber with their patronage.
The Bar will be stocked with the
choicest Wines, Liquors, &c. and the Larder filled with the best the market
affords, and the subscriber flatters himself that he shall be able to place his
establishment under such rules and regulations as will meet the approbation of
the community. His acquaintance with the duties of a Public House and his entire
devotion to those duties he hopes will secure him the favor of the public.
Brunswick, June 8, 1837.
VARIETY STORE—GEORGE HARRINGTON & CO.—HAVE commenced business in
this place and intend keeping as general an assortment of goods as can be found
in any store in this section of the State, and they respectfully solicit the
patronage of the Planters and others, so far as they may deserved it.
They have just received from Boston a
good assortment of:
English and American Piece GOODS
Crockery, Glass and Hard Ware,
Boots and Shoes, and
Ready made Clothing,
and they will constantly be receiving additional supplies.
THEY HAVE NOW FOR SALE
Brown and bleached Shirtings and
Ticking, Calicoes and Cambrics,
Ginghams, Flannels, Sattinet,
Merinos, Negro Cloths,
Silk and Cotton Handkerchiefs,
Ribbons, Gloves, Hosiery,
Thread, Sewing Silk, Pins, Bindings,
Buttons, Table Cloths, Shawls,
Blankets, Mattresses, &c. &c.
Brown and Leaf Sugar, Tea, Coffee,
Chocolate, Shells, Molasses,
Brandy, Gin and Wines,
Raisins, Cassia, Nutmegs, Cloves,
Ginger, Mustard, Sweet Oil,
Pepper, Cayenne, Candles, Soap,
Spermaceti Oil, Tobacco, Cigars,
Butter, Cheese, Pepper Sauce,
Starch, Pimento, Salt Petre, Salt,
Pickled Salmon, Mackerel, Codfish,
Tongues and Sounds, &c. &c.
Such as Tubs, Pails, Dippers, Axe
Handles, Corn Brooms, &c. &c.
Axes, Adzes, Frying Pans, Window
Steel, Nails, Fowling Pieces,
Brass Kettles, Knives and Forks,
Penknives, Scissors, Brushes,
with almost every article wanted in building, or for family use.
Hats, Boots, Shoes, Ready made
Clothing, &c. &c.
CROCKERY AND GLASS WARE
A complete assortment for family use.
G.H. & CO. will receive orders for
any articles of Foreign or Domestic growth or manufacture that can be procured
in Boston,—confident that their advantages of obtaining such articles will
enable them to give satisfaction to those who may employ them.
Brunswick, Ga. June 8, 1837.
Pg. 3 col. 6
RUNAWAY—FROM Gowin Swamp on Monday night, two negro fellows,—DICK, a stout
black fellow, about six feet high 45 years of age. NED, stout yellow complected
[sic] about five feet ten inches high 27 years of age. As they both have
relatives on the Brunswick Canal it is very likely they may be in that vicinity.
Ten dollars will be given for the apprehension of each, on application to the
F.M. SCARLETT Oak Grove, Glynn Co. June 5, 1837.
SCHOOL—THE subscriber has opened a School at the Court House in Brunswick,
Glynn Co. where youth of both sexes are instructed in all the branches of an
English education, viz:—Reading and Spelling, Writing, English, Grammar,
Geography and Common Arithmetic.—He will also give instruction in Natural
Philosophy, Chemistry and Rhetoric.
Board can be obtained on very
reasonable terms in the immediate vicinity, and the subscriber pledges himself
that no exertion will be wanting on his part to give perfect satisfaction to all
who may entrust their children to his care. Terms: Common branches, $4 per
quarter, Philosophy, Chemistry, &c. $6.
AARON JONES, Jr.
Refer to J.W. FROST
NOTICE—M.W. WILSON will contract to erect buildings of wood or brick
in Brunswick during the coming Autumn and Winter on the most reasonable terms
and in workmanlike manner.
Letters directed to him at Lynn,
Mass. During the summer will meet with prompt ???tion. For a specimen of his
work be referred to the Public House built under his direction in this city.
For more particular information apply
to Mr. J. Davis of the Oglethorpe House.
Brunswick, June 8, 1837.
Thursday 15 June 1837; Vol. 1, No. 2
Pg. 1 cols. 1-6, pg. 2 col. 1
THE BRUNSWICK ADVOCATE, is published every THURSDAY MORNING,
in the city of Brunswick, Glynn County, Georgia, at $3 per annum, in advance,
or $4 at the end of the year.
No subscriptions received for a
less term than six months and no paper discontinued until all arrearages are
paid except at the option of the publishers.
All letters and communications to the
Editor or Publishers in relation to the paper, must be POST PAID to ensure
ADVERTISEMENTS conspicuously inserted
at ONE DOLLAR per one hundred words, for the first insertion, and FIFTY CENTS
for every subsequent continuance—Rule and figure work always double price.
Twenty-five per cent. added, if not paid in advance, or during the continuance
of the advertisement. Those sent without a specification of the number of
insertions will be published until ordered out, and charged accordingly.
LEGAL ADVERTISEMENTS published at the
N.B. Sales of LAND, by
Administrators, Executors or Guardians, are required by law, to be held on the
first Tuesday in the month, between the hours of ten in the forenoon and three
in the afternoon, at the Court-house in the county in which the property is
situate.—Notice of these sales must be given in a public gazette, SIXTY DAYS
previous to the day of sale.
Sales of NEGROES must be at public
auction, on the first Tuesday of the month, between the usual hours of sale, at
the place of public sales in the county where the letters testamentary, of
Administration or Guardianship, may have been granted, first giving SIXTY DAYS
notice thereof, in one of the public gazettes of this State, and at the door of
the Court-house, where such sales are to be held.
Notice for the sale of Personal
Property, must be given in like manner, FORTY days previous to the day of sale.
Notice to the Debtors and Creditors
of an Estate must be published FORTY days
Notice that application will be made
to the Court of Ordinary for leave to sell LAND, must be published for FOUR
Notice for leave to sell NEGROES,
must be published for FOUR MONTHS, before any order absolute shall be made
thereon by the Court.
BRUNSWICK—REPORT—Of JOHN G. POLHILL, HUGH LAWSON, and
MOSES FORT, Commissioners appointed to examine the Post and Railroad of
MILLEDGEVILLE, 17th July, 1833
To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Georgia.
GENTLEMEN:—The Commissioners appointed by his Excellency the Governor, in
conformity with a Resolution of your body of the 17th December, “To
go and examine the commercial advantages of the Port of Brunswick and the
Rail-road avenue to the Altamaha, and report thereon upon oath, whether or not
it would be advisable for the State to render any aid in opening Brunswick to
the interior,” proceed early in the month of June last to execute the duties of
their commission, and beg leave to submit the following Report.
The town of Brunswick is situated on
the north branch or arm of Turtle river, near the centre of our sea coast, about
eight miles from St. Simons light house, just above the 31st degree
of north latitude, in the county of Glynn, about 13 miles from St. Simons bar.
The site of the town is a beautiful bluff of close sand, the soil is perfectly
dry and very eligible for a large city, being elevated from 8 to 12 feet above
high water, and extending itself up and down the river for upwards of two miles,
affording a delightful situation for town of the largest extent.—The beauty of
its location—its splendid river, and circumjacent islands, make it altogether
the handsomest site we have seen on our coast for the erection of a commercial
emporium and naval depot.—Though this splendid sheet of water is called Turtle
river, yet, from its width, its great depth and its length, it may more properly
be called an inlet or arm of the sea, which extends about 20 or 25 miles into
the interior. The entrance from the ocean is between St. Simons Island on the
north, and Jekyl Island on the south. This inlet between the islands is about a
mile in width. The bar over which ships enter it from the ocean, is about five
miles from the light house on the south of St. Simons, and the safest on the
southern coast, with the exception perhaps of Norfolk in Virginia. Besides
having had access to the report of a survey made by Lieut. Stockton,
under the authority of the United States, we took soundings ourselves under the
pilot age of experienced men who had been many years well acquainted with the
coast, and especially with St. Simons bar. The experienced officer who made the
survey alluded to, has set down the average depth of the bar at 16 feet at dead
low water, and ascertained the rise of the tide to be, on an average, about 6
feet, giving 22 feet at high water; stating at the same time that he was not
satisfied that he had found the best water.
The object of Congress in ordering
this survey having been the establishment of a naval depot on Turtle river, it
is to be presumed that the officer made this report with a view to the strict
safety of our ships of war, and therefore preferred being rather under than over
the depth of water.—We draw this conclusion from the fact, that we found the
soundings on the bar to be generally about 18 feet at as near low water as we
could judge; our shallowest sounding was 17 feet, but we found more water on the
same track. As we found Stockton’s report very accurate in every respect,
and as he had spent some time in the survey, we conclude that the water on the
bar may be set down at from 16 to 17 feet at low water, and 22 to 23 at high
water—striking at a medium between his survey and our soundings. The plots and
coasting captains on board the vessel we employed in this service seemed to be
of opinion that there was still deeper water, as they stated that they would
risk their nautical skill and reputation, in undertaking to bring the largest
class of merchant ships trading to the south, across this bar at any time of
tide. An experienced pilot, whose services we had engaged assured us that he had
been intimately acquainted with this bar for about twenty-three years, and that
is breadth and depth had not varied the least in that time. We judge the extent
of the bar, across it, to be about a quarter of a mile, and from half to three
quarters in width, between the north and south breakers, to be navigable for
large vessel. One of the great excellencies of the bar is, that ships can pass
over it in a direct course with a favorable wind, and if the wind should be
ahead, she has a plenty of room for beating up. Mr. King, the intelligent
and enlightened Senator of Glynn, who lives immediately on St. Simons Sound,
assured us, that it was by no means a rare occurrence for ships of heavy burden,
entirely unacquainted with the bar, and without a pilot, to put into the sound
in stress of weather for safety, and that this is done at night as well as in
day. This we consider as the most conclusive evidence of the superior excellence
and perfect safety of this bar, and the protection afforded to ships that run
into the sound in bad weather. Of the entire safety and excellence of this bar
for the navigation of ships, drawing from 20 to 21 feet of water, we can
therefore speak in terms of the highest approbation.
We account for the unvarying depth of
this bar, from the great body of water which at every ebb tide sets out of
Turtle river to the ocean. In coming in from sea, immediately after crossing the
bar, the soundings gave us from five to ten fathoms, and this depth was retained
with but little variation, till we reached within half or three quarters of a
mile of Brunswick. We are informed by navigators, that the river continues
unusually deep, almost to its source. From these facts, we conclude that the bar
will always retain its present depth, for there is no cause visible to us, or to
be drawn by inference from the character of the river, to produce any variations
in the tide or changes in the bar. In the most of our other rivers which
penetrate into the mountainous country of the interior, the great inundations
frequently happening carry down immense quantities of sand and alluvial [sic]
soil, which are continually shifting the channel, and affecting the depth and
location of the navigable waters, where they empty into the ocean. Hence it is,
that there is so much danger, delay and expense attending the ascent to our
other sea ports. We think we may confidently say that the bountiful hand of
nature has entirely exempted the port of Brunswick and its noble stream, and
will continue in all future time to exempt them, from these difficulties and
obstructions to their navigation.
When you approach within half a mile
of the town, there is a small salt marsh island which divides the river into the
northern and eastern branches, the main channel running southward of this
island. Between Brandy Point on this island, and Dennis’s Folly on the Brunswick
shore, there is an inner bar, upon which there is about twelve feet at
low water, and, as the tide rises ten feet, it gives the same depth of water
that we find on the outer bar, with this advantage, that the bottom being soft
mud creates no damage to ships and may be very easily deepened if it were
necessary. But no such necessity exists, as any ship that crosses the outer bar
can run over this at high water, and find the best anchorage near the bluff
along the whole extent of the town, in from twenty to forty feet
water at the lowest time of tide. This we ascertained from careful soundings at
low water, and after having finished the soundings for ourselves, ascertained
that Stockton’s report and diagrams confirmed our own survey.
From the fact that we crossed the
outer bar thirteen miles from town, and beat up against a very light breeze to
Brunswick in about three hours, we can state safely, that a vessel may pass in
or out, from the bar to the town, with the wind from any direction, and with a
fair good breeze, can reach the wharves, and get to sea from them, in less than
two hours. The width of the river and the channel affords an opportunity for
making long tacks, which are very desirable in beating up or down a river or
strait. The vessel once in port, we consider her entirely sheltered from any
gale or storm, short of the most violent hurricane or tornado, such as would be
dangerous on the land as well as on the water. The harbor is completely
land-locked by a beautiful cresent [sic] or semi-circle of islands,
stretching along the southern branch of the river, and preventing the heavy
swell of the ocean from affecting the water in the harbor. In addition to this,
an extensive salt marsh stretches along to the east of Brunswick, which also
acts as a protection from heavy swells in the sound and the ocean. The course of
the river itself turning nearly south immediately around the north point of
Jekyl, with that island on the south and the Brunswick promontory on the north,
acts as a protection to the port; the river making a sudden turn towards
Brunswick at a point of high ground known as Dennis’s Folly.—All this will be
more apparent to your honorable body by a reference to a map of Brunswick, its
port, its environs, and the position an course of the rail-road, which we have
ordered to be carefully drafted, after a very correct model, (with a few
alterations indicated by us) by the county surveyor, to be submitted as a part
of this report.
In the southern and principal branch
of the river is the outer harbor. In this harbor, the whole navy of our country
might ride, with perfect safety, in seven fathoms water, and moor within a mile
of the town.
In regard to health, we consider
Brunswick superior to any sea port on the southern coast. Its high and dry
bluff, the total absence of lagunes [sic], swamps of stagnant fresh water and
rice fields—its broad sheet of clear ocean water, almost as salt as the sea,
and its pure sea breeze setting in regularly from the ocean, make it not only a
delightful situation in summer, (as we experienced it to be,) but give the
strongest assurance of the health and comfort of seamen and navigators, and of
the inhabitants of the town. We found wells of water as good as could be
expected in so low of latitude. Though not very cool, we believe it to be pure,
and that which we found in town was better than the wells in the immediate
vicinity. The extensive salt marshes are overflowed at every tide with pure salt
water, and are not considered at all injurious to health. The sea breeze sweeps
delightfully over them, and we found some of the most healthy families in the
vicinity living immediately upon their edge.
Brunswick may be so protected by
fortifications as to become entirely inaccessible to any naval force that might
attempt to approach it. The inlet between St. Simons and Jekyl Island being but
a mile wide, might be defended by forts on both sides, so as to cut off any
naval armament that might attempt to enter it. Should an enemy’s ship succeed in
passing this strait, there are other points for defence [sic], on Cedar hammock,
the firm marsh on the opposite side, on Dennis’s Folly, and on Brandy Point—all
well calculated for the strongest and most effectual fortifications. Whether,
therefore, we regard the “commercial advantages of the port of Brunswick,” in
reference to the water on the bar and in the river,—in reference to the short
time in which a ship of large draft may sail in or out of port, against or with
the wind,—in reference to the excellence of the anchorage in port, and her
entire safety from storms while there,—whether we view them in reference to the
health, convenience and beauty of locality; or in reference to their capability
of being made impregnable to an enemy; your Commissioners regard them as of a
very superior order; and with this opinion, formed from accurate inspection and
personal examination, we feel constrained to say, that it is highly “advisable
for the state to render aid in opening Brunswick to the interior;” and this
aid ought, for the benefit of the state and its inhabitants, to be rendered
efficiently and promptly.
Of the “rail-road avenue to the
Altamaha,” we can speak in terms equally unequivocal and equally favorable. The
distance of this avenue is but eleven miles and a few chains from river to
river. From the Altamaha swamp to the bluff at Brunswick, its location is as
fine and beautiful for such an improvement as can be found in any part of the
Union. Its course is over a campaign country, so level that its inequalities are
scarcely perceptible to the naked eye. It lies over a pine barren flat, of
close, compact, sandy foundation from river to river, and when once completed
and settled, the Commissioners are of opinion that it will be as firm and hard,
and as well adapted to rail-road operations, and as little liable to injury from
any causes as could be selected in the state.—There is but one curve in the
whole route, and that very gradual, to avoid the point of a bay swamp, which
would have increased the labor and expense to have run through it. From this
curve, a shade tree of ordinary height, on the bluff at Brunswick, is distinctly
visible to the naked eye, along the avenue, at the distance of eight miles or
upwards; and it will require but little additional labor and skill to render the
foundation, now almost completed, a dead level the entire distance from the
Altamaha to Brunswick. This foundation has been thrown up by the superintendent,
with a becoming regard to the public service, and in a style which does credit
to his skill and industry. As far as completed, it is a road of the first order
for horses and carriages, and is daily becoming firmer and better from use.
About the middle of June, when we examined it, the foundation was thrown up
about two thirds of the way, the avenue cut the whole distance, and the
superintendent expected to complete it in two or three months. Nothing will then
remain to be done, but to prepare it for the reception of the rails. In the
immediate vicinity of the entire route, there is an abundance of the best
cypress and live oak for the wood work. The heaviest job in its completion will
be the junction of the rail-road with the Altamaha, though this is by no means a
serious one. It may be united either with the rail-road creek, or with the river
itself, or with Six-mile creek; the latter we think the most eligible, as this
creek is wide and deep enough for up country boats, and enters the river in a
deep bight, which renders it very convenient for boats to enter. In either
route, the distance will be rather over half a mile, and may be either excavated
to the fine bluff by a canal and basin, or the road be extended through the
swamp, which is there a rice field in cultivation. Before it enters the ocean,
the Altamaha divides itself into four branches; on the southern branch, which
from examination and information we found to be the deepest and best for
navigating boats, the rail-road will end.
As to the cost of this work, we have
only such data as will enable us to approximate a reasonable estimate. We have
addressed the Agent of the Charleston rail-road, for accurate information from
experience, but not having received an answer, we deem it our duty not to delay
our report, as these matters are within the reach of every member or your body;
and the distance is so small as not to make the cost a matter of great moment.
We understand that the first estimate of the Charleston rail-road was 5,000 per
mile, and that the actual cost has been found to fall short of the estimate. As
the location of the route for the Brunswick rail-road is so favorable, and as
the foundation will soon be completed by the public hands, we should think it
would be a safe calculation to set down the utmost cost at $5,000 per mile,
including labor already bestowed by the hands, or that it could not exceed from
$50,000 to $70,000, including the cost of the labor, materials, engine, cars and
warehouses. We think this a high limit for the cost, but that it would be a
trifling sum compared with the immense advantages that would result to the State
from the completion of the work, even should the State assume the entire
expense; but this will not be necessary, as individuals have already subscribed
The distance from the Altamaha to
Brunswick, and vice versa, may be performed with ease by the engine and loaded
cars in one hour. By a proper construction of the ends of the route, a boat load
of cotton might be soon placed into the cars, and be taken to Brunswick in one
trip, while other cars might be ready to return immediately with freight of
merchandize for the boat. In this way but little delay would be occasioned. We
consider this process much cheaper and more expeditious than loading a boat by
drays from the boat landing. As by the charter not more than twenty-five
per cent can be demanded for any one year upon the amount of capital invested,
should the project succeed, the cost of transportation would not probably exceed
from 12 1-2 to 25 cents per bale upon cotton, and so in proportion for
goods—for we believe that all the cotton-growing country in reach of the
Oconee, Ocmulgee and Atlamaha, would go to Brunswick. We are therefore of
opinion, that the great advantages to be derived from this work, by the
extensive region of fertile territory, and the dense, industrious and growing
population that trade and will be inducted to trade upon these rivers, render it
advisable for the State to give prompt and efficient aid in completing this
rail-road, so as to connect Brunswick with the interior of the State.
Perhaps the letter of our duty is
discharged in giving these facts, and the opinions founded upon them. But we
feel, in common with our fellow-citizens, so strongly the great importance of
building upon our sea coast a commercial town, for the sale and exportation of
our products, and the importation of those supplies of merchandize yearly
consumed among us and now essential to our prosperity and comfort, that we
believe a more extensive view of this important subject to fall within the range
of our official functions. Indeed we should consider our commission but half
accomplished, did we fail, at this momentous crisis of our commercial relations,
to spread before your body those powerful considerations that form the very
basis of the opinions we have already submitted. Our state is second to but one
or two of her sister States, in her internal wealth and resources. Possessing
almost every variety of soil and climate from the mountains to the sea coast,
with corresponding varieties of mineral, vegetable and agriculture wealth, she
may vie in these respects with the most favored States, of the most highly
favored nation upon the earth. All that our people have to do, to place us by
the side of Ohio, Pennsylvania and N. York in internal improvements, is to
arouse from our torpor, and direct our energies aright. Your Commissioners can
say, upon the solemn appeal they have made, in submitting this report, that they
do not believe that there is in the United States, so small a work of internal
improvement as the contemplated rail-road, fraught with consequences so
important and so beneficial to the same extent of country and the same amount of
active and industrious population.
The next question is: How is the
importance of opening the Port of Brunswick, to be demonstrated? The answer
is ready, and the various considerations connected with it, of the most
momentous importance to the prosperity and independence of the State. But look
at the map of your State, and it will be seen by a single glance of the eye,
that our noble rivers the Oconee, the Ocmulgee and the Altamaha, penetrate the
very heart of the State from the ocean to the Mountains. On these rivers and
their tributaries, and within the range of their trade and influence, will be
seen nearly half the number of our counties, containing the richest soil, and
yielding the most extensive supplies of cotton, corn, sugar, flour, rice, stock
and lumber to be found in any equal extent of the Southern States; containing
the largest and most growing population, with a rich and new country every day
gaining in resources. The trade that goes down these rivers would be derived
from an extent of country nearly three hundred miles in length, and from fifty
to one hundred miles in breadth. To all these people and this extensive
district, the benefits of Brunswick would be brought, should it be fostered as
it might be. That we have the facilities for the immediate creation of such a
market, yet that we have not such a market, must be matter of the deepest
regret and most humbling reflection to your honorable body, and to our people at
large.—That the immense product of our soil yearly descending our rivers, and
transported in wagons, should pass by the wharves of Darien and Savannah to go
to Charleston, in another State, at a heavy expense, and our supplies returned
by the same circuitous and expensive route, must be humbling to the State pride
and the patriotism of every true hearted Georgian; while in the opinion of your
Commissioners, the amount of wealth that would be retained at home, would in one
year compensate us for the whole expense of setting this road in operation, and
opening the Port of Brunswick to the interior. Georgia at this moment presents
the spectacle of a robust man, rich in the vital fluid, submitting to have the
veins of both arms opened, and bleeding to death; while, by the exertion of his
own strength and energy, he might save himself from destruction.—Savannah we
fear is prostrated by the completion of Charleston rail-road to Augusta. Our
produce already goes by her wharves, because the farmer and merchant can get
better bargains in a foreign market. All the produce on that noble river, which
goes to Augusta, is eventually destined to Charleston. On the other side of our
State, the rich country along the Chattahoochee is draining its products into
Florida.—While we are thus losing the advantages of our trade on both sides of
the State, the body of the State is perishing, or finding a scanty
subsistence abroad, for the want of that commercial nourishment at home which
the resources of the State and the capital of wealthy individuals in it are
amply sufficient to supply. Under this state of things, for the want of our
manly and vigorous exertion, we shall soon become like North Carolina, tributary
to our [illegible] States.
Our system of internal improvements
has been radically defective. Instead of directing our operations to one
important point on the sea coast, we have been working from village to village,
and carrying our improvements across the State, thus giving facilities to
the passage of our produce into to her markets. By some central operation, we
should approximate the ship to the plough, and bring the mountains to the ocean.
We have the means of avoiding this suicidal policy, by a very trifling
improvement. The navigation of three rivers already mentioned, is open to the
heart of the State, to Hawkinsville, Milledgeville, and Macon; and these towns
draw the trade from near the mountains. Connect the navigation of these rivers
with Brunswick, where the ship can at all season approach, and the merchant and
planter of the interior can find a good market for sale and purchase, and our
failing commerce would in a great measure revive and begin to flourish. It is by
such means that South Carolina has fostered Charleston, till having absorbed the
commerce of her whole State, she is now draining Georgia of hers. Let us learn a
lesson from her example. From seventy to eighty thousand bales of cotton
annually descend the Altamaha, besides other productions. These will increase as
our fertile lands are opened, and our population becomes more numerous; and our
cotton, corn, wheat, lumber, bacon, and stock of various kinds, will seek the
best and nearest market on our coast, if such an one is to be found.—In return
for these products, very extensive supplies are, and will continue to be brought
up these rivers. The greater part of these products are now sent to Charleston
and New York, and our goods purchased in the same markets. The advantages of all
these transactions might, in the opinion of the Commissioners, be saved to
Georgia, by a sea port of our own—and we are confident that Brunswick holds out
the strongest inducements for such a saving of our resources. Our capital might
be kept at home—our merchants might annually save large amounts of freights,
commissions, exchange, insurance, storage, traveling expenses, and time—a
very important item in the account current of every man of business. The
merchants being enabled to save this expenditure, could afford to give better
prices for produce, and sell their goods at cheaper rates, and on more
accommodating terms;—while the farmer and planter would be the great gainers in
the end. It would keep wealth at home, diffuse its comforts more generally, and
increase the revenues of our treasury. The merchant could obtain supplies of
articles just when there is a demand for them, and know when he could calculate
on receiving them. He could bring his goods into market much sooner after he had
made his purchase, and of course be sooner able to pay for them, and better able
to afford accommodation to his customers. The price of our lands would be
increased, and all our productions find a more ready market.
Such are the facilities and
advantages that might, in the opinion of the Commissioners, be afforded to the
people of Georgia, by opening the Port of Brunswick to the interior, by
connecting it with the Altamaha. This would in time induce further and more
extensive improvements. Trade might, in time be brought from the isthmus[?] of
Florida, from Tennessee, Kentucky and Ohio—for the northern roads and canals
are chained by the [illegible] in winter, and the dangers of navigating the Gulf
of Mexico, render an eligible and accessible port on the Atlantic, far
preferable to any on the southern coast of Florida. There is no reason why goods
should not be bought as cheap at Brunswick, and produce command as high a price
as at Charleston or New Orleans. The ship can as readily come to Brunswick from
Liverpool, Bordeaux, and the East and West Indies, as to New York an Charleston.
Why should the freight be higher or the goods dearer? There would be no delay in
running in, and putting out to sea, and no heavy river charges, and no loss of
time to increase the price of merchandize sold by the importer and the wholesale
Open the Port of Brunswick to the
interior, and the enterprise of seamen will soon bring the ships there; and your
cotton, your grain, your sugar and every other article of home productions will
go there, and the merchant of large capital will soon find it to his interest to
invest it in Brunswick. The commerce of those rivers, and the trade of the whole
interior of Georgia, belong, by nature, to some sea-port on our coast.
Let the most eligible, and the best be selected. Let no sectional jealousy
impede the enterprise. Such a sea-port, we thing Brunswick might be made, being
decidedly of opinion, that it affords advantages for a large commercial city, if
not superior, at least equal in every respect to any on the southern Atlantic
coast of the United States, and decidedly superior to say in Georgia.
Georgia has not a moment to lose in
redeeming her own commercial character in saving to her treasury, to her
merchants, to the whole agricultural, professional, and mechanical industry of
the State, the great blessings to be derived from her ample resources.
Patriotism, State pride, pecuniary interest, all demand, that the great wealth
of one of the finest[?] portions of the world, should be so marshaled as to
increase our own domestic prosperity and happiness, by cultivating the means to
which the bountiful hand of indulgent Providence has placed so entirely within
our reach and under our control.
All which is respectfully submitted
by the commissioners.
JOHN G. POLHILL
Pg. 2 col. 3 & 4
CALUMNY REFUTED—Ever since the Brunswick Canal Company commenced its
operations, their conduct has been closely watched and every act which could by
any ingenuity be perverted to their injury, has been circulated as widely as the
petty malice of the tale tale bearers extended. The Company has failed at least
six times within as many months, and we have concluded that this periodical
bankruptcy will continue to excite the secret joy, but ostensible grief of those
who cannot bear the prosperity of their neighbors. It would certainly be unkind
to deprive any of the enjoyment to be derived from such anticipations of
distress and ruin, we shall therefore not speak of what may occur, but merely
refer to that which has already passed. When “Wolf” was first cried, it
originated from a pack of wild Irishmen, who breaking loose from Brunswick,
overran Darien for a time and at length found a safe asylum in the jail. These
men had struck for higher wages, though at the time they were receiving more
than was paid on any of the other public works in the State. After a few days
they returned to their work and that danger was averted. The next cry of “Wolf”
again arose from the discharge of some five hundred of these “sprigs of Shilelah,”
who having kept the whole county in alarm by their drunken riots and vagrant
habits, and performed nothing for the Company except eat their provisions, were
paid up and dismissed. They started at once for the city of refuge for
Brunswick malcontents, and for aught we know some of them may now be holding
offices of trust and profit in the corporation. It was thought that the company
must have failed, or why discharge five hundred of “the finest pisantry
in Europe?” By some means or other, however, the Company survived the loss and
about four hundred Negroes were procured at a high rate of wages, and provisions
better in quality and more in quantity than their masters demanded, are
furnished them.—No complaint has ever reached us that they have been ill
treated or that the Company has failed to perform the conditions of the contract
except in meeting the first quarterly payment. This we regret to say has not
been done, and had such a failure to meet a pecuniary engagement occurred in
ordinary times, the credit of the Company would have justly suffered, and
the confidences of the community in the success of this work, would properly be
diminished. But at this time when the Banks throughout the union have stopped
specie payments, when not a tithe of the obligations of our citizens becoming
due are met, when no species of property can be exchanged for cash and as by
general consent payments are suspended, why should this Company more than other
corporations be expected to meet its engagements or its credit suffer, while
that of others remains unimpaired? The notes of the various Banks from Darien to
Eastport pass as readily as before this pressure—their credit is as good and
their actual ability is as undoubted. The same is the case with the innumerable
host of individuals who have stopped payment, and yet they show assets to much
larger amounts than their liabilities. The truth is simply this, if the
Brunswick Company had met this engagement it would have performed more then is
in the present power of Banks and individuals; they have not done this and are
precisely in the same situation with the whole mercantile world. The generous
sympathy and condescending pity which are expressed by some, for the distress
produced by the bankruptcy of the Brunswick Company, like crocodile’s tears, are
for effect. And the best of the joke is, that they only excite the merriment of
those over whose imaginary misfortunes they are shed. From our knowledge
of the members and their standing at the North, we are willing to pledge our
honor that there is not a stronger Company, both in wealth, respectability and
intelligence than this, and that their obligations are as secure as ninety-nine
hundredths of the debts of the Continent.
Pg. 2 col. 5
MAIL ARRANGEMENTS—It seems as if particular pains were taken to give
Brunswick the oldest news. The mail is received here twice a week, while Darien
receives it three times. Then the Southern Mail comes also by way of Darien. But
the worst arrangement is in the progress of the mail departing hence. It leaves
every Tuesday, and after travelling [sic] six miles, is allowed to rest until
the following Friday, and the mail leaving Brunswick on that day, rests at the
half way house until the following Tuesday. The Southern mail also is obliged to
go to Darien, so that after travelling [sic] about twelve miles in as many days,
it at last takes a fair start for the South. Several petitions have been
forwarded to the Post Office Department without any effect. This ought not to
be, and we hope the Post Master General will pay that attention to these
petitions which they deserve, and in this case give us proof of that vigilance
and ability, which friends and foes concede he possesses.
Pg. 3 col. 5
NOTICE—All persons are hereby cautioned against hunting on Blyth [sic]
Island, under the penalty of the law as it will positively be enforced against
Oak Grove, Glynn Co., June 15, 1837.
WANTED TO PURCHASE—A GANG of ONE HUNDRED NEGROES, for which the Cash
will be paid.
Oak Grove, Glynn Co., June 15, 1837.
SELECT SCHOOL—NOW in operation under the superintendence of the subscriber,
about nine miles above Brunswick, in the vicinity of John Burnett, Esq.
In which youth of both sexes may receive instruction in all the branches usually
taught in our academies. Board may be obtained for a few individuals in the
immediate vicinity on reasonable terms. Terms of Tuition. Common branches of
English studies, six dollars per quarter. Languages and higher branches of
Mathematics, eight dollars.
ELAM S. ASHCRAFT
GEORGIA—GLYNN COUNTY—WHEREAS JAMES C. MANGHAM, has applied to me for
Letters of Administration on the Estate and Effects of JACOB LINDER, each
of said County, deceased—
These are therefore to cite and
admonish all and singular the kindred and creditors of the said deceased to be
and appear at my office in the time prescribed by law, to show cause if any they
have, why said Letters should not be granted.
Witness the Honorable J. Hamilton
Couper, one of the Justices of said Court, this 12th June, 1837.
JOHN BURNETT, Clerk
June 15. C.O.G.C.
PAINTING—THE subscriber would inform the inhabitants of Brunswick and those
of Glynn and the adjoining counties, that he will be in readiness the coming
Autumn to execute any orders in his line, such as
House, Sign, Coach. Chaise, Chair and
Also, Golding, varnishing
Furniture, &c done at the shortest notice and on satisfactory terms.
A supply of Paints, Oils, Glass, &c
constantly on hand.
FRANCIS H. TUFTS
TO HIRE—TWO first rate Negro Carpenters. For further information enquire at
Thursday 22 June 1837; Vol. 1 No. 2
Pg. 3 col. 1
THE REPORT OF COL. BALDWIN. In the previous numbers we have published
the Legislative and Congressional documents, relating to the harbor of
Brunswick, and in the present number is inserted portions of the Report drawn up
by Col. Baldwin. This gentleman is extensively known as a practical
Engineer of great experience and learning. The Dry Docks constructed by him for
the use of the Navy, are among the most perfect specimens of art to be met with
in the continent, and his various surveys and examinations, prove him to be one
of the most accomplished Engineers of the day. The confidence placed in his
judgment by those acquainted with him is unlimited, and no one could have been
selected, whose opinions would receive more deference. When, therefore, it was
first proposed to Northern capitalists to invest property in this work, they
employed this gentleman to examine the harbor, and also the facilities for
constructing a canal. They were not willing to embark in an enterprise requiring
and expenditure of millions, without understanding fully the means by which
their money should be returned, and they at some future time reap the reward of
their labors. Accordingly Col. Baldwin came prepared to examine the
ground with an eye to the interest of his employers—his feelings prejudices,
and wishes were with his Northern friends, and nothing however slight, which
could detract from its value would be likely to escape his observation. That
feeling of State pride which might have led the Commissioners to view every
thing in the most favorable light, could not of course influence him. He did not
look at the subject with the eye of a Georgian, anticipating the growth of a
city, and the opening of a port, which should add so much to the wealth and
importance of his State, overlooking the obstacles to be removed, and the
disadvantages to be overcome. But he examined it as a business man, with sole
reference to the profit which should accrue to those undertaking the heavy work,
and with this feeling he made his survey. It will be observed that he
continually corroborates the statements of the Commissioners, and thus affords
accumulative evidence of the accuracy of their Report. He also adds another to
the number of those, who after careful and thorough examination, have pronounced
this the best harbor south of the Chesapeake. In fact, those have spoken the
most violently against Brunswick, who know the least about it. Upon the strength
of Col. Baldwin’s Report, together with the exertions of a citizen of
Glynn County, the stock has been taken up—the work commenced, and now
progressing more vigorously than at any time.
It may be fair to remark that two
errors are said to exist in this Report. One being an unimportant mistake in
regard to the construction of the Steamboats used on the Altamaha. And the
other, in regard to the depth of water at Dob(o)y. For the last mistake, (if
such it is) he was indicted by the Grand Jury of McIntosh County. But as if this
were not considered sufficient proof of his error, a letter has been published,
written by a Lieut. Ramsay of the Navy, which we are informed was
prepared for the purpose of showing that Dob(o)y bar deserves a much better
character than it has heretofore borne. Should we be able to procure a copy of
this letter, we shal lay it before our readers. For we are desirous of doing
justice to all the towns which may be injured by the growth of Brunswick. The
objection has also been made that Col. Baldwin went beyond his province,
in speaking at all of Darien or its port. But it seems to us that eh did no more
than the strict performance of his duty required. He was employed to report the
advantages presented by Brunswick, and the resources it could command;—and
surely in speaking of the excellence of its harbor, and the trade to be drawn
from the Altamaha by means of a Canal, it was necessary to explain the reasons
why that trade should leave its old channels. These reasons appealed to him to
be the unhealthiness of the town, and the inferiority of the harbor at the mouth
of the Altamaha. If that harbor could afford the necessary security and
facilities for extensive commerce, then Brunswick was not required, and he was
compelled to show that Dob(o)y and Darien, did not afford the requisite
advantages. Without offering an opinion at present on this subject, we shall
reserve any further remarks until we comment on the letter of the Lieutenant to
which allusion has been made.
Pg. 3 col. 2
THE CANAL TO THE ALTAMAHA. Although much money has been expended on this
work, the results have as yet been small. This has been owing to several
mistakes committed by the Company, but which have now been corrected. The great
error was in procuring Irishmen instead of blacks. The great works of Internal
Improvements at the North, have been constructed by Irish laborers, and when
kept under proper control, they serve there a very useful purpose. Aware of this
fact, the Company naturally supposed that these men could be as easily managed
here as elsewhere. But the experiment proved the fallacy of their expectations.
For removed from the wholesome restraints imposed on them by a dense population,
and with overseers incapable of commanding respect or obedience, they acted very
much as they pleased; and from the day of their arrival to that of their
departure, our quiet town was but one scene of drunkenness and riot.—Five
hundred Irishmen were brought out and paid for three months time, and their
labor was not enough to pay their passage. When any of the kind friends and well
wishers of Brunswick, are inclined to talk of the money thrown away by the
Company, they will be performing an act of justice to mention that the greater
part of the money so spent, was for Irish labor. But not only was there a
loss of money and provisions, but also of time. For nothing worth
mentioning had been accomplished at the time the blacks commenced in March. Of
these, about two hundred have been employed in draining the town, and from a
calculation made by the Engineers, the same labor on the Canal would have
completed two miles. The other gang has not worked under such favorable
circumstances, but still their results are favorable. The whole force is now
actively engaged on the Canal, and at the expiration of the year, a good portion
will be completed. Should the paralysis under which the business of the world is
now suffering, be at all relieved with the new year, a large force will be
placed on the work which will be pushed forward with renewed activity.
Pg. 3 col. 5
NOTICE—ON the first of July sealed proposals will be received at Bethel, for
the building of a Bridge across the Little Buffalo Creek. Persons who wish to
contract for the building of this bridge will state the terms for which they
will build at the old site and also at the new.
P.P. GIGNILLIAT Treasurer
Thursday 6 July 1837
LIFE AT THE WAYNE SPRINGS—A traveler passing through the pine forests of
Wayne would not suspect that among the hills and glades were the habitations of
man-that elegance and wealth had made these solitudes the scenes of social
intercourse and happiness. Yet were he to follow the windings of the carriage
paths which so frequently enter the public road, he would be conducted to rustic
cottages, the abodes of gentlemen, who retreating here from their plantation,
spend the Summer months, enjoying all the pleasures flowing from agreeable and
refined society. Within a short space are scattered some dozen families who live
on the most intimate terms. A club house in the neighborhood of the Post Office,
is the rendezvous on each Saturday for the gentlemen, where a dinner is
furnished by the members in turn. Billiards, bowling alleys and quoits, furnish
them with amusement, and not unfrequently “pic nics” and dancing parties are got
up and the ladies and gentlemen living within a circuit of many miles invited.
Such a party was had last week, and an assemblage of beauty and talent that
might will have graced the most polished circles of our country, enjoyed the
pleasures of a rural festival. Such little events serve much to break the
monotony of a secluded life, and until Brunswick shall contain within itself
that greatest source of happiness, refined society, commend us to the Wayne
9 November 1837
ACADEMY—The Waynesville Academy, through the past year in operation, will
be opened again for the reception of scholars on the first MONDAY in December
next. The scholastic year will be divided into two terms—each 23
weeks—allowing two vacations—one of two weeks in May and another of four weeks
in November. As to location, few places afford equal advantages. The
neighborhood is comparatively free from temptations to vice—its health is
proverbial, and its society of the most refined and unexceptionable character.
It is the determination of those concerned in the institution to make it what is
should be in every respect worthy of the patronage of an enlightened community;
and making it such, that patronage they hope to receive.
Small scholars are not however
desire; and no scholars will be received or retained whose habits render them
Application upon all business;
relative to the institution may be made to: WILLIAM BAIRD—Waynesville, 9
LIST OF LETTERS—REMAINING in the Post Office at Brunswick, Ga., on the 30th
of Sept. 1837, and if not taken out before that 30th of November, 1837, will be
sent to the Post Office Department as dead letters:
J.W. Frost—Dennis J.
Goodbread 2—John Sawith 2—Capt. William Lane—Mr. Manow—James
C. Mangham—James C. Morgan—Oglethorpe House—President of the
Brunswick Bank 3—Wm. Tyson—Frederick Wadmerth.
GEE DUPREE, P.M.
NOTICE—Four months after date, application will be made to the Inferior
Court of the County of Glynn, when setting for ordinary purposes, for leave to
sell the real estate of ELIJAH HORNSBY, late of Glynn County, deceased.
Administratrix. Oct. 19, 1837
16 November 1837
NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS—T.W. Goode, Esq., is authorized to receipt for
money paid for the "Advocate" and also to receive subscriptions. he will be at
Milledgeville during the session of the Legislature. Nov. 9.
7 December 1837
MARRIED—In Glynn, 30th ult. by Rev. J.B. Andrews, Mr. James Geiger
to Miss Martha Harris.
25 January 1838
MARRIED—On the 18th inst. by the Rev. McDonald, Mr. William Salins
to Miss Susan Myddleton, all of Glynn County.
22 February 1838
MARRIED—On the 15th inst. by the Rev. Joseph R. Andrew, Mr. John
Homes to Miss Amelia Palmer, both of this County.
"She is thine—the word is (can not read)
Hand to hand and heart to heart—
Though all other ties are broken,
Thine these bonds shall never part.
Thou has taken her (can not read)
From the altar a holy shrine,
Each the other's love possession,
Say what care should cloud that (can not read)
She will be to thee a blessing—
And a shield to her be thou."
Tuesday 12 April 1838
Pg. 1 Col. 2
WANTED FOR HIRE
The undersigned wish to hire One
Thousand Negroes, to work on the Brunswick Canal, of whom one third may be
women. $16 per month will be paid for steady prime men and $13 for able women.
Payments will be made monthly or quarterly and ample security will be given—
Those who are disposed to hire may
rely upon a most careful superintendence and they are desired to make immediate
application. The Negroes will be abundantly provided for, well lodged, and
the sick will be placed in a commodious Hospital, where they will receive the
daily attendance of a well educated physician. For further particulars
reference is respectfully made to J.L. Locke, the Resident Engineer or to
any of the Planters of Glynn County who have had Negroes on the Canal the past
F. & A. PRATT.
Moses Wilson, Would
inform the public that he is ready to contract for putting up Houses, Stores, or
Buildings of any description at short notice and on reasonable terms.
He has lumber and building materials
of all kinds on hand, which he will furnish to order at low prices. Also,
White Lead, Paints, Oils & etc.
Any favor in his line would be
thankfully received and those who employ him may depend on having their orders
executed in a work-man like manner and with punctuality.
Just received from Boston, per schr. Columbia.
20 Bbls. New Flour
Bbls. Clear and Mess Pork
Brown and White Sugar
Negro Clothes, & etc.
Which will be sold for cash or approved credit by Geo. Harrington
& Co. Brunswick, Ga.
A first rate Northern HORSE, large,
young, sound and perfectly gentle in either in double or single harness.
Sold for no fault whatever. For further information apply at this office.
Francis D. Scarlett, Col. Island.
Pg. 1 Col. 3
Notice—It is hereby given that a contract has been entered into for the
building and fitting up of the Lighthouse at Cumberland island, (Georgia) and
that the same is engaged to be finished by the 1st of April next, and will be
lit up probably by the 15th of that month.
Collector and Sup. Of Lighthouses & District and Port of Saint Mary’s, Geo.
24 May 1838
MARRIED—At Colonel's Island, Glynn County, on the 17th inst. by the Rev.
Mr. Baird, Col. William McKay, of Florida, to Mrs. Mary Ann
Parland, relict of the late John Parland, and eldest daughter of
Francis M. Scarlett, Esq.
9 August 1838
INDIAN MURDERS IN WARE CO.—We last week gave our readers the report we had
heard of the Indian murders in Ware County. We regret that we had not, at that
time, received the following valued communication, which gives a more particular
account of the horrible murder of the Wiles family:
ST. MARY'S, 20 July 1838
On Saturday last, in the
neighborhood of Kettle Creek, Ware County, and within a very short distance of
the Okefinoke (sic), a horrible slaughter occurred in a family named Wiles.
This family consisted of ten persons, of whom seven were killed. Two children
escaped, and one (a boy) was taken prisoner by the Indians, it is supposed, as
he is missing. One of those who escaped is a boy about 12 years of age. He says,
that just before day break the savage yell was raised at each corner of the
house and was followed by a discharge of rifles. Mr. Wiles fired his
rifle once at the assailants, then fled through the back door, but was pursued
and shot dead after going 100 yards. An indiscriminate slaughter then took place
among the children, all of whom, it appears, were shot except one, of 3 or 4
years old, who was found with its brains beaten out, and the instrument of death
(a pine knot) lying close by with the marks of its destruction upon it. Mrs.
W. was among the slain. The boy says this was the work of six Indians. After
the massacre the house was burnt to the ground. Within a few miles of this,
Maj. Dearborn's detachment of Regulars was encamped, and upon the first
news, marched to the place, but only arrived to behold "the scattered wreck."
About the same time, a stroke of
lightning descended into the encampment of the Camden Detachment, near
Centreville, and killed a negro boy belonging to J.T. Rudolph; and
severely stunned many persons who were in a tent near by. Mr. Poincey,
who was in the act of dismounting, was, with his hors, prostrated, and remained
on the ground for some time in a state of insensibility, but has recovered.
The Camden Battalion, near
Centreville were disbanded yesterday.
The above, you may rely upon as
correct. My information states that many families are moving hastily from Ware
into Camden county, for better security; but I fear that our county will not be
exempt from the stealthy and murderous visitations of these savage fiends—since
it will be recollected that our frontier settlements are immediately in the
neighborhood of the supposed Indian Rendezvous—the Okefinoke (sic).
The steamer Santee arrived this
morning from Black Creek, and after taking in wood, proceeded on her way to
Savannah. Nothing important by her.
Since the above came to hand, we have received a letter from the Camp of the
Camden Volunteers, lately disbanded, of which we give the following extract. It
gives the same account of the severe thunder storm, mentioned above, ad contains
the additional important intelligence, that Maj. Dade of the Dragoons, is
in pursuit of the Indians and likely to overtake them:
Camp Hopkins, on the St. Marys River July 29th, 1838—One of our men who has been on furlough, has just come into camp bringing
the following intelligence from the scene of the Indian hostilities in Ware
County. He states that yesterday morning he heard the discharge of some thirty
or forty rifles, that after the firing had entirely ceased he went to the spot,
and there found that the savages had murdered Mr. Wiles, his wife and
seven children. Some of their bodies, he ways, were most cruelly mangled. He
also states that Capt. Dade of the Dragoons, was in pursuit of them, and
but two miles in their rear, the Indians having ten miles to go before they
could reach the swamp. There have been several reports stating that, the Indians
are near us. The above murder was committed within twenty-eight miles of our
Yours, &c. T.S.H.
(Correspondence of the Brunswick Advocate)
CAMDEN CO. GA, Aug. 1st 1838.
We are in a very great state of alarm
and I may say distress, in this and Ware County. A family by the name of
Wiles, eight in number, have been murdered in Ware, and report says one
other family by the name of Davis, fourteen in number, all within ten
days. The people of Ware and the Western part of this county, are leaving their
homes, cattle, and abundant crops to save their lives. This is a sad state of
Yours, &c. A resident of Camden.
Saturday 19 January 1839
Pg. 3 col. 5
PASSENGERS—Per schr Delta, from Bath, (Me.) Messrs. Bond, Moore and
Per schr Isabella, from Charleston, Messrs. Hodges, Barnwell,
Hayden, Harvey, Curtis, Butler and Read, and thirty in the steerage
to Couper & Nightingale.
Per steamer Forrester, from Savannah, F.M. Hall and lady,
Messrs. Wood, Harrison, Howard, Swift, Tucker, Lyman, and seventy-one in the
steerage to Couper & Nightingale.
MARINE INTELLIGENCE; PORT OF BRUNSWICK
ARRIVED—Jan. 13. Steamer Isis, Pearson, Savannah, for Florida.
10th. Schr Isabella, Crowell, Charleston, sundry
Steamer Forrester, Drake, Savannah. The F. left same day for
17th. Steamer Isis, Pearson, Florida, for
Schor Delta Moores, Bath, Me. 22 [illegible] lumber, &tc. To R.F.
SAILED—Schr Commerce, Hatchins, Charleston.
Sloop America, Burr, Savannah.
Saturday 23 February 1839
Pg. 3 col. 5
MARRIED—On Thursday, the 14th inst., by the Rev. Jos. Andrew,
Mr. William G. Quarterman to Mrs. Mary A. Grant, both of this
At Savannah, on the 13th inst., by the Rev. Mr.
Preston, Mr. H. Stiles Bell (editor of the McIntosh County Herald) to
Mrs. Frances A. Lewis, of that city.
At Waynesville, on the evening of the 2d inst., by B.C. Loper,
Esq., Mr. Henry S. Fort, formerly of Savannah, to Miss Caroline
Elizabeth, daughter of the late Samuel Higginbotham, Esq. of
Saturday 27 April 1839
Pg. 3 col. 2
The Grand Jury of McIntosh County, in the case of Mr. Charles L.
Barrett, indicted for killing Mr. Joseph S. Page, by whom he was
grossly assaulted in Darien, about a year since, returned a verdict of “No
Saturday 11 May 1839
Pg. 3 col. 5
MARRIED—At St. Marys, Ga. on the 27th ult., by the Rev. Mr. Baird,
DR. THOMAS FULLER HAZZARD, of St. Simons Island, to Miss SARAH STEWART
RICHARDSON, only daughter of Capt. Edmund Richardson, of the former