Miscellaneous News Articles

These articles were extracted from very early newspapers such as:
The Columbian Museum & Savannah Advertiser, The Georgian, The Savannah Georgian,
Georgian Gazette, and many others.


To easily find your ancestor's name, wait for the page to completely download, then press the CONTROL and F key, or go to the top of your screen and click on the drop down menu under Edit and then Find or Find on this page.


New York Weekly Journal (New York, NY); Thursday 24 May 1736; Pg. 4 col. 1


            Mr. Oglethorpe is now building a Fort of four Batlions [sic] on the Island of St. Simons, where a Canoe cannot pass without going very nigh the Fort, which is called Frederica.  There are already more than 200 Men at Work about it, It is said that he designs a larger and much better Fort on the S. West End of the said Island.
            He designs also a new Town behind Frederica, of which the People are very fond, the Land there being all cleared, and extraordinary good.  The Spanish Court had sent a Gentleman, Mr. Dimsky, along with Mr. Oglethorpe from England, who is gone to St. Augustine, in order to settle the Boundaries between Georgia and that Government, and it is hoped that the Frontiers of Georgia will be fixed on the River St. Juan.  Major Richards, fully instructed by Mr. Oglethorpe, is gone to St. Augustine on that Account three Week ago.



The Georgia Gazette; Wednesday 9 July 1766; pg. 4 col. 2

            RUN AWAY from the subscriber at Sapelo, a NEGRO FELLOW named HARRY, about 5 feet 8 inches high, 24 years of age, speaks bad English.  A reward of 20s. will be given to any person who takes him, and delivers him to the warden of the work house in Savannah, or at Sapelo to GEORGE GRAY.

The Georgia Gazette; Wednesday 15 October 1766; pg. 3 col. 2

            STRAYED or STOLEN, from the subscriber, on Sapelo river, in St. Andrew’s parish, last March, TWO GELDINGS, on of a dunish grey colour, branded on the shoulder or buttock SC, about 13 hands and a half high, about 5 years old, and paces a little; the other a large sorely has a bald face and three white feet.  They were seen last 3 miles above John Middleton’s on Alatamaha [sic].—Whoever will deliver them to Mr. John Oates, at the plantation of Lachlan McGillivray, Esq. near Savannah, or to me on Sapelo river, shall have 40s. reward.  ANGUS CLARK.

The Georgia Gazette; Wednesday 1 June 1768; pg. 4 col. 1

FOR SALE BY THE SUBSCRIBER—Three Valuable Tracts of Land Upon the River Alatamaha [sic].

            THE one a tract of 500 acres, fitted about three miles above the town of Darien, about 400 acres of which is fine river swamp upon which there is a full command of the tide, and a schooner of any burthen may lie at the landing.  The high land is both good and convenient, and fit for two settlements.
            One other tract of 600 acres, fit for corn, rice, indico [sic], or hemp, well timbered with white oak and cypress, about 30 acres cleared and u nder fence, a great part of which has been plowed, with a dwelling house and a barn.
            Also, a small island of fresh marsh, containing 60 acres, situated opposite to Mr. Laurens’s settlement upon Broughton Island.
            Any person inclined to purchase the above may treat with Mr. George Baillie in Savannah, or with me at Sapelo.  ROBERT BAILLIE.

The Georgia Gazette; Wednesday 20 July 1768; pg. 2 col. 2

            RUN AWAY the 14th inst. from Mr. Forrester’s sawmill, on the way from Savannah, A MULATTO BOY, named BILLY, about five feet two inches high, has a remarkable bushy head, much pitted with the smallpox, had on when he went away an old oznabrigs [sic] frock and trowsers [sic], with an iron chain round his neck, which he endeavours to conceal by wrapping a cloth round it.  He was just brought back from St. Kitts in the schooner Sally, where he was carried about two years ago by one Capt. Simpson, who employed him ever since as a sailor.  He will probably pretend to be free, and attempt to get off again in a vessel.  All masters of vessels are hereby forwarned [sic] against carrying him off, or employing him, as they may depend upon being prosecuted with the utmost rigour.  A REWARD of TWENTY SHILLINGS, with all reasonable charges, will be paid to whoever apprehends the said mulatto fellow, and delivers him to the keeper of the Work-House in Savannah, or to the subscriber at his plantation on Sapelo.  GEORGE M’KINTOSH.
N.B.  The above mulatto boy was advertised in this paper about two years ago.  July 16, 1768.

The Georgia Gazette; Wednesday 15 February 1769; pg. 4 col. 1

            WENT AWAY the 13th inst. from the subscriber’s plantation on Sapelo River, A TALL NEGROE FELLOW, very black, speaks pretty good English, Angola born, and is named BRISTOL; he is branded on the breast I W in small letters, and came from the West Indies some years ago, is well acquainted about Sunbury and Midway, where he was taken up once before.  Any person that will apprehend the said fellow, and deliver him to me, shall have a reward of twenty shillings, with all reasonable charges.  GEORGE M’INTOSH.  17th January, 1769.


Georgia Gazette (Savannah, GA); Thursday 29 July 1790; Pg. 2 col. 1


            WE the Grand Jury for the county of Glynn beg leave to congratulate your Honour on your appointment as Chief Judge of this state; an appointment, from experience, we are convinced, you will fill with no less honour to yourself than benefit to the state.
            The inhabitants of this county, having been drove from their plantations and homes by Indian depredations; robbed and plundered of their property; several of our citizens murdered, and others carried into captivity; their houses burnt, and themselves and families confined to the sea islands, where they have experience every degree of distress incident to such situation; they found a consolation in their distress, when they learnt your Honour was appointed one of the Commissioners to treat of peace with the Indians, having the highest opinion of your prudence and abilities on that occasion, and heard, with extreme regret, the failure of the negotiation.
            We have seen with pleasure, since the counties of Glynn and Camden have been organized, your unwearied assiduities to establish order and good government amongst us; and we flatter ourselves, whenever a peace shall be established with the Indians, our county, possessing, as it does, every advantage of soil, climate, and navigation, will in a short time experience those blessings to which your time and abilities have been so generously and honourably directed.
            We beg you to accept our sincere wishes for your health and happiness; and return you our most sincere thanks for your excellent charge.
            We present, as a grievance of a most alarming tendency, that nothing effectual has been done, since the establishment of the Federal Government, to compel the Spaniards to deliver up the fugitive slaves belonging to the inhabitants of this state; these wanton and publick robberies are felt by many of our inhabitants, who are made to feel the more keenly by the manner the Spaniards treat those who follow their slaves; they are treated with smiles and hospitality, while their owners are refused the liberty of passing their first post, and laughed at when they complain.  This is an evil which operates more powerfully against the settling of those southern counties than an Indian war; because wars have their end, but the Spanish robbery may, and most probably will, increase, if the Federal Government does not take effectual measures to stop this growing evil.  And what adds to this misfortune is, the manner the Federal troops are stationed, because Beard’s Bluff, the lowest or most eastern station on the Alatamaha [sic], is thirty miles to the west of the common thoroughfare of such of our fugitives as pass by land, and the station on St. Mary’s is eight miles above the water passage, and as many below the land passage.  If this evil is not checked, the citizens of this state will be compelled and will certainly do themselves justice.
            We present, as a grievance, the want of a publick road from the north end of St. Simon’s Island to the south end of the same; and we recommend that John Braddock, James Harrison, Raymond Demere Jun., James Moore, and John Piles, be appointed Commissioners for feeing the same carried into effect.
            We recommend that your Honour appoint Constables for the county of Glynn




Columbian Museum & Savannah Advertiser; Tuesday 19 April 1796; pg. 3 col. 4

Ran away from the Subscriber's plantation, on Savannah Back River, a few days ago, the following NEGROES, viz:  A Negro Man, named SAMPSON, lately purchased of Capt. John Dilworth, of Camden County, in this State; he is full 6 feet high, very black, his head pretty grey, walks upright, is supposed to be between 40 and 50 years of age, and formerly belonged to the estate of the late Henry Sourby; he is well known in the southern parts of this State, being used to go between St. Mary's and Savannah, in a boat with Mr. Dilworth, and its supposed to be gone to St. Mary's, Beaufort, or some of the Sea Islands, as he went away in a small Canoe.--Also, from the same Plantation about the same time, a Young Negro Fellow, named SIMON, also very black, active and artful; about twenty years of age, near six feet tall, very liekly, strong and well made, is apt to flutter a little, if surprized or sharply spoken to, born in South Carolina, and purchased by me, together with his mother, brother and sisters, of the estate of Col. Joseph Maybank of St. Thomas's Parish in that State, where it is probable he may attempt to go; it is said he has a wife either at Mr. Campbell's plantation, adjoining mine, or at Dr. Channings on Savannah River.  A Reward of Twenty DOLLARS, will be paid for apprehending and delivering Sampson to me in Savannah, and Five Dollars for Simon.  If either of them are harboured, the person so doing may expect to be prosecuted.
            JOHN GLEN.B
Savannah, April 18th.

Georgia Gazette; Friday 12 January 1798; pg. 2 col. 1

WILL BE SOLD, at the Courthouse in the Town of St. Mary, County of Camden, between the hours of 10 and 3 o'clock, on Tuesday the 6th day of March next,
A Negro Fellow, named Will, seized under execution as the property of John Dilworth, at the suit of Gen. James Jackson.  Conditions cath.  The property pointed out by the Plaintiff Agent.
            J.M. LINDSAY, S.C.C.
Sheriff's Office, November 30, 1797.



The City Gazette & Daily Advertiser (Charleston, SC); Tuesday 12 June 1798; pg. 3 col. 2

            Died, on the 29th ult. at Sapelo river, in McIntosh county, Mrs. Mary McKenzie, 89 years of age, of which she lived 50 years in that county, without any sickness ‘till her death.
            Died, at Port Royal, Jamaica, on the 1st May last, Elizabeth Brown, a black woman, at the very advanced age of 124 years.



The Georgia Gazette (Savannah, GA); Thursday 12 November 1801; pg. 2 col. 2

            October 27.  Arrived this day, the ship Sarah, Capt. Neal, from Africa, in 62 days, with a cargo of 217 slaves, in high health, addressed to James Moss, Esq.



The City Gazette & Commercial Daily Advertiser (Charleston, SC); Friday 26 March 1819; pg. 2 col. 5

            Died, on Monday, the 15th inst on Sapelo Island, after a few days illness, MR. JAMES SHEARWOOD, a native of Pennsylvania, aged 45 years.  He has left a wife and two daughters.  He was as ingenious and industrious mechanic, and supported a character [illegible] honest.



The Savannah Georgian (Savannah, GA); Tuesday 21 August 1827; pg. 3 col. 4


            RANAWAY from on board the sloop Favourite in Savannah, on the 4th day of August, instant, a small pock marked negro man named Solomon, about 40 years of age.  It is believed that he is lurking in and about Savannah, and is probably harbored there by some person of colour.  The above reward will be paid to any person, who will apprehend the said Solomon and lodge him in Jail in that place, by Elias Fort, Esq.


aug 18                         199—E

[NOTE:  James Athelston Dawson Lawrence was a resident of St. Simons Island and Elias Fort was a residence of Eastern Wayne County and Western Glynn County—ALH]



The Georgian (Savannah, GA); Tuesday 15 December 1829; pg. 3 col. 3


RAN AWAY from the plantation of the subscriber, three Negro Men, named HARRY, JULY and AUGUST.  The two former were bought from John Flynn, the latter from Chas. A. Flynn.  As the runaways have taken with them the plantation boat, it is considered to be highly probable that they have gone either to South Carolina or Florida.  The above reward will be paid if they are delivered upon the plantation, or FIFTY DOLLARS, if lodged in the Jail of either Savannah or St. Mary’s, so that they may be removed.


Blyth [sic] Island, Glynn County, Dec. 1.



The Georgian (Savannah, GA); Saturday 15 October 1831; pg. 1 col. 5


            On the first Tuesday in November next,
            WILL be sold in the Town of Brunswick, Glynn County, between the usual hours of sale, the following slave Dick, levied on as the property of James A.D. Lawrence, to satisfy the foreclosure of a mortgage in favor of Samuel M. Burnett.

oct 11              W. MABRY, S.G.C.



The Georgian (Savannah, GA); Friday 05 July 1832; pg. 4 col. 2

NOTICE—FOUR months after date application will be made to the Honourable the Justices of the Inferior Court of Chatham County, when sitting for Ordinary purposes, for leave to sell the interest of Charles A.F. Irvine, Martha A. Irvine, Caroline A.F. Irvine and James E. Irvine, being one undivided seventh part each, in and to a tract of land containing 202 ½ acres, being numbered 13 in the 21st District of the 1st section in the County of Lee in this State, as also in and to a tract of land containing 202 ½ acres, being number [sic] 244 in the 19th district of the 2d section in the County of Muscogee in said state, as also in and to five negroes named Flora, Jane, Titus, Clarinda and Jonah—the said tracts drawn by Alexander Irvin’s [sic] orphans, and the said property to be sold for the benefit of said orphans.

ANN E. STEWART, Guardian.

april 25—ju



The Georgian (Savannah, GA); Saturday 6 October 1832; pg. 4 col. 1


            WILL be sold in the Town of Brunswick, on the first Tuesday in November, between the usual hours of sale,
            One tract of land containing two hundred acres—bounded on the south by lands of R. Labon, and on all other sides by vacant land, run at the time of survey.  Levied on as the property of Henry Summerline to satisfy an execution on the foreclosure of a mortgage in favour of Willis Franklin.  Also, one tract of land containing two hundred and ninety-nine ¼ acres, bounded on the north-east by William Nelson’s land on all other sides by vacant or unknown lands at the time of survey, levied on as the property of John Gruntham [sic] under and by virtue of an attachment issued out of the Glynn superior Court, in favor of William Clemants [sic].

aug 9     A.G. BURNETT, D.S.G.C.


            On the first Tuesday in November next,
            WILL be sold in the town of Brunswick, Glynn Co., between the usual hours of sale, two negroes, named Simon and cloey levied on to satisfy an execution in favour of Smith & Dean against Mary Abbott, and one in favor of John Anderson and John Franklin vs. Mary Abbott.
            Also, three tracts of land, one containing two hundred and eighty-five and a quarter (285 ¼) acres, bounded on the south-east by Parrott’s lands, on the south-west by Paynes and on the north-east by Robert Wall’s land, and on all other sides by unknown lands, one other tract containing four hundred and forty three (443) acres, bounded on the north-west by marshes of the St. Tilla and on the north-east, by old survey of Wanes, by the south-east by Walls Land.  One other tract containing two hundred (200) acres, bounded on the north-west and south-west by vacant land, on the north-east by Hazzard’s land, and on all other sides by vacant land—all levied on as the property of Solomon Moody to satisfy an execution in favor of Ann M’Nish, Executrix of William M’Nish, against Solomon Moody.

oct 4     A.G. BURNETT, D.S.C.


            On the first Tuesday in November next,
            WILL be sold in the town of Brunswick, Glynn county, between the usual hours of sale—
            One negro woman named Sary, levied on as the property of James Jones, under an attachment issued out of a Justices Court in favour of J.A.D. Lawrence, levy made and returned to one by a Constable.  Also, one black nae [sic], levied on as the property of Jacob Moore to satisfy an execution in favor of John Andus.

oct 4     A.G. BURNETT, D.S.G.C.

Pg. 4 col. 2

NOTICE—FOUR months after date application will be made to the Hon. the Inferior Court of Wayne County, when sitting as a Court of Ordinary, for leave to sell Lot 153, in the 29th district of lee, the property of Susan Gibson, orphan.

july 13     JANE GIBSON, Guardian.


EDUCATION—THE subscriber wishes to obtain, before January next, a situation in a private School or Academy.  He has been engaged in the education of youth, almost constantly, for the last ten years; and fro his experience, fells himself competent to teach all the branches of English and Classical instruction, Mathematics, and such other studies as form the usual course preparatory to collegiate admission.  For further particulars, he would refer to himself, or the following gentlemen, who will promptly reply to any inquiries that that [sic] may be made of them.—

The Rev’d. J. STILES}  [all] Darien
The Rev’d. J. EVANS, P.E.}

EDMUND ATKINSON, Esq., Camden county.

THOS. BUTLER KING, Esq. St. Simons Isl’d

J. ABRAHAMS, Esq’r.}   [all of] Waynesville, Wayne county, Georgia.
S.C. KING, Esq’r.}

ELIAS FORT, Esq., Savannah

Waynesville, Wayne county, July 27, 1832

aug 2     198

NOTICE—ALL persons having demands against the Estate of J. Newton Chapelle, of Camden County, deceased, will present the same properly authenticated; and those indebted make immediate payment to


aug 23



The Macon Georgia Telegraph; Tuesday 9 February 1841; pg. 3 col. 5

MARRIED—On the 26th ult. At Mount Arorat, Glynn County, by the Hon. Francis M. Scarlett, ADAM S. GOODBREAD, to Miss LOUISA HIGGINBOTHAM, of said county.



The Georgia Telegraph & Republic (Macon, GA); Wednesday 9 July 1845; pg. 2 col. 3

SAVANNAH, June 24, 1845—Mr. Mozo and the Treasure found by him on the banks of the Altamaha.

            DEAR SIR—It is not probably known to many of our citizens, that a regular trade was carried on in England with the Spanish Provinces in America, and elsewhere, by the Birmingham manufacturers of spurious Spanish dollars, from the year 1790 to 1800, and perhaps to a later period.  This base coin was made and sold in Birmingham, as they sold any other hardware—giving to the metal the appearance and stamp of Spanish dollars—and were bartered away at the rate of about five shillings to the pound sterling.
            These manufactures made with impunity this base foreign coin in great quantities, but would have been hung, every man of them, if they had tried their skill on an English sixpence.
            The merchants of that period, settled in Savannah, were urged to take large sums of it, and I was informed recently, by a gentleman of great observation and knowledge, who was in England about the year 1799, and spent some time there, that to the honor of these merchants the offer was indignantly declined, and in justice to Capt. Swarbrack, I mention his name, as he was particularized; yet doubtlessly much of this Birmingham money found its way into Georgia and the Floridas, and the large amount said to have been got by Mr. Mozo (who is a very honest and clever man,) was without doubt taken by speculators to the place where it was found, for the purpose of trading it away to the Indians, for skins and other products of the wilderness country, and for security, was buried where it was discovered by Mozo, and such sums only disinterred as might be wanted for trade.  I understood that the date of these dollars was 1795.  They may be worth something to Mr. Mozo, at least, I should suppose, to the amount of the silver they may contain.  It is probably they were secreted by persons who were either destroyed by the Indians, or were obliged suddenly to vacate the trading establishment.
            Yours truly, W.J. McINTOSH.



Daily Chronicle & Sentinel (Augusta, GA); Wednesday 26 January 1859; pg. 2A col. 3

ALLEGED PENSION FRAUD.—The Savannah Republican says—“We understand that Samuel M. Burnett, formerly a member of the Legislature from Glynn county, has been arrested upon the affidavit of Lucien Peyton, Esq., a special agent of the United States for alleged frauds on the Government.  The charge consists in sending false and counterfeited writings to the Department on account and in support of claims for Bounty Land in favor of various persons.  Mr. Burnett was brought to the city Friday last, and leaves to-day (Monday) for Brunswick, in custody of the Deputy Marshal, and the special agent to execute a bond of $20,000 with securities for his appearance at the next District Court, to be held in Savannah, on the 2d Tuesday in February next.  The Government, through the efficient Commissioner of Pensions, George C. Whiting, Esq., is displaying great energy and promptitude in ferreting out and prosecuting frauds on the Pension fund.
            “We know nothing of the strength of the evidence upon which Mr. Burnett is to be brought to trial.  From the high official position he has held—having been more than once a member of the Georgia Legislature, and being now one of the Justices of the Inferior Court of Glynn county—we are led to hope that the charges may be ill-founded, and the trial result in a vindication of his innocence.



Martha A. Strobhart, Invitation to Funeral—January 13, 1860
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.

            The friends and acquaintances of Francis F. Strobhart and Family are invited to attend the Funeral of Mrs. Martha A. Strobhart, this morning at 10 o’clock from the residence of the family.  Corner of Zubly and St. Gall Streets.

[**This invitation of friends and acquaintances to the Funeral of Martha A. Strobhart was found recorded at the Georgia Historical Society Library and Archives, 501 Whitaker Street, Savannah, Ga.  During this time the details of a funeral service were noted under the “Invitations to Funeral” section of the Savannah newspaper.  Zubly and St. Gall Streets were near Broughton; Zubly still exists, St. Gall does not.]



The Georgia Weekly Telegraph (Bibb County); Friday 21 June 1861; pg. 1 col. 5


            We have received the first number of a paper bearing the above title, devoted to the interests of the Georgia army now in the field, and published at Camp Symmes, (head quarters of the 2d Georgia Regiment) near Brunswick.  It is published semi weekly at 30 cents per month, upon the material formerly used by the Brunswick Advocate.  We wish it success, as the undertaking is a highly laudable one.  By means of it we can learn the state and condition of our brave army encamped near Brunswick.  It is edited with considerable ability.



The Macon Telegraph (Bibb County); Friday 19 July 1861; pg. 4 col. 2

            A correspondent of the Waynesboro South a private in the Burke Sharp Shooters, writes from camp Semmes, Brunswick, July 8.  “A large ship is reported as lying about seven miles off the bar.  We are in a helpless condition should she determine upon our evacuation of this point.  If they attempt to land a force, however, beyond the protecting fire of a ship’s guns, the blood of the 2d regiment will flow like water, and bear fitting testimony to the patriotism and gallantry of old Georgia’s sons.”



The Burlington Weekly Hawkeye (Burlington, Iowa); Saturday 10 October 1861; pg. 2 col. 2

        Lieutenant commanding Gibson, of the U.S. gunboat Senora, under date of Duboy [Doboy] Sound, Sept. 28th, says that on the night of the 22d ult. he sent an armed boat crew up the Altamaha River and destroyed Hudson Place Salt Works, near Darien, Georgia, entirely demolishing boilers, engines, vats, &c., and bringing off Jas. H. Lockwood, Superintendent, his two children and a free negro; other employees and visitors fled at the approach of the force. The Works were situated within two miles of a rebel encampment, whose pickets came very near the Works, but they did not discover or resist the attack.



The Burlington Weekly Hawkeye (Burlington, Iowa); Saturday 31 May 1862; pg. 3 col. 2

The Savannah News of the 17th says two Yankee steamers opened fire on Darien on Friday. No damage.



The Daily Chronicle & Sentinel (Augusta, GA); Monday 7 July 1862; pg. 1 cols. 1 & 2

From the Savannah News, 5th.


            We saw yesterday, at the office of Messrs. Blount & Dawson a negro man named Robert belonging to Mr. Francis M. Scarlett, of Glynn county, who has just returned from a visit to his friends at Hilton Head, James Island and other Yankee localities.  He ran away from his master’s place, near Waynesville, in March last, took a boat and went to St. Simon’s Island.  He discovered three gunboats off St. Simon’s, one of which hailed him.  He approached the steamer, and received from them a countersign.  He was then told to go to another one of the gunboats, and when hailed, to give the word “Contraband.”  He then approached the steamer indicated—the Pocahontas—gave the countersign, and was taken on board.
            He remained on board the Pocahontas eight days, during which time he was kept steadily at work, scouring decks, &c.  While on board the gunboat, she attempted to go up the Altamaha river, but was prevented from going as far as Darien in consequence of pilings, which they were unable to remove.  While on this trip she sent a boat with eight or nine men ashore to procure fresh meat and other pickings.  The boat was fired into by Confederate pickets, killing three and wounding two others.  The survivors immediately returned to the Pocahontas, and the dead were subsequently buried on St. Simon’s Island.
            From the Pocahontas he was transferred to a steamer, the name of which he does not remember, and taken down on the Florida coast.  Here he was placed on board the Wabash, and shortly afterwards taken to Port Royal.  While at the last named place, he worked on the wharf in loading and unloading Yankee steamers, for which he was promised $8 per month.  He worked two months but received pay for only one.  He afterwards worked a short time in a saw-mill and received no pay.  He was then employed by Major White of Massachusetts, as a body servant.  The Major promised to pay $10 a month, but after repeated application for pay, stated that he had no money.  He asked Robert how he would like to go to Massachusetts, who replied “very well,” but says he had then determined to come back home as soon as an opportunity offered.
            From Hilton Head Robert followed the Yankee troops to North Edisto, and finally to James Island.  He remained on the last named Island three weeks, during which time the battle of Secessionville [sic] was fought.  A few days after the battle he succeeded in eluding the Federal pickets, and passed into our lines.  He was subsequently sent to Charleston and afterwards turned over to his master.
            Robert states that the Yankees are organizing companies of contrabands, at a place called “Fish Hall,” or Hilton Head, and that it is their intention to form them into a regiment.  He explains the modus operandi by which the negroes are induced to enter the service.  Religious meetings are held, at stated periods, at which a Rev. Mr. Wilson officiates.  At these meetings an “enrolling officer” was always present, who proceeded to take the names of the able-bodied men present.  These were asked to volunteer, and those who refused—by far the greater number—were forcibly sent to Fish Hall and mustered into service.  He attended one meeting, which was addressed by a colored brother from the North.  A sentinel stood at the door, (as was the invariable custom) while the colored brother harangued his audience in behalf of a church in Canada, and a forced contribution was taken up at the expense of the imprisoned contrabands.  This was the last meeting Robert attended, and he reports that the audience were at last accounts growing distressingly thin, the general impression being that their colored orator pocketed the money, and allowed the church in Canada to look after itself.
            Robert reports the negroes on Hilton Head dissatisfied, and many of them anxious to escape.  The island is closely guarded, and escape is next to impossible.  A negro attempted to get away, while he was on the island, and was shot.  The negroes are worked from daylight until eight and nine o’clock at night.  They are allowed no privileges, and are very cruelly treated, and on very slight offences, they are closely confined and put on bread and water.
            Robert’s experience has given him a very unfavorable impression of the Yankeedoodles generally, and of their military colony on Hilton Head particularly.  From his own report he has good reasons for preferring to live in Dixie.



The Burlington Weekly Hawkeye (Burlington, Iowa); Saturday 22 November 1862; pg. 6 cols. 4-6


Correspondence of the New York Tribune.
On Board Steamer From Ft. Monroe to Baltimore, Nov. 14, 1862.

            Events of no ordinary interest have just occurred in the department of the South. The negro troops have been tested, and to their great joy, though not contrary to their own expectations, they have triumphed, not only over enemies armed with muskets and swords, but over what the black man dreads most, sharp and cruel prejudices.
            Gen. Saxton, on the 28th of October, sent the captured steamer Darlington, Capt. Crandell, down the coast of Georgia, and to Fernandina, Florida, to obtain recruits for the 1st Regiment South Carolina Volunteers. Lieut. Col. O.T. Beard of the 48th New York volunteers, was given the command of the expedition. In addition to obtaining recruits, the condition and wants of the recent refugees from slavery along the coast were to be looked into, and if, occasion should offer, it was permitted to “feel the enemy.” At. St. Simons, Ga., Capt. Trowbridge, with thirty-five men of the “Hunter Regiment of 1st South Carolina volunteers” who had been stationed there for three months, together with twenty-seven more men, were received on board. With this company of sixty-two men, the Darlington proceeded to Fernandina.
            On arriving a meeting of the colored men was called to obtain enlistments. The large church was crowded. After addresses had been made by the write and Col. Beard, 100 men volunteered at once, and the number soon reached about 125. Such, however, were the demands of Fort Clinch and the quarter-master’s department for labors, that Col. Rich, commanding the port, consented to only twenty-five men leaving. This was a sad disappointment, and one which some determined to not bear. The twenty five men were carefully selected from among those not employed, either on the fort, or in the quarter-master’s department, and put on board. Amid the farewells and benedictions of hundreds of their friends on shore they took their departure, to prove the truth or falsity of the charge. “The black man can never fight.” On calling the roll, a few miles from port, it was found our twenty-five men had increased to fifty-four. Determined not to be foiled in their purpose of being a soldier, it was found that thirty men had quietly found their way on board, just at break of day, and had concealed themselves in the hold of the ship. When asked why they did so their reply was.
            “Oh, we want to fight for our liberty and for the liberty of our wives and children.”
            “But would your dare to face your old masters?”
            “Yes, yes, yes; why, we would fight to death to get our families,” was the quick response,--No one doubted their sincerity. Muskets were soon in their hands, and not time was lost in drilling them. Our steamer, a very frail one, had been barricaded around the bow and stern, and also provided with two twelve-pounder Parrott guns. These guns had to be worked by black men, under the direction of the captain of the steamer. Our fighting men numbered only about 110 and 50 of them were raw recruits. The expedition was not a very formidable one, still all seemed to have an unusual degree of confidence to its success.
            What had been done the day previous, and what had been accomplished on the day of sailing, is described as follows by Lieut. Col. Beard in his report to Gen. Saxton.
            “On Monday, Nov. 3, with the steamer Darlington, having on board Captain Trowbridge’s company, colored troops (62,) I proceeded up Bell River, Florida, drove in the rebel pickets below Cooper’s, destroyed their place of rendezvous, thence proceeded and destroyed the saltworks, and all the salt, corn and wagons which we could not carry away, besides killing the horses. Thence we proceeded to Jolly river and destroyed two saltworks, with a large amount of salt and corn. Thence we proceeded to St. Mary’s and brought off two families of contrabands, after driving in the enemy’s pickets.
            “On Tuesday, Nov. 4, proceeded to King’s Bay, Georgia, destroyed a large saltwork in a creek about a mile from the landing, together with all the property on the place. Here we were attacked by about eighty of the enemy, of whom we killed two.”
            This was the first place where the troops were brought under fire. They had all (about thirty in number) just got into the small boats, when the enemy suddenly rushed out of the thick woods and fired upon them. Their condition was a perilous one, the enemy being not over ten rods distant, and the steamer still further off. Nothing daunted, the men loaded and fired coolly and incessantly, till safe on board. A warm fire was opened at once by the men from the steamer, and one of our Parrotts played well its part. It was marvelous that under so heavy a shower of bullets, not a man was wounded, though many balls were lodged in the steamer and barricades.
            Nov. 6—The first landing this day was on Butler’s Island, from which the troops brought off quite a quantity of rice. The next landing was at Darien, Ga., where two prisoners and some arms were taken. The pickets fled at the approach of our troops. Lieut. Walker, of Captain Trowbridge’s company, who had been left in charge of part of the company on St. Simons Island, accompanied by twenty-five men, had crossed over in small boats a few days before our arrival, and had captured, in Darien, the Assistant Provost Marshal. One of our new prisoners stoutly objected to being marched to the small boats by his negro captors. He swore a white man was entitled to more respect; but the overjoyed negroes could not see the force of his argument or profanity.
            The women and children (about fifty) taken from St. Simons on the day previous were now landed for safety at St. Catherines as a more hazardous work was to be undertaken. Much of the night was spent in getting wood and cooking meats, rice and corn for our women and children on shore, and for the troops. The men for the steamer, killing beeves needed no “driver’s lash” to incite them to labor. Sleep and rest were almost unwelcome, for they were preparing to go up Sapelo River, along whose banks on the beautiful plantations, were their fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, wives and children—Weeks and months before some of the men had left those loved ones, with a promise to return, “If de good Lord jis open de way.”
            At 5 o’clock on Friday morning, Nov. 7, we were under way. Capt. Budd, of the gunboat Potomska, had kindly promised the evening before to accompany us past the most dangerous places. On reaching his station in Sapelo Sound, we found him in readiness. Our little fleet, led by the Potomska, and followed by the Darlington, sailed proudly up the winding Sapelo, now through marshes, and then past large and beautiful plantations. It was very affecting to see our soldiers watching intensely the colored forms on land, on saying in the agony of deepest anxiety, “Oh, masir, my wife and chillen lib dere,” and another singing out, “dere, dere my brodder,” or “my sister.” The earnest longings of their poor, anguish-riven hearts for landings, and then the sad, inexpressible (except by sighs) regrets as the steamer passed, must be imagined—they cannot be described.
            The first intelligence was made at a picket station on Charles Hopkins’ plantation. The enemy was driven back; a few guns and a sword only captured. The Potomska came to anchorage, for lack of sufficient water, a few miles above, at Reuben King’s plantation. Here we witnessed a rich scene. Some fifty negroes appeared on the banks, about thirty rods distant from their master’s house, and the same distance from the Darlington. They gazed upon us with intense feeling, ultimately turning their eyes toward their master who was watching them from his piazza, and toward our steamer, which as yet, had given them no assurance of landing.—The moment she headed to the shore, their doubts were dispersed, and they gave us such a bowing welcome as angels would be satisfied with. Some of the women were so filled with joy that they ran, leaped, clapped their hands, and cried, “Glory to God! Glory to God!”
            The Darlington rested directly in front of the old planter’s door. About eighty men were formed in line of battle in the front yard, and some thirty were employed as scouts. The men were not all landed before the dark subjects of the patriarchal institution were rushing for the boat. It only required about fifteen minutes to gather their liberal supply of “old duds.” As they were coming with bundles on their heads, children in their arms and on their shoulders, loaded also with pigeons, pots, trays, chickens, ducks, and squealing little pigs, I ventured my unhallowed feet upon the piazza, when I met the planter and a widowed daughter, who was joint owner of the fleeing “chattels.” Salutations being exchanged, I remarked to the lady, “This is a sad morning to you.”
            “Yes,” said she, “this seems hard.”
            You may consider yourself fortunate in being thus providentially relieved of the responsibility of going to the judgment with the blood of these people upon you.
            “If it were the wish of Providence, then let him take them by death,” replied she. But their life is worth more than their death. “It is a divine institution.”
            If it were divine, we replied, it would relieve them of their rags and filth, renovate their dark and loathsome cabins, open the school house to their children, and cease to sell husbands and wives, parents and children. You see how eagerly they rush to us, with a thousand benedictions, while they express no kind regards to you. The good lady had no reply, except that the negroes were all their dependence.
            After relieving the old planter and daughter of $20,000 worth of humanity, i.e., fifty-two slaves, and the leather of his tannery, we re-embarked. Our boats were sent once and again however, to the shore for men, who, having heard the steam whistle, came in great haste fro distant plantations.
            As the Potomska could go no further, Capt. Budd kindly offered to accompany us with one gun’s crew. We were glad to have his company and the service of the crew, as we had only one gun’s crew of colored men. Above us was a bend in the river, and a high bluff covered with thick woods. There we apprehended danger, for the rebels had had ample time to collect their forces. The men were carefully posted, fully instructed as to their duties and dangers by Col. Beard. Our Parrotts were manned, and everything was in readiness. No sooner were we within rifle-shot than the enemy opened on us a heavy fire from behind the bank and trees, and also from the tops of trees. Our speed being slow and the river’s bend quite large, we were within range of the enemy’s guns for some time. How well our troops bore themselves will be seen by Capt. Budd’s testimony.
            Our next landing was made at Daniel McDonald’s plantation. His extensive and valuable salt works were demolished, and he himself taken prisoner. By documents captured, it was ascertained that he was a rebel of the tallest kind.—We took only a few of his slaves, as he drove back into the woods about ninety of them just before our arrival. One fine looking man came hobbling down on a crutch. McDonald had shot off one of his legs about eighteen months before. The next plantation had some 500 slaves on it; several of our troops had come down from it, and also had relatives there, but the lateness of the hour and the dangerous points to be passed on our return admonished us to retreat.
            Our next attack was expected at the bluff.—The enemy had improved the time since we parted them in gathering reinforcements. Col. Beard prepared the men for a warm fire. While everything was in readiness, and the steamer dropping down hard upon the enemy, the write passed around among the men, who were waiting coolly for the moment of attack, asked them if they found their courage failing. “Oh, no mas’r, our trust be in the Lord. We only want a fair chance at ‘em,” was the unanimous cry.
            The fire was immediately opened upon us by the enemy, numbering from 80 to 100 men.—Our troops returned the fire with effect. Two of the enemy soon fell headlong from the trees, and several on the ground soon fell. Only three of our men were wounded, and they ceased not firing till the enemy had, yet the blood completely covered the face of one who had been struck by a ball in the forehead.
            Most people have doubted the courage of negroes and their ability to stand a warm fire of the enemy. The engagements of this day were not an open field fight to be sure, but he circumstance were peculiar. They were taken by surprise, the enemy concealed, his force not known, and some of the troops had been enlisted only two days. Capt. Budd, a brave and experienced officer, and yet witness of both engagements, has kindly given his opinion, which we are sure will vindicate the policy, as well as justness, of arming the colored man for his own freedom at least.

U.S. Steamer Potomska, Sapelo River, Ga.; Nov. 7
            SIR,--It gives me pleasure to testify to the admirable conduct of the negro troops (1st S.C. Volunteers,) under the command of Lieut. Col. Beard, 48th N.Y. Volunteers, during this day’s operation. They behaved splendidly under the warm and galling fire we were exposed to, in the two skirmishes with the enemy. I did not see a man flinch, contrary to my expectations.
            One of them particularly came under my notice, who, although badly wounded in the face, continued to load and fire, in the coolest manner imaginable.
            Every one of them acted like veterans.

Very respectfully,
Wm. Budd
, Acting Lieut. Com’g Potomska.

To the Rev. M. French, Chaplain, U.S.A.
            On reaching his ship, Capt. Budd led our retreat. It had been agreed, after full consultation on the subject, that, in our descent down the river it was best to burn the buildings of Capt. Hopkins and Col. Bailsford. Both of these places were strong picket stations, particularly the latter. Bailsford had been down with a small force a few days before our arrival at St. Catherine’s and shot one of our contrabands, wounded mortally, as was supposed, another, and carried off four women and three men. He had whipped to death three weeks before, a slave for attempting to make his escape. We had on board Sam Miller, former slave, who had received over 300 lashes for refusing to inform on a few of his fellows who had escaped. He had been the owner of several of our troops and of their friends.
            The troops landed in these places under the guns of the Potomska, and quickly did their work. The first place a magazine was blown up. At the latter was a strong force, but the shells were too much for them. The sun had gone down when the troops landed, and the enemy had the advantage of darkness. Still our men went back half a mile, firing cabins, outhouses, and finally the splendidly furnished mansion of Col. B., sparing only his sword and saddle. All this work was done in the very face and eyes of the enemy, and yet such was their terror of black men armed that they dare not make an attack. The en all reached the steamer by the small boats without loss.
            I would here remark that the men were not allowed to take any article for their own use, nor indeed did they seem anxious to do so. To damage the rebels, rescue their friends, and show that they could be “sogers,” seemed the one desire of their hearts. It was truly surprising to see how rapidly and expeditiously they could land; after leaping from the small boats into the water knee-deep, and climbing up the banks, then would rush into the woods as fearlessly as a dog after a fox. They felt perfectly at home, scouting in the woods, and were an awful terror, as we had reason to know, to the enemy. Their intimate knowledge of the rivers made them invaluable as pilots.
            On passing among the men as we were leaving the scenes of action, I inquired if they had grown any to-day. Many simultaneously exclaimed:
            “Oh yes, massa, we have grown a’most three inches,” said Sam; “I feel a heap more of a man.”
            With the lurid flames still lighting up all the region behind, and the bright rays of the smiling moon before them, they formed a circle on the lower deck, and around the hatchway leading to the hold, where were the women and children captured during the day, and on bended knees they offered up sincere and heartfelt thanksgivings to the Almighty God for the mercies of the day. Such fervent prayers for the president, for the hearing of his proclamation by all in bonds, and for the ending of the war and slavery, were seldom, if ever, heard before. About one hour was spent in singing and prayer. Those waters surely never echoed with such sounds before.—It really seemed, sometimes, as if we could almost hear the angels chanting over us, the old son of Judes, “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, and good will to men.”
            We refer again to Col. Beard’s report. He says: “The colored men fought with astonishing coolness and bravery. For alacrity in effecting landings; for determination, for “bush” fighting, I found them all I could desire, more than I had hoped. They behaved bravely, gloriously, and deserved all praise.”
            Our steamer left Beaufort without a soldier, and returned after an absence of twelve days with one hundred and fifty-six fighting colored men, some of whom dropped hoe, took a musket, and were at once soldiers, ready to fight for the freedom of others. The troops made thirteen landings on the main between Fernandina and Fort Pulaski, destroying nine large salt works, together with some $20,000 worth of salt, corn, rice, horses, &c., which could not be brought away. About seventy slaves were taken from their rebel masters, while our steamers brought back the scars of 150 of the enemy’s balls. The men entered Beaufort singing the John Brown song more heartily, I venture to say, than it was ever sang before. The negroes now think they will be ready when the brigade is completed, to take the job of putting down the rebellion.



Bangor Daily Whig & Courier (Bangor, Maine); 23 June 1863; pg. 3 col. 2

            A Hilton Head letter of the 17th states that Montgomery’s expedition, consisting of the 54th Mass., the 2d South Carolina and Brayton’s R.I. battery, proceeded up St. Simons Sound, Ga., and Tuttle [Turtle] River, above Brunswick, on the 8th, and destroyed a railroad bridge over Buffalo Creek.
            The expedition also ascended Attahama [Altamaha] river on the 11th above Darien, and captured a schooner laden with 40 bales of cotton and brought her away. The expedition then returned to St. Simons Island, without the loss of a man, and awaited orders from General Gilmore[?] and the supply of certain defects of what was found necessary to its work.



The Weekly Gazette & Free Press (Janesville, Wisconsin); 26 June 1863; pg. 2 col. 5

Fort Monroe, June 21.
            Richmond papers of the 20th say that the city of Darien, Ga., was burned by the federals on the 11th inst., and is now one plain of ashes and blackened chimneys. Seven iron-clads and were at Brunswick, Ga., and large forces had landed from transports. Vallandigham has run the blockade from Wilmington. He is going to Nassau and thence to Canada.



The Weekly Gazette & Free Press (Janesville, Wisconsin); 3 July 1863; pg. 1 col. 9


Hilton Head, June 17, 1863
            Early on the morning of the 11th inst., Col. Montgomery left St. Simons Island, where his brigade is now encamped, to present his compliments to the rebels of Georgia, having the week before sent them to those of South Carolina.
            This force consisted of five companies of the 2d South Carolina, eight companies of the 54th Massachusetts, Col. Shaw, all negro, and the 3d Rhode Island battery, Capt. Brayton, and the transports Sentinel and Harriet A. Wood, constituted the fleet.
            The expedition ready, the order was given to sail through Doboie [Doboy] Sound and up the Altamaha river, the largest stream in Georgia, to the village of Darien, which is said to have contained before the war some 2,000 inhabitants, most of whom were wedded to the rebel cause.
            As the John Adams approached the village she poured a constant shower of shot and shell into the woods, along the shore and into the town, as she came up to the wharf. The few “crackers” and paupers remaining in the place ran frightened and terror stricken in every direction, and when Col. Montgomery landed his troops, he found not a single armed inhabitant to dispute his right. Through the activity of some of the negro soldiers, a few of these poor “white-trash” were caught, who told the story of there being a strong cavalry force within five miles of the place, which may or may not have been true. At any rate, Col. Montgomery, from the information obtained from them, did not desist from his original purpose, but marched nearly his whole force into the town, posted his sentries and prepared to do his work.
            In a few hours all the valuable property he could find, of a movable character, was transferred to his boats. A large class of second-class furniture, considerable livestock, horses, cows, and sheep, and rice and corn sufficient to feed his command for at least a month, was thus disposed of.
            The inhabitant driven out and the town sacked, the nest step in Col. Montgomery’s programme was to burn and destroy everything he could not carry off with him. In a few moments the principal buildings were all in flames, and, a strong south-west wind prevailing at the time, the whole village was soon enshrouded in flame and smoke, and before the expedition returned not a single tenantable habitation remained.
            Darien destroyed, Major Corwin of the 2d South Carolina took the Harriet A. Wood and proceeded up the river in search of a rebel craft he had heard of through some negroes. When four miles up the stream he found the report to be correct, and overhauled and captured a copper-bottomed schooner, a large flat-boat, and 80[?] bales of long staple cotton, estimated to be worth $30,000. Major Corwin was absent from Darien two hours, and when he returned with his prize, was received by the Massachusetts and South Carolina negro soldiers with nine tremendous cheers.
            These bold, rapid and successful expeditions of Col. Montgomery are spreading terror throughout the entire coast, and are compelling the rebels to abandon their rice and cotton fields, and all the smaller villages which would be at all likely to be visited by him.



The New York Times; Sunday 28 August 1864; pg. 1 col. 4


Boston, Sunday, Aug. 27.

            An officer of the United States transport Massachusetts, arrived here today, reports that the blockade-runner Lillian, for Nassau, N.P., was captured on the 25th inst. off Wilmington by the gunboats Gettysburgh and Keystone State and transport Massachusetts.  Several shots were fired at her before she surrendered, one of which took effect two feet below the water line, producing a bad leak, and another cutting off a man’s hand.  The leak was stopped, and the prize taken into Beaufort, N.C. [sic].  She will be sent to Boston.  Her cargo consisted of 721 bales cotton, 50 of which were thrown overboard.  The Lillian is an iron vessel, and very fast.  Her Commander is said to be Capt. MAFFITT, formerly of the pirate Florida.

[Another article states the capture happened on the 24th ult.--ALH]



Fort Wayne Daily Gazette (Fort Wayne, Indiana); Tuesday 13 December 1864; pg. 2 col. 2


            This is the question to Gen. Sherman, which puzzles the rebels, and interests, as well, loyal hearts. It s about time to hear from him through our own sources; and our government doubtless thinks so, as the steamer Fulton has left New York with mail for Sherman’s army.
            The place spoken of most by the rebels as Sherman’s objective point on the coast—laying aside Charleston and Savannah—are Beaufort, Darien and Brunswick.
            Beaufort is in South Carolina, about two-thirds of the way between Charleston and Savannah, on an island. The main land is in rebel possession, but we have forces in Beaufort and Port Royal, the entrance to Broad River, up which Beaufort Stands.
            Darien is in Georgia, sixty miles down the coast from Savannah, at the mouth of the Altamaha river. There—and vicinity—was the scene of Fanny Kemble Butler’s experience when she resided on her husband’s plantation, and in the midst of the worst slavery section of the world.
            Brunswick is twenty miles further down the coast, and is the terminus of a railroad that, striking into the interior, connects with a railroad running from Savannah southwest across Georgia toward Florida. [Chicago Journal.



Janesville Weekly Gazette (Janesville, Wisconsin); Thursday 15 December 1864; pg. 4 col. 5

            NEW YORK, Dec. 9—Richmond papers of the 7th say that Sherman’s campaign is drawing to a close. He is approaching the coast by way of Darien and Savannah, but we have a formidable force between those points, which he will have to encounter before reaching either point. We think Sherman is done with strategy and will now attempt to break through our forces and thus attempt to reach the sea coast. Things will culminate this week. We think Sherman is in a critical condition.

[Further down column]

            NEW YORK, Dec. 9—The Commercial’s Washington special says Richmond papers of Wednesday contain no information about Sherman, but predict his defeat before he can reach Savannah or Darien.



The Burlington Weekly Hawkeye (Burlington, Iowa); Saturday 31 December 1864; pg. 1 col. 3


            General Grant and the War Department expected Sherman to reach a sea-board base at Brunswick or Darien. The rebel press almost unanimously hit upon the former point. Sherman improved vastly upon all these forecasts, and has a base where he prosecutes the siege of Savannah with whatever swiftness he may choose to employ.



The New York Times (New York, New York); Monday 8 July 1867; pg. 4 col. 6


            Savannah, Ga., Sunday, July 7.--E.J. Westmoreland, British Consul at Brunswick, Ga., was killed at that place by Capt. Martin on the 6th inst. The deceased had only been married four hours. Martin was arrested and brought to this city. A gross mystery exists regarding the affair.



Warren Village (Haverstraw, New York) Thursday 15 August 1867; pg. 1 cols. 5 & 6


            In Brunswick, Ga., a beautiful young lady, of barely eighteen years, was married at eleven o’clock on the morning of the 5th instant, and at four o’clock in the afternoon of the same day her husband was shot dead by an unsuspected rival.
            The name of the murdered bridegroom was Eardley G. Westmoreland.  He was an Englishman of good family, and held the office of British Vice-Consul for the city of Brunswick.  He came to this country during the war to represent an English mercantile house which had some relations with the South.  He remained in Brunswick after the war, and entered into partnership with General John B. Gordon, in the saw mill business.  Mr. Westmoreland was a young man of fine education, refined and accomplished, and, in all the relations of life, maintained the strictest of integrity and the highest sense of honor.  The name of his rival and assassin is Edgar, or Egbert J. Martin.  He was born in Virginia, and says he is a nephew of General Edward Johnson, of the confederate army, and that he served on his staff until General Johnson was taken prisoner, when he joined the Confederate artillery as lieutenant.  He came to Brunswick in January last on some business, and there made the acquaintance of General Gordon, with whom, after a time, he entered into partnership in planting rice on the Altamaha River.  He also made the acquaintance of young Westmoreland, and for a time they were on friendly, and even intimate terms.  But a coldness and estrangement grew up between them; they were both the admirers of one young lady.  This feeling originated with, or was first apparent on the part of Martin, and he exhibited it in an ungracious if not offensive manner.  One day, while Westmoreland was in conversation with a gentleman and his daughter Martin passed by, and Westmoreland said to him, “Stop Martin, and I will go with you.”  Martin made no reply and, indeed, seemed not to hear it.  Westmoreland repeated the words, when Martin answered, “Thank you, I prefer my own company.”  The next day Westmoreland asked for an explanation, and Martin replied he might interpret it in any way he thought fit.  This led to a challenge from Westmoreland, which was accepted by Martin, but the interference of three gentlemen of authority in such matters, prevented duel; not, however, without difficulty, and only by earnest appeals to both young men.
            From this time the estrangement between them was complete, though they did not cease entirely to speak to each other.  They were both the open and avowed suitors of the young lady, and each one thought his own chance the best.
            Thus stood matters, when a third suitor arrived from New York for the express purpose of pressing his suit—a young German gentleman, every way worthy to aspire to so fair a hand.  His presence seemed to bring the affair to a climax, and to determine young Westmoreland, who was in reality the favored lover and secretly engaged to the young lady, to bring the affair to a conclusion.  They had agreed to elope and be married.  An elopement was rendered necessary in consequence of the violent opposition on the part of the young lady’s parents to the pretensions of Mr. Westmoreland.  This opposition was most decided on the mother’s part.  She had forbidden all intercourse between them, and did not know that they ever met.  But they wee lovers, and they did meet.  A clandestine intercourse had been kept up from the time that he was forbidden the house.  On Thursday, July 4, a note written by Mr. Westmoreland to his affianced, and unfortunately entrusted to inexpert hands to deliver, fell under the yes of the mother.  At once she knew all.  She reproached her daughter, but her daughter was firm and avowed her determination to marry Mr. Westmoreland.
            The next morning, Friday, July 5, the parents obtained a marriage license, sent for a minister, peremptorily summoned Mr. Westmoreland to their house, and had the young pair married.  But their blessing did not rest on the head of their child; no sooner was the marriage ceremony ended than the young couple were told to leave the house.  They went forth unblest.
            Mr. Westmoreland having no house of his own, and intending to leave Brunswick the same evening, took his bride to his office, and informed his friends of his marriage.  During the day they received several visits, and among those who called was Martin.  So generous and trusting was the future of young Westmoreland, that he went out and left Martin alone with his wife.  Martin assured her that as she was married to Westmoreland he would not pursue any felling of resentment against her husband and left her with the impression that he meant to forget and bury the past.  From here he went to call on the parents of the bride, but what passed between them is not known.
            About four o’clock in the afternoon—the marriage had taken place at eleven in the morning—Martin was walking along the street and met the young German suitor, who had arrived in Brunswick a few days before.  Martin asked him to accompany him down the street, and they walked together until they came opposite the door of Westmoreland’s office.  The latter was sitting on the doorstep in conversation with a gentleman who had called to speak to him on business.  The young bride was in an inner room preparing for her departure in the steamer Sylvan Shore that very evening.  Martin, leaving his companion, walked deliberately up to Westmoreland, drew a pistol, and without a word, fired.  The ball entered full in the breast.  Westmoreland rose and exclaimed, “My God!  Martin, what have I done that you should shoot me?”  Martin fired a second time, and the ball struck the groin.  A third time, though his victim had fallen, did he pull the trigger, but only the cap exploded!
            Westmoreland spoke no other words; he breathed a few minutes, and life was ended.
            Martin was instantly arrested by the United States officials and taken to Savannah to be imprisoned and tried for murder.



Grand Traverse Herald (Traverse City, Michigan); Friday 15 November 1867; pg. 1 col. 3

            It will be recollected that a few months since, Mr. Westmoreland, the British Consul at Brunswick, Georgia, was shot dead in about an hour after his marriage, by his unsuccessful rival, Major Egbert Martin. The case came up before the Superior Court of the district a few days ago, but it being found impossible to get a jury, the court adjourned and Martin was released on $20,000 bail. Of course, that will be the last of it, and Martin will go unpunished.



The Georgia Weekly Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 11 September 1868

Pg. 1 cols. 6 & 7


            In our last issue we proposed in a short time to being a series of articles upon the past history of this place—we then stated that we should begin from the year 1733, supposing at that time we should be able to collect something connected with the mission of General James Oglethorpe, who has been termed the father and founder of Georgia, and the opinion has by some means been impressed upon many minds that he first surveyed and laid out Brunswick as a proper location for a city.—We only find upon record the following in reference to that matter, that he at one time, whether before or after landing at Savannah we are not prepared to state, “landed at Brunswick, but from constant interruptions from the Indians, he abandoned his project here.”  We find that he made a settlement at Savannah, but can find nothing more in reference to his visit, or any projects in or about Brunswick.  We must then begin at a more recent date, unless future generations, or more diligent search shall reveal those particular items which historians have failed to record.
            A few days ago we addressed a note to Gen. H.C. Wayne, knowing that he had spared no pains to examine as far as history and research would permit, into the past history of Brunswick.  His answer to our inquiries will be found in another column, and contains all of interest that can be gathered from historical books, etc., the only means of obtaining any further information is from the memories of old citizens, as they have been gathered from their fathers and mothers who now sleep among the nations of the dead.
            About the year 1794, we learn that there were about ten families here; the exact time when the first settlement was made remains among the hidden things.  John McCloud, George Purvis, Mr. Osborn, John Piles, Thomas and Benjamin Hart, Wm. Paine, Mr. McKenzie, Wm. Clubb and Leighton Wilson, were the heads of the families alluded to, some of whom are still represented by surviving relatives.  McCloud married into the Burnett family; George Purvis’ relatives are to be found among the Hatchers, Franklins, and the daughters of his son, Wm. Purvis, who died a few years ago.  The relatives of Mr. Osborn are to be found in the family of Mrs. Susan Anderson, who with four daughters and one son lives to commemorate the virtues of a noble sire.
            The Hart family seems to have died or removed away, without leaving any relatives behind them.  Wm. Paine has a few distant relatives still living.
            The only surviving relative of McKenzie that we know of, is Mrs. Frances Pyles, who is now living in Florida.
            Wm. Clubb is still represented by several relatives and friends among the Bunkleys and Clubbs.
            The several members of the Hazelhurst family live to perpetuate the memory and name of Leighton Wilson, whose bones have long since returned to their mother dust.
            The first settlements made in this place appears to have been confined chiefly to the upper part of the town near where the mouth of the canal now is.
            A burial ground where rests the remains of our grand-fathers and many of their children, although then very near a hundred yards from the stream, now has well nigh washed away by inroads made by the wasting away of the banks of the river; thus those once interred in the dry ground, have at last found a watery grave.

BRUNSWICK, August 22, 1868.
            Editor of the Brunswick Banner:  DEAR SIR:  In reply to your inquiry of the 18th inst., as to “the time Oglethorpe attempted to settle Brunswick—whether or not he made a survey or located a town here or did some one else survey and locate the town, and at what time, etc?”  I state, that so far as my historical researches extend, I have met with no evidence that Oglethorpe ever had anything to do with Brunswick; but on the contrary it appears that our town was located after Oglethorpe’s return to England and the surrender of the Charter of Georgia by the Trustees to the Crown in 1752.
            In 1733 the country lying between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers, westward to the Pacific Ocean was granted by the King of Great Britain to a corporation of which General Oglethorpe was an influential member, “in trust for the poor,” the idea being to open “for the poor of that nation and for persecuted Protestant of all nations an asylum where poverty would be no reproach and where all might worship without fear of persecution” (Wilson;) and this province was called Georgia.
            In February, 1733, Gen. Oglethorpe landed at Yamacraw Bluff, now Savannah, with a few emigrants.  This was the first settlement in the new province.  In 1736 Oglethorpe who had been to England and returned to the Colony, in anticipation of a war between England and Spain, fortified his settlement by erecting forts at Augusta, Darien, Frederica, on Cumberland Island, and as far as the St. Johns in Florida, claiming for England all the country north of the St. Johns.  Spanish Commissioners, however, treated with Oglethorpe, and the General abandoned his fort on the St. Johns, but retained that on Cumberland Island, which being near the mouth of St. Marys river, that never became afterwards the southern boundary of Georgia.
            In 1737 Oglethorpe returned to England, and eighteen months afterwards returned to Georgia with the Commission of Brigadier General.  In November, 1739, England declared war against Spain, and in May, 1740, Oglethorpe again invaded Florida, but from sickness among his troops and other causes, withdrew and returned to Georgia.  In 1742 the Spaniards retaliated and invaded Georgia, landing on St. Simons Island, on the west side, causing Oglethorpe to withdraw to Frederica, as he was expecting reinforcements from Carolina.  The Spaniards determined to attack before these reinforcements could arrive, and in doing so they fell into an ambuscade at a place since called “Bloody Marsh,” where they were badly beaten and returned to their shipping, set sail for Florida, and on their way south made an unsuccessful attack on Fort William, on Cumberland Island.—Soon after this, in 1743, Oglethorpe returned to England and never after revisited the Colony.  Up to this period the Colony had been under a sort of military rule.  But civil government was now established and committed to a President and Council who governed according to the instructions of the [trustees].  In 1752 the Colony being in a bad way, and the Trustees weary of their duties and the complaints against their system of government, resigned their charter to the King, and Georgia and [sic] was formed into a Royal Province.  During the times that Oglethorpe was in America I find his only settlements in this neighborhood to have been on St. Simons Island.  Brunswick is not mentioned in this connection by either White, Stevens, McCall or other authorities, and if it be a fact, as I am informed, that grants of land to and in the town of Brunswick were given by the Crown, I should say that the inference was inevitable that Brunswick was located after 1752, that is after Oglethorpe’s corporation had surrendered their charter to the Crown.
            In the Secretary of State’s Offices there should be records, showing who first surveyed and located Brunswick—when a Manual Labor School was established, how long it existed, and why it went down—and there also should be found, as also in the memories of some of our old inhabitants, the histories of the railroad and canal enterprises, and the causes of their failure.  As yet, history is meager in its annals of Brunswick, but it is to be hoped that with time this defect will be remedied.
            Very truly yours, HENRY C. WAYNE.



The Macon Weekly Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 14 May 1869; pg. 8 col. 2

NOTES ON BRUNSWICK—A correspondent of the Savannah News, who went down with a jolly party to attend the regatta party at Brunswick, says:

            BRUNSWICK—At seven o’clock the houses of Brunswick were descried, and a short run brought the steamer alongside of the wharf, where a few Brunswickians were assembled.  A few minutes after their arrival the party made a movement upon the Ocean Hotel (C.F. [sic] Flanders, former of Savannah, proprietor,) where the excursionists were warmly welcomed and properly provided.
            Brunswick is situated immediately on the Atlantic coast, and all the livelong day is heard the musical plash of the waves as,
            “—the bridegroom sea
            Is toying with the shore, his wedded bride:
            And in the fullness of his marriage joy
            He decorates her tawny brow with shells:
            Retires apace to see how fair she looks:
            Then proud, runs up to kiss her.”
            The town has about two thousand inhabitants, and is regularly laid out, with streets crossing each other at right angles.  The streets are wide, but unpaved, either in the centre or on the sidewalk.  The public buildings consist of a Baptist, Methodist, Episcopal and a Catholic Church, two hotels and two academies, one for white and the other for negro children.  A Court-house and jail are now in process of construction.  There are five saw mills in active operation, the whole number capable of cutting eighteen hundred thousand feet of timber per month.  One of the mills is owned by Messrs. Finney & Co., of which Mr. W.A. Pennyman [sic], a gentleman well known to many of our citizens, is superintendent.
            A number of Northern capitalists are making arrangements for the construction of a fine hotel here, and if everything is successful, an elegant and commodious structure will be ready for the reception of visitors before many months elapse.
            The town supports one newspaper now known as the Brunswick Seaport Appeal.  The [illegible] has been sailing upon a sea of difficulties for several years with various names at the head and numerous helmsmen, all of whom have only succeeded in keeping her head above water.
            The Macon and Brunswick Railroad is the hobby of the Brunswickians, and other subjects are seldom introduced.  The old son “Riding on a Rail” is most popular.  In the midst of conversation the non-talkers whistle it, others others [sic] hum it, and all keep time with their feet.  For instance the conversation overheard by our reporter Wednesday between about twenty individuals—three talking, six whistling the tune, seven humming it, and the rest singing it.  “Our road when finished will (rattling over the embankments) open up the whole (“whizzing through the cuts”) of the back, (“dashing over the country”) country and (“tearing through the fields”) make Brunswick rich in (oh isn’t it pleasant).
            “Riding on the Rail.”—The pianos play to the tune, the carpenters saw and hammer to it, the anvil resounds with it the guitar and banjo are picked to it, and the waves are being taught to plash to it; in an out of season is heard, oh, won’t it be pleasant “Riding on the Rail.”
            The town is governed by a Mayor and Council.  Col. Houston is Mayor and Col. Barkaloo [sic] Clerk of Council, with both of whom our reporter had a pleasant interview.
            The Brunswickians of to-day, like their fathers, grand fathers and great-grand fathers, believe that their town is to expand until not only will the whole back country be exhausted in supplying building lots, the forests cut down to supply wood work, the bowels of the earth dug up to make bricks—but the hills for leagues upon leagues around leveled to obtain earth to make land out into the sea for the warehouses; and the whole of the United States and the rest of th eowrld levied upon to pour its products, by means of the Macon and Brunswick Railroad, into Brunswick’s lap, thence to be shipped everywhere by Brunswick merchants an in Brunswick bottoms.  But jesting aside, town’s people are hopeful and turning every stone to push forward the interests of their burg, and, in time, will doubtless make it a thriving place.
            Lying at the wharves were the following vessels:  Ship India, loading with timber; bark Dirgo, loading with lumber; bark Habersham, loading with timber; ship C.C. Bearse, loading with lumber for New York; bark Atlantic, discharging railroad iron for the Macon & Brunswick Railroad.  One schooner arrived just before the excursionists left.  A new tug boat has been recently purchased by Bennett & Hughes, and will remain at this port.



The Macon Weekly Telegraph (Bibb County); Tuesday 22 February 1870; pg. 8 col. 5


            We stated yesterday that the Grand Jury of Glynn county had been fined by the Judge of the Brunswick Circuit, twenty-five dollars for contempt of Court in their General Presentment, or in default of payment, sentenced to twenty-five days’ imprisonment.  They had chosen the latter, and there being no jail in Brunswick the sheriff had incarcerated them in the jail at Savannah, where the intended to sue out a writ of habeas corpus before Judge Schley, of the Eastern Circuit.
            As this case is likely to attract some attention we append the facts more in detail, as gleaned from the Brunswick Appeal, of the 11th instant.  The following was the Grand Jury Presentment:
            February 8, 1879}
            We, the Grand Jury of the adjourned February term, make these, our general presentments:
            While we congratulate our citizens that every convicted colored offender found guilty by a legal jury has been sentenced by the Court, and they are now undergoing the penalty due their crimes, and are prevented for a time at least the opportunity of repeating or renewing their offences, we regret that a white criminal found guilty by the same jury of a far more heinous offence than any alleged to have been committed by those who are now paying the penalty of their misdeeds, should, under the administration of our laws or the interpretation of them, be permitted to go at large; and while w are placed without our seeking, in a position that requires us to diligently inquire into, and true presentments make, of all offences, we feel we are engaged in a solemn farce, and mockery of law and we have no encouragement to offer our people that the present enforcement of law affords them any adequate protection against the commission of crime.
            We are painfully alive to the fact how futile all our efforts for the establishment of law and order have been rendered by the action of the Court I admitting to bail one convicted of assault with intent to murder, against whom an indictment is standing for murder in the first degree.
            We have the honor to be,
            Very respectfully.

Hamilton A. Kenrick, Chm’n.
Frances E. Kemp
Edward L. Harvey
L.H. duBignon
Joseph Dangaix
Horace B. Robinson
Alex. Peters
James T. Blain
J.C. Goodbread
Burr Winton
Alex. B. Forrester
William A. Couper
Benjamin M. Cargyle
Joseph W. Roberts
Horace Dart
John B. Habersham
Sylvester C. Littlefield
Geo. W. Aymar
Roland B. Hall

            Upon the conclusion of the reading of the presentments, the Judge rebuked and discharged the Jury.  He then ordered the Clerk not to spread the presentments upon the records of the Court.  After discharging the Jury, he issued the annexed order:
            It is ordered and adjudged that each of said Grand Jurors, having used such disrespectful and contemptuous language in regard to the action of this Court, be and he is hereby adjudged in contempt of the Court in the premises, and that they and each of them pay a fine for such contempt in the sum of twenty-five dollars each, or in default thereof be confined in the county jail of said county, or in such other jail as the Ordinary of said county of Glynn may direct, for the full term and period of twenty-five days; and it is further ordered, that the sheriff of said county be and is hereby commanded and directed to execute this order.
            W.M. SESSIONS, J.S.C.B.C.
            The appeal declines to express an opinion about the affair.  The presentment is evidently in contempt, but we are unable to say how much or how little it might have been merited by the Court.



Macon Weekly Telegraph (Macon, GA); Tuesday 13 February 1872; pg. 6 col. 6

            The Savannah News of Friday, has this item:

            Last evening, while Dr. Stone, the Deputy Collector of Customs for this port, was escorting the wife of Capt. Colesberry of the Revenue cutter Nansemond, to the wharf where the steamer San Antonio was lying, on which vessel the lady was about to take passage for Brunswick, he fell into the river. Mrs. Colesberry, with great presence of mind, reached over the edge of the wharf, and, the tide being high, succeeded in grasping Dr. Stone by the hand, at the same time giving the alarm, and attracting the attention of Mr. Henry Maxwell, the engineer of the San Antonio, who promptly came to the rescue and assisted in getting Dr. Stone out of the treacherous river. To the cool and intrepid conduct of the lady the rescued gentleman probably owes his life and her conduct deserves more than a passing notice.



The Georgia Weekly Telegraph and Journal & Messenger (Macon, GA); Tuesday 4 June 1872

Pg. 4 col. 6

A MISTAKE RECITIFED—We give place to the following with pleasure and designed correcting the mistake, which was a mere inadvertency, even had the writer not addressed us on the subject:
            NEW YORK, 20th May, 1872.
            Editors Telegraph and Messenger:  I notice in the TELEGRAPH AND MESSENGER of the 17th inst. an article in reference to Mrs. Anderson, the widow of the late General R.H. Anderson, U.S.A., in which it is stated, “Mrs. Anderson is the daughter of Jacob Waldburg, Esq., of Savannah.”  You will please pardon me for setting you right in this matter.  But Mrs. Anderson is not the daughter of Mr. Waldburg, but the eldest daughter of General Duncan L. Clinch, formerly of the United States army, (and whig [sic] candidate for Governor of Georgia against Towns.)  Her maiden name was Eliza McIntosh Clinch, and she is the granddaughter of General John Houston McIntosh, of Georgia, and she was born in the little town of St. Marys, on the coast.  Her brothers, five in number, were in the Confederate army.  Her eldest brother (H.M. Clinch) married the only daughter of Mr. Jacob Waldburg, hence I presume, the mistake.
            Very truly yours, ONE WHO KNOWS.



The Macon Weekly Telegraph (Macon, GA); Tuesday 20 August 1872; pg. 4 col. 4


            Editors Telegraph and Messenger:  Will you be so kind as to allow me space in your columns to correct the unjustifiable report that has been circulated in and around your city in regard to my arrest in Florida?  It has been reported that I was arrested upon a charge of forgery, which was a complicated falsehood; and as a citizen of Middle Georgia, in justification to myself, I feel it my duty to place before the public a true account of my arrest by a gang of Florida outlaws.  It is useless for me to trace the circumstances all through, as I will send you the outlines as given by the Fernandina Observer and Seaport Appeal, which will be sufficient to convince the people that the report was a palpable falsehood.  The rascal is now under a bond of one thousand dollars.

            Respectfully, C.B. Moore.

[The following was originally reported as a separate article in the same paper on Thursday 15 August 1872 on pg. 1 in column 1—ALH]

ATTEMPTED KIDNAPPING—The Fernandina Observer has the following:  “On Monday last a young man named Moore, in the employ of the Florida Railroad Company, took passage on the steamer Nick King for Brunswick, Ga.  As the steamer was going down the river, Moore was surrounded by a number of men who seized and held him while Albert Reynolds, a shipping master of this city securely handcuffed him.  On reaching St. Mary’s, Reynolds took his victim on board a bark lying there, bound for Europe, and here Moore learned that the intention was to ship him as a sailor on board the vessel.  Notwithstanding his vehement protestations, he was forced to go below, still in irons, where he was kept for nearly an hour, but the Captain becoming apprehensive of trouble, refused to detain him any longer and directed R. to take him away.  As soon as he had regained his liberty, Moore went before Justice Cutler and made a charge of kidnapping against Reynolds who was arrested, and after a hearing, committed to jail to await the action of the Grand Jury.
            “These are the facts of the case as they have reached us, but there may be some palliating circumstances which will go far toward justifying Reynolds in his action.”
            The young gentleman alluded to in the above article is a son of Mr. D.A. Moore, of this city.  He had recently been employed in Florida, and had got aboard of the steamer Nick King, on his return to this city, when the band of negro outlaws, led by Reynolds, boarded the steamer and hand-cuffed him as described by the above writer.  His father, learning of his arrest, accompanied by Mr. D.T. Dunn, of this city, proceeded to Fernandina, and had the rascal arrested for an attempt at kidnapping.  The thought of an unoffending citizen being shackled and shoved aboard a ship, by a band of negroes, almost forces the blood to boil—and this aboard of a passenger steamer in open daylight!  What a commentary upon civil law in poor little Florida!  It appears that the scoundrel Reynolds makes a specialty of obtaining sailors for vessels, which vocation he plies successfully even though he has to secure them by force.  If the rascal would thus attempt to secure a white man as a sailor, we may be sure he would not hesitate in pursuing the same course in forcing men of his own race as recruits for any vessel which might need sailors.  We learn that the feeling in Fernandina, even among the colored people, was very much inflamed, many of them being anxious to lynch him.  If the rascal does not pay the severest penalty under the laws then we will indeed know that lawn and order is only a mockery in our sister State.—Brunswick Appeal.



The Georgia Weekly Telegraph and Journal & Messenger (Macon, GA); Tuesday 15 April 1873; pg. 8 col. 3

            THE SAVANNA NEWS of Saturday learns “through private sources that Mr. Fleming G. DuBignon, of Brunswick, seriously shot his brother-in-law the other day. The difficutly grew out of a dispute about a game at cards. Mr. Davenport is seriously shot in the neck, but it is thought that he will recover.”



The Georgia Weekly Telegraph and Journal & Messenger (Macon, GA); Tuesday 27 April 1875; pg. 1 cols. 5-7


            The writer at the appointed hour put in an appearance on the quay at Brunswick, and was warmly greeted by the genial band of amateur sports, who had kindly invited him to participate in the stirring adventures and pleasures of a short hunting and fishing campaign, said the tangled fastnesses, ocean heaved sand eminences, still lakes, and druidical retreats of Cumberland, the most extensive island on the Atlantic coast of Georgia.
            They had chartered for the excursion PILOT BOAT NUMBER THREE, commanded by Capt. Russell, the veterant [sic] “salt,” who, for his many courtesies, had just been presented by the club with an elegant mariner’s compass, of which he was not a little proud.
            The “Fur, Fin and Feather” men had left nothing undone for the thorough equipment of the expedition.
            An organized association with ample funds at interest, they had ordered AN IMMENSE TENT of middle proof canvas, having attached an extensive “fly” to protect their table, with comfortable servant’s quarters, and by the skill of Winston, the jolly steward, laid in a stock of supplies almost equaling the luxuries of a stampeded Federal general’s quarters, in the early part of the war.
            There were no less than seventy-two dozen of bottled soda water for teetotalers, (a good sign), one keg of “lager,” sundry mysterious packages well protected against breakage, hams, canned fruits, bread, crackers, pickles, butter, lard, sauces, tongues, rice, two barrels of ice, a box of lemons, etc.
            In short the published order of the president was “RATIONS FOR TWENTY MEN.”
            And it was duly filled with articles fit for the diet of a prince, and enough to last for an indefinite period.  Added to these was the “camp cheat,” containing a complete outfit of tin plates, knives and forks, spoons, table linen, goblets and cooking utensils.
            About 11 A.M. of the 13th inst., the beautiful craft unloosed from her moorings with the following company on board:
            FIRST, THE CLUB PROPER, composed of the following gentlemen:  Col. John T. Collins, President; Capt. George A. Dure, Vice-President; L.P. Anderson, Secretary and Treasurer; A.J. Smith, Reporter; B. Winton, Steward; D.T. Dunn, S.E. Davenport, I.N. Shannon and G.C. Fahm.
            To these must be added the invited guests, who were:  W.H. Anderson, W.R. Bunkley, B.A. Fahm, C. Doerflinger, F. Lebere [Lassere?], W.H. Bunkley and the Macon scribe.  Many others were invited but failed to appear, among the number Col. Thomas Hardeman, Jr., whose letter in response was replete with wit and kind feeling.
            Of course the hounds, cook and staff of servants were on hand also.
            THE VOYAGE TO CUMBERLAND, distant about twenty-five miles, afforded the most perfect enjoyment to all on board.
            Azure skies and a spanking breeze blowing dead aft, a craft that sat like a duck in the water and seemed to respond intuitively to the mandate of helm and sail, and an atmosphere cool and delicious, left nothing wanting to the enjoyment of the party.
            These pilot boats are wonderful specimens of man’s skill and ingenuity.  Mere cockle-shells in size, they are yet so deftly constructed as to defy the stormiest sea, and live, where huge argosies and monarchs of the ocean go helplessly down.  Our skipper CAPTAIN RUSSELL, OWNER AND COMMANDER OF NO. 3 was a native of Deerfield, Massachusetts, and a thorough seaman.  His vessel was built at Waterbury, Connecticut, of white oak, copper-sheathed and fastened and measured eleven tons only, while so deep was her keel that in ballast she drew seven feet water.  This little sloop though graceful as a swan, embodied the elements of strength and speed in a wonderful degree, and on we sped at about ten knots an hour, the sea foam curling over her prow, and sails and mast, bending and bellying to the breeze.
            As usual we “quizzed” the Captain as to his craft and calling, and learned that her first cost was $2,000 and she carried the enormous amount of FOUR HUNDRED YARDS OF CANVAS which, when all set, almost lifted her out of the water.
            Six pilot boats belong to Brunswick, and cruise for hundreds of miles in quest of incoming ships.  The first that speaks a vessel is entitled to navigate her in and out of port, and rates both ways, vary from $100 to $200, according to the tonnage of the ship.
            About $2,000 is the amount earned by each of these boats annually, and their crews are exposed to fearful hardships and dangers.
            But now we have sped along the entire coast of Jekyl Island, eight miles in length, and are dancing upon the white caps of ST. ANDREW’S SOUND at the mouth of the great Satilla.
            Here, two or three of the passengers looked pale and miserable, and we suspect the stomach pump of old Neptune was diligently plied by them.  The greenies didn’t know Col. H.J. Lamar’s remedy of “drawing a bead” upon a bolt in the side of the vessel, while sitting statue like for hours amidships.
            But the agony was soon over, and the bounding craft cast anchor at the high point of Cumberland Island.  Then followed quickly the landing in the yawl of the hunters and their paraphernalia, and ere long, the baggage stowed in Mr. Bunkley’s wagons, the line of march was taken up for the fishing and hunting ground upon the “inlet,” two and a half miles distant, on the opposite or eastern side of the island.
            Arrived, all hands went to work, and in a trice the MAMMOTH TENT was spread, the cock spurs and crow feet raked off, the ground covered over with a natural matting composed of palmetto leaves, a roaring fire kindled, the coffee pot, approximating in size to a tank of the gas-works, put to boiling, and in little or no time a bountiful meal placed before the half-famished voyagers, who had eaten nothing since breakfast.
            The site chosen was in an open space, within biscuit-throw of the inlet, and well protected from the wind by a dense thicket of live oak and small growth.
            Some parties went birding and fishing at once, and ere dark returned with a goodly supply of the finny tribe, and some snipe and waterfowl.
            THE CAMPAIGN WAS FAIRLY OPENED, and now ensued a scene of joyous merriment, enough to banish every anchorite from the face of Christendom.
            It is delightful to realize that we are now beyond the reach of telegraphic influence, whether by cable, grape vine or otherwise, and perfectly independent of all the world “and the rest of mankind.”  If Grant saw fit with the aid of the “boys in blue,” to make a coup de tat and declare himself perpetual dictator, or forty cyclones swept the country and wrecked the continent generally, on this little ocean-washed isle, inhabited by turtle, red deer, the feathered tribe, and an occasional specimen of the genus man, all would still remain tranquil and happy.  It would resemble the still nook caused by the eddying waters on the edge of a rushing cataract, where contrary and opposite forces have created a dead calm, and all is peace and quiet in the midst of the surrounding roar and turmoil.  Its very remoteness and insignificance would be the secret of our safety and tranquility.  Let us paint the scene.
            A lofty bluff with old ocean in the distance, and hummocks of white sand cast up by the deep, fringing the perspective—a blazing fire of live-oak logs illuminating the capacious tent, where many genial spirits, sober as judges, are playing chess, drafts and euchre, but neither drinking or betting—the quiet stars and “horned moon” looking placidly on—all around, the sweet refrain of that cheerful night songster, the whippoorwill, breaking upon the ear—the attending darkies slumbering and snoring in their tent, oblivious of care of responsibility—pointers and hounds prowling around, seeking in vain to invade the larder of our vigilant steward—the muffled thunder of the surf breaking upon the strand and sounding like the faint reverberations of the battle field—these, and other influences, lend a weird and fascinating aspect to this bivouac of friends and sportsmen, camped and associated together, not for mortal combat, thank God, but to cultivate and promote the best instincts and social promptings of our nature.
            In this coterie are embraced large-souled [sic] noble Northern men, who have long since bridged “the bloody chasm” and cast in their lot with the unfortunate South.  They have brought with them the sinewy power of capital, kind hearts, wise heads, and a thorough devotion to their new home.  All honor to such men.  They are the avant couriers of that bright epoch when past ascerbities [sic] and deadly feuds shall be forgotten, and the American Union become once more a homogeneous, united, and irresistible power among the nations of earth.  May God speed the dawn of that glorious day.
            CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CLUB—A few hours only, of companionship, sufficed to show that our amateurs were made up of a happy affiliation of the choicest spirits.
            The President was courteous and dignified, yet ever vigilant in maintaining the rules and regulations of the camp, which were formally set forth in the by-laws.  It is due to his associates to say also that, never disputing his authority, they yielded implicit obedience to all of his suggestions.  The other officers and members likewise deported themselves as gentlemen, and during our entire sojourn on the island, not one word of unpleasantness or recrimination marred the perfect harmony of the scene.
            But there were UNCONSCIONABLE WAGS in the crowd, whose jokes and humor constantly effervesced like the bubbling soda water which was so plentifully imbibed, and occasioned prolonged roars of laughter.  Reporter Smith, who wields a spicy and graceful pen, and private Shannon, a foeman worthy of his steel, and withal a splendid specimen of the frank-hearted Tennessee hunter, were constantly at it, “hammer and tongs.”  Some of their bon mots and passages at arms were brilliant, and perfectly convulsing.
            But we don’t intend to steal Brother Smith’s thunder, and will leave the details of these bloodless tilts to his own graphic powers of description and imagination.  In due time they will be spread upon the minutes of the club, and appear in the columns of the Sea Port Appeal, and will doubtless reach our readers.
            VICE PRESIDENT DURE, an old denizen of your city, is one of the leading spirits of the expedition.  Ready of speech, witty, and always good humored and hilarious, he carried fun and mischief wherever he moved.  Fahm and Davenport are fisherman par excellence, and rarely take gun in hand.  They were pitted against each other on this occasion as contestants for the prize in fishing.  The writer, whose tastes incline in the same direction, was their constant companion on the water, and never saw a pair more equally matched.  Woe be to the sheep-head or whiting that touched either line.  In a twinkling they were made to see daylight.  The race was a drawn one until the last day, when a change of “drop” proved disastrous to Davenport, and his antagonist came out some fifteen ahead.
            The quantity of fish taken almost exceeds belief.  Before the line could reach bottom they struck greedily at the bait, and frequently one was drawn up on each hook.  Even the unpracticed deponent scored two hundred and eleven, exclusive of cats, toads, etc.  Not less than FOUR BUSHELS WERE THROWN AWAY after supplying all the wants of the camp.  In the number were included young drum, bass, whiting, sheep-head, trout, black fish, croaker, yellow tails and alewives.
            The sport was simply splendid, and prawn for bait, in abundance.
            To resume our description of the dramatis personae of the hunt.
            L.P. ANDERSON was a man of “infinite jist,” and a good hunter and clever fellow.  He carried a fowling piece almost equal to a swivel in bore, and which it was said was charged with fifty buckshot to the barrel.  He was one of the fortunate ones who brought down an “antlered monarch of the forest,” and Smith swore that his field piece mowed a path like a cyclone through the woods, and left its victim bleeding in the midst.
            To one thing we can avouch.  Never did such portentous shot holes perforate the carcass of any quarry.  They resembled huge augur borings, and that luckless animal didn’t know what hurt him.
            STEWART WINTON is the very embodiment of a good looking well-fed caterer, and presided like a Crimean French artist (cook) over the duties of his department.  He was also a keen sportsman, and eagerly followed the hounds, though he bagged no game.  The whole party are much indebted to Mr. Winton for their comfort and enjoyment, while socially he was the equal of any.
            OF THE GUESTS we have nothing to say, save to commend the delicious music of Mr. Doerflinger on the accordion.  His touch was almost magical, and night after night he drew from that instrument such dulcet notes, as left the hearer in doubt whether the music emanated from a violin, piano, harp, French horn, guitar, “sack-but or dulcimer.”
            In fact it was a happy combination of them all.  Of the Bunkleys, however, who are native Islanders, and their fathers before them, it is but an act of justice to state, that in person, and with their hounds, and fresh milk, and vegetables, they contributed no little to the enjoyment of the party.
            One gentleman, however, we had very nearly overlooked, and yet he is one of the main springs and salient spirits of the club.  It is to D.T. DUNN, ESQ., that allusion is made.  Those who heard his felicitous remarks at the “regular meeting” of the club, will not soon forget them.  Mr. Dunn is a whole-souled, liberal, genial New Yorker, who has planted his stakes in Brunswick, and is an enthusiastic member of the organization.  There is no evidence that he can hit a barn door with small shot, or is much better at fishing, though it was rumored in camp that he did catch two cats and nine toad-fish, which hooked themselves.  But for all that he is an indispensable member for his other good traits, and Shannon and Smith have promised to put him through a course of training in gunnery on the beach, where there is no danger of hitting any body, while Fahm and Davenport don’t despair of learning him to catch a trout or sheep-head after some years’ practice.
            THE TROPHIES OF THE HUNT—Those who followed the hounds jumped twenty-one deer, and killed—it is not for us to say (as we were not present) how many.  This will duly appear in the chronicles of the club.  But the deponent will, if necessary, make his “affidavy” that they kept the camp in venison all the time, and sent one fat deer, equal to any Esau or Nimrod ever slew, to Brunswick.  In the way of birds, too, there were doves, snipe, plover, teal duck, etc., that were brought in, of which, however, we kept no account.  In the “fur” line, only, the expedition was a failure—not a solitary mink or coon having been captured.  But Captain Dure bragged of a porpoise he had slain and landed on the beach.  When, however, a party volunteered to bring him in, the doughty Captain averred it was about ten miles off, and all, much to his relief, “backed out.”
            CLOSING SCENES—On Friday, the President, Mr. Dunn, one of the Andersons, Mr. Fahm, and the deponent returned to Brunswick, the others vowing they would stick it out several days longer.
            Of the incidents at the regular meeting of the club, which was held on the night previous, we may not speak, in anticipation of reporter Smith’s official and amusing narrative.
            We can only say that nearly every m ember perpetrated some happy hit or speech, which brought down the “tent,” and certain ceremonies and presentations took place, so ludicrous and inimitable, that we are almost tempted to be guilty of violating the proprieties and reproducing them.  But this would be a breach of privilege and confidence, and we forbear.
            Agreeably to custom, the camp received a name, and tho writer would be wanting in courtesy if he did not gratefully acknowledge the compliment to his paper and city, by the bestowal upon it of his own universal patronymic.
            Thus ended our share in the hunting and fishing expedition of the Fin, Fur, and Feather Club of Brunswick.  Genial gentlemen all, and boon companions, we shall not soon forget their attentions, and the intense enjoyment derived from their pleasant society.
            There was no excess of any kind, no hasty words spoken, and not a single contretempt [sic] to mar the pleasure of the excursion.  On the contrary, we bear away a host of delightful reminiscences, mirth stirring anecdotes, and ludicrous incidents, which must be reserved for the fireside and friends at home.  Time and space will admit of nothing more.  H.H.J.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Sunday 5 August 1883; Pg. 3 col. 2

            The Advertiser and Appeal reports the performance of a brute who ought to be hung.  It is an abuse of language to call it simply “a disgraceful affair.”  “A disgraceful affair occurred at Vanceville on the Brunswick and Western road, the past week.  Mr. Ben Furlong, becoming enraged with his wife, chastised her severely with a whip, and because she attempted to get away struck her with the butt of the whip, knocking her senseless.  He then stood in his doorway with a double barrel gun and told all outsiders to keep off or he would kill the first man who attempted to enter.  He remained master of the situation for several days and finally surrendered.  Meanwhile his poor wife was lying extremely ill without attention.”



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Saturday 20 October 1883; Pg. 3 col. 3

A HARDENED WRETCH—News and Advertiser

            B.W. Furlong, who needs no introduction to the readers of the News and Advertiser, came to the city on Tuesday night and was jailed between 10 and 11 o’clock.  He got drunk “rared round” considerably abusing his best friends and making himself disagreeable generally.  Some of his bondsmen were in the city and had him arrested for the purpose of giving him up and getting released from his bond.  Marshal Westbrook and policeman Bennett made the arrest and carried him to jail.  He swore at first that he would not go to jail, but he went all the same.



The Atlanta Constitution; Tuesday 15 April 1884; pg. 2 col. 6

A MACON MURDER DANFORTH KILLS HIS EMPLOYER LANDSBERG—The Sensation Created by Four Sharp Pistol Shots—The Murdered Man Falls Dead on the Sidewalk—The Murderer Arrested—The Coroner s Jury Finds Him Guilty.

Special to The Constitution. MACON, Ga., April 14—Bang! bang! bang! bang! A few moments after seven o’clock to-night persons in the neighborhood of the corner of Cherry and Third streets were startled by the rapid firing of an evidently heavy revolver. The firing was in the direction of the counting room of the big wholesale dry goods house of M. Nussbaum & Co. An instant later William Landsburg, a member of the firm, appeared at the side door on Cherry street, shouted: Murder! murder! and fell dead on the steps.

THE TRAGEDY TOLD—A large crowd quickly collected at the spot, and those who were first on the spot saw the man breathe feebly twice and die. He was picked up and carried in the office, while James Rhodes Bacon Danforth, entry clerk for the house, stood just outside with a still smoking revolver in his hand. He walked to the door, threw the empty weapon on the ground, and started down Cherry street toward Third, two men walking to him and each taking his arm at the corner of Third. Danforth saw the police Officer Daniel Thomas and asked: Are you an officer? Yes, said the officer. Take me to jail. What for? asked the officer I have killed a man, coolly replied Danforth. The officer took the young man in charge and carried him to the barracks, where he was locked up. He gave no account of why or how the killing was done.

AN INQUEST WAS HELD —the dead man was taken into the back room and placed on a sofa, and the coroner was sent for. He soon arrived, and a jury was summoned. Up to that time no one could give any account of the homicide, one man only having received a word from Danforth, and that was to the effect that it would all come out in the morning. By the time the jury was ready for work and immense crowd was collected on Cherry street. The jury was composed of the following men: J.C. Bannon J.T. Boifeulett Dave Goldsmith James Moore Henry Wooten Aleck Block Mitchell Flateau T. Moseley R.R. Flanders G.S. Wing Z. Withers Dr. J.C. Johnson Mr. Boifeulett was elected foreman, and the inquest proceeded. The investigation was begun by the examination of Dr. Johnson, who probed the wounds, which were five in number.

The first wound examine was a wound on the face. Dr. Johnson testified as follows: The wound took effect in the left cheek near the angle of the nose, ranging downward into the mouth, fracturing the lower jaw. The second shot entered just one inch and a half to the right of the breast bone, striking the third rib and ranging to the right. The next wound followed the left hypochrondriac [sic], ranging diagonally to the right through the abdomen one inch and a half to the left of the medium line, one inch above the naval. One link of watch chain was taken from the wound. The fourth ball struck the eighth rib on the left side, and was not traceable. The fifth shot was under the left arm, and entering the left lung, and ranging downward. The doctor said Landsberg must have raised his left arm as that shot was fired, and that the last mentioned wound caused almost instant death.

WHY WAS IT DONE has not yet come out. There were no witnesses beyond the man who fired the five shots into Landsburg’s body, and the dead man whose lips will tell no tale. Officer Thomas testified to the facts already stated concerning the arrest, but threw no light on the cause of the deed. Mr. Nussbaum, the senior member of the firm, testified that a week ago Landsburg discovered that by an oversight, Danforth had been drawing a salary for nearly a year at the rate of a thousand dollars a year, while he had been engaged at $800 that this morning he, Nussbaum called Danforth into the office, and stated the facts to him and told him he could pay the overdrawn amount back at the rate of ten dollars a month or quit. Danforth said nothing, but his associates say he looked very pale and desperate all day. It appears he entered the office at seven, found Landsburg at his desk, RIDDLED HIM WITH BULLETS from a new self-cocking Smith & Wesson, 42 calibre. What passed between the two men prior to the shooting is not known, as they were the only two persons in the store at the time. The jury returned a verdict of murder.

DANFORTH S STATEMENT—Danforth was taken at his request, to the Bibb county jail, fearing that an angry mob would take him from the custody of the officers. A hack was secured, and Officer Jerry Golden took him to the jail, where he was given a cell. A representative of THE CONSTITUTION called on him, and found him sitting quiet in his cell. He greeted the reporter with composure and seemed perfectly calm. He said that he had been fostering a grudge against Landsburg for some time, and had intended to kill him since 1882. He spoke as if he cared very little for the occurrence and hoped that full justice would be done him. He expressed regret that he should have caused his mother and sister so much pain, and said he felt no regret at the killing.

During the conversation he became very nervous and would start at the least noise without. When he was told the coroner’s inquest had found him guilty of murder, a change came over his countenance, and he would not talk further. Danforth is 20 years old, and supports his mother and sister. Landsburg was twenty-five. Both bore high characters. Danforth threatened a week ago to kill Landsburg.



The Atlanta Constitution; Tuesday 19 August 1884; pg. 2 col. 1

GEORGIA GOSSIP—SHORT TALKS WITH THE SCRIBES OF THE COUNTRY PRESS—A Negro Man Tied to the Track of a Railroad – Homicide in Doughtery County – The Rice Crop in a Splendid Condition – A Riot in Brunswick – Other Items of Interest.

            The Brunswick Herald says that a negro man was securely tied across the railroad track about four miles north of Eastman on Friday night; the train came thundering along and cut his head from his body.  The train stopped and immediately the vicinity was alive with negroes who had doubtless bound the man to the track, and were hypocritically lamenting the occurrence of the tragedy.
            [Paragraphs omitted as they dealt with other counties—ALH]
            Darien complains of the regularity of Saturday night tragedies among the colored people.  The knife and the razor are its favorable weapon.
            James Maxwell, a colored man living in the neighborhood of Carnaghan bridge, McIntosh county, was bitten on both ankles, by a large rattlesnake on Saturday afternoon last, while looking for his cow.
            Darien Gazette:  Captain A.S. Barnwell commenced cutting rice on Thursday and will get the first shipment to Savannah again this year.  The crops throughout the county and on the Altamaha river are in a splendid condition and the prospects for a most successful harvest were never better.  The recent heavy rains have bothered the planters but little, and we therefore think that the rice interests of this section will show up well this year.  We hope so anyway.
            [Paragraphs omitted as they dealt with other counties—ALH]
            The first bale of long or sea island cotton was purchased in Waycross on Thursday by Mr. W.J. Smith, at six cents per pound, in the seed.  It was raised by Mr. Travers Pittman, on the Okeefeenokee swamp.
            Waycross Headlight:  Messrs. Lester and Ravenel, of Savannah, and Colonel John C. McDonald, of Waycross, have filed suit in Pierce superior court against the Savannah, Florida and Western railway for $20,000 damages in favor of Mrs. Chauncy Folks, whose husband, it will be remembered, was killed in a collision last February.
            Brunswick Herald:  About noon yesterday a report reached this city that a riot was in progress at the upper wharf.  The police went promptly to the scene.  It was found that the affair had been greatly exaggerated, but that an affray between three colored men, Paul Austin, Massey Scarlett, and Hampton Scarlett, Massey Scarlett had been stabbed in the shoulder with a knife, the blade of which had been so deeply embedded in his body that the point could not be pulled out.  Scarlett was brought to Brunswick and Dr. Burford tried to extract the blade, but it resisted all efforts at extrication.  Austin is in jail.  H. Scarlett escaped unhurt.



The Telegraph & Messenger (Macon, GA); Saturday 6 September 1884; pg. 5
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.

Death of a Young Man—Mr. Harry G. Day died yesterday at the residence of Lieut. W.A. Wylie, on Oak street, after a long illness.
            Mr. Day was the eldest son of Capt. John L. Day, well known as a captain on the Ocmulgee and Altamaha steamboats.  Harry was born in Augusta, March 19, 1867.  He was a student at the Sibley Grammar School in that city and a devoted member of St. James Sunday School.  For the past six months he has been a resident of Macon, and was learning a trade at Crockett’s Ironworks when stricken down with fever.  His remains will be carried to Lumber City, the temporary home of his parents, and the funeral will take place on Sunday afternoon.  The remains will be taken to the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad depot this morning at 9 o’clock.
            The Augusta papers will please notice.

The Telegraph & Messenger (Macon, GA); Sunday 7 September 1884; pg. 5
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.

FUNERAL OF MR. DAY—The remains of Mr. Harry Day, whose death we noticed yesterday were taken from Lieutenant Wylie’s residence on Oak street yesterday morning at nine o’clock and conveyed to the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia depot to be carried to Lumber City.  The funeral will take place this afternoon.
            The following were the pall-bearers:  Messrs. W.A. Wylie, Oscar Crockett, Arthur Keeley, A.C. Keeley, M. O’Hara, Jeff Wilkinson, Jeff Willis and T.C. Drew.



Savannah Morning News (Savannah, GA); Saturday 25 July 1885; pg. 5 col. 1

            Fred Leben, Jr., the 14-year-old son of Fred Leben, of Albany, left for parts unknown on Monday night in company with a negro boy about the same age. Young Leben has been an assiduous reader of dime novels for some time, and it is thought that this is the secret of his Quixotic actions. Before leaving he provided himself with some money, two bowie knives and a pistol.



Columbus Enquirer-Sun (Columbus, GA); Friday 18 June 1886; Pg. 3 col. 1

            At Lee’s mill Wednesday, B.W. Furlong shot Chuck Brock, a fireman on the Brunswick and Western railroad, in the abdomen.  The difficulty arose about some money Furlong owed BrockBrock attempted to strike Furlong, when Furlong fired.  The wound is serious.



Cleveland Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH); Sunday 10 October 1886; Pg. 9 col. 4

A TOUGH CITIZEN—Remarkable Career of a Georgia Desperado.

From Boyhood to the Hour of His Death a Terror to Everybody—Over a Dozen Persons Fall Victims to His Knife and Ever-Ready Gun—Heartless Cruelties Perpetrated Upon Colored People—Finally Driven to Suicide Through Fear of Prosecution.

            ALLAPAHA, Ga., Oct. 9.—Benjamin W. Furlong, who committed suicide here two weeks ago, had led a life of singular desperation.  From the time when he was a boy to the hour of his death he was a terror to every neighborhood in which he lived.  At the age of 15 a responsible position in a sawmill owned by his brother-in-law at Pine Bloom was given him.  One day a colored teamster was found in his wagon dead with his throat cut.  It was developed that young Furlong had had a quarrel with the teamster which ended in the tragedy.  The murderer disappeared and was gone several years.  When he returned he resumed his desperate career without ever having been called to account.  A little over two years ago Mr. R.P. Reppard, a wealthy gentleman of Savannah, fitted up a sawmill at Vanceville, on the Brunswick & Albany road, in which he invested $30,000.  He placed Ben Furlong and his brother John in charge of it, and having the utmost confidence in them left it entirely to their management.  The charge of such a large business turned Furlong’s head completely.  He began drinking heavily, NEGLECTED HIS WIFE AND FAMILY, and took the companionship of wantons.  One day he rode up to his house with a woman from Savannah, and taking her in presented her to his wife, saying:  “Pocahontas, how do you like this?  Ain’t she a beauty?”  The dishonored wife broke into tears, whereupon her husband seized her by the hair an dragged her across the floor stamping upon her and breaking a chair to pieces across her body.  The pair then reentered the buggy and drove off leaving the wife unconscious upon the floor.  There she was found several hours later by some passing neighbors.  When her story became known the utmost indignation prevailed.  Parties of men started out in pursuit of the recreant husband.  He was caught up with at a country house, where he sat with a Winchester rifle across his knees.
            “I’ll blow out the brains of the first man who dares to come near me,” he said determinedly.
            For several hours the posse stood at a respectful distance, deeming discretion the better part of valor, and then retired and left Furlong master of the situation.  Mr. Reppard soon became aware of the state of affairs and dispatched a trusted agent to Vanceville to take charge of the business.  When the agent arrived at the mill he found that John Furlong had received information of his coming and had scraped together $10,000 of the mill’s money and skipped out for Texas.  Three months later news was received of JOHN’S TRAGIC DEATH in that state.  He bid in some property at sheriff’s sale and offered part payment in notes.
            “That was not the bargain,” said the sheriff.
            “You are a liar,” retorted John.
            The reply was a bullet from the sheriff’s revolver which pierced John’s heart.  In the meantime Ben Furlong threw off all restraints.  Whenever he made his appearance all the officers seemed to withdraw in his favor.  On one occasion he boarded the train bound for Brunswick, and going into the colored coach took a seat.  In front of him sat a negro.
            “Throw that cigar out of the window,” ordered Furlong.
            “I have paid for my seat and do not want to be disturbed.”
            Instantly Furlong caught the negro by the head, pulled it back over the seat and made several lunges with his knife into the negro’s throat.  Furlong jumped off the car and escaped into the woods.  On another occasion Furlong sought out Engineer Brock on the Brunswick & Albany road and asked him if he wanted the money which was due him.  On Brock making an affirmative reply, Furlong said:  “If you do, just take that,” firing at the same time and striking the engineer in the abdomen.  About six months ago Furlong gave SOME EVIDENCE OF REFORMATION, to encourage which his friends united and started him once more in the business with headquarters at Sniff, on the Brunswick & Albany road.  But his reformation was of short duration.  He always went armed, and would shoot into a crowd of colored people just for the purpose of seeing them scatter.  On September 1 he started on a big debauch and was so desperate that even his confederates feared him.  On the night of Thursday, September 23, he called his wife and children to him, asked them to pardon him for his past bad conduct and declared that the morning’s light would find him a new man.  After kissing them he retired to his room, where he was found an hour later in a comatose condition and by his side was an empty laudanum vial.  The end came before morning, and with the news of Furlong’s death went rumors of a darker crime.  No one would speak for over a week, and then the story came out, which established the fact that Furlong had been driven to suicide because of a murder which he had committed two weeks before, and in the commission of which he had two confederates.
            On the down freight train on September 7 was Jesse Webb, colored, who was in search of employment.  He was put off the train at the Sniff mill, where Furlong spotted him as a man who had previously entered into a contract with him.  Webb refused to go with Furlong, whereupon the latter seized him and, handcuffing him, PUT HIM UNDER GUARD of J.M. Lofton, a white man from Atlanta, and Tom SharonWebb made a break for liberty, running toward the swamp, with Furlong in full pursuit.  A discharge from Furlong’s rifle brought Webb to the ground in a clump of bushes about 400 yards from the house.  When Furlong returned to the house he put all under notice that he would kill the first one that “peached.”  Furlong, Lofton, and Sharon, each carrying a double-barreled shot-gun, went down to where the wounded negro lay.  Furlong, in his desperation, cut the victim’s throat.  For three days and three nights they kept the victim there in sight of help and yet giving him none.  On the third day they killed him and dragged the body into the back yard, where it was buried.  When the body was exhumed by the coroner it was found that the skull was crushed in in three places.  In the man’s mouth was a roll of waste such as used for packing boxes on car wheels.  The strange part of the story is that for three weeks fully fifty men knew of the murder, talked of it among themselves, and yet stood in such mortal dread of Furlong that they did not dare to tell the story until his suicide removed all danger.  The two accomplices of the murder have fled the country.



The Daily Enquirer-Sun (Columbus, GA); Friday 3 December 1886; pg. 3 col. 1

            When Mr. W.F. Doerflinger, of Brunswick, was thirteen years old he broke off the point of a jeweler’s “rat tail” file in one of his finger joints.  Last Sunday, twenty-seven years afterward, it pained him for the first time.  So turning surgeon, he split open his finger, and with the aid of Mr. Ed Bingham, took out the file point.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 5 April 1888

Pg. 3 col. 4

            Sunday’s Brunswick Journal gave an account of a mysterious pistol report early Sunday morning.  It now transpires that some one was trying to burglarize the residence of Mr. W.F. Barkuloo and hence the pistol shots.  Mrs. Barkuloo woke up about 2 o’clock Sunday morning and saw a man sitting in her bed room window.  The man had a long pole or stick to which was attached a handkerchief saturated with chloroform and was waving it over the sleepers.  Mrs. Barkuloo was very much frightened and attempted to wake her husband, but he had become so much under the influence of the drug as to be deaf to her entreaties.  She then screamed, which woke up Mr. Scarlett here father, and he came to her room to find out the trouble.  The two together aroused Mr. Barkuloo who seized his pistol when made acquainted with the facts and fired three shots, but the would be burglar was out of range before this time and escaped unharmed.



The Georgia Weekly Telegraph and Journal & Messenger (Macon, GA); Friday 8 October 1888; pg. 2 col. 3

BRUNSWICK Advertiser:  From a gentleman just returned from the Minehan-Calnan camp, on the new railroad from Waycross to Jacksonville, we learn that an Irishman, a stranger, had gone down there and tried to get work.  Having failed, he had indulged too freely in liquor, and was lying by the road drunk, when a Swede, named Charley Patterson, also in liquor, came along, and, without provocation, as far as we can learn, made an assault upon the drunken Irishman, and actually kicked him to death, and then left for other parts.  The sheriff was notified, and was in pursuit at last accounts.  This same chap (the Swede) sought to get into a difficulty with our informant just a short while before the killing occurred.



The Macon Daily Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 26 October 1888; Pg. 3 col. 2

A BRUNSWICK VILLAIN—He Entices a Young Woman from Her Home and Deserts Her.

            EUFAULA, ALA., Oct. 25.—A man who cannot be called a gentleman came to this city last Saturday night and brought with him a young lady, who, from what can be learned, he had enticed to leave her home and run away with him.  On arriving here he took her to a house of ill fame kept by Daisy Earl and engaged board for both of them.  He staid there until last night, and while she and others in the house were asleep, he stole out with his baggage and left the city on the early cannon ball train.  He failed to pay either his own board or the young woman’s and left her without a cent of money.
            She is almost crazy with grief and says she cannot bear to return to her mother and will take her own life before she will remain in the house and lead a life of shame.  They claim to be from Brunswick.

Pg. 3 col. 3

            Brunswick News:  M. Agee, a section boss on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia road, knocked on the head and seriously hurt Charlie Tresvant, one of the hands belonging to another section.  It occurred about 10 o’clock yesterday, and produced concussion of the brain, that may result in death.  It was caused by a dispute having arisen as to some tools that the colored man claimed were in the care of the section boss.  Tresvant went in to take possession of what he claimed was his own tools, when Mr. Agee picked up a shovel and struck him on the head.  A warrant was sworn out before Judge Lambright yesterday for Mr. Agee, but up to last night no arrest had been made.



The Brunswick Daily Advertiser & Appeal; Saturday 10 November 1888; pg. 4 col. 2

HE DIDN’T TELL ALL—Messrs. Editors, when Capt. Clubb was telling you about the slave ship Wanderer, he forgot an important part in which he figured.  He didn’t tell how the officials captured him and locked him up in jail, because he would not tell all he knew.  Ask him about this part of the history.—READER.

PREVIOUS ARTICLE IN 8 November 1888 paper on front page.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Monday 7 January 1889; pg. 4 col. 6

BRUNSWICK SUNDAY NOTES—A Negro Knocked Down and Beaten—Anniversary.

            BRUNSWICK, Jan. 6.—[Special.]—Mayor D.T. Dunn, a republican who has held that office for two terms, retires tomorrow at 12 o’clock, having been defeated at the last election.  Hon. M.J. Colson, a democrat, and all the board of aldermen will be installed at that time.

KNOCKED DOWN AND KICKED—J.R. Minehan, proprietor of the Oglethorpe stables, received an insulting message from the porter in the rival stables.  The porter passed by Minehan’s stable today and was stopped and questioned as to whether he sent the message.  On replying that he did, Minehan knocked him down and kicked his face terribly.  The negro is badly disfigured but will recover.

ANNIVERSARY CHURCH SERVICES—The services at the Methodist church today were of unusual interest.  It was the anniversary sermon of Rev. M.F. McCook, who has been pastor for the last year, and who has done wonderful work in building up the church to its present condition.  The church was crowded to overflowing.  Speeches were made by non members.  Mayor Colson, Col. C.P. Goodyear, and Mr. E.J. Harvey addressed the congregation.  Ninety-two persons have joined in the last year, and seventeen joined today.

A RUNAWAY—A horse running down New Castle street [sic] at a fearful rate, with a buggy containing Alderman T. O’Connor, Jr., and Mr. M. Houseman, created intense excitement for a while tonight.  He turned the buggy over and threw the gentlemen out, bruising them up considerably but not seriously.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Monday 23 September 1889; pg. 1 col. 1

CHASED BY A BLACK MOB—A BRUNSWICK WHITE MAN NARROWLY ESCAPES NEGRO LYNCHERS—The White Man Shoots a Negro and a Black Mob Chases him Crying, “Kill”—Officers Rescue the Man and Disperse the Mob.

            BRUNSWICK, Sept. 22.—[Special.]—A sensational shooting scrape occurred this morning about 2 o’clock, in which J.H. [sic] Minehan (white) shot and probably fatally wounded Frank Golden (colored).
            Minehan by instructions of his lawyers refused to talk.  Golden says that the shooting was without provocation.  It occurred in front of Golden’s saloon on Mansfield street.
            CATCH HIM!  KILL HIM!  THE NEGROES CRIED—As soon as the shot was fired a crowd of negroes gathered, and Minehan ran, the crowd following, yelling:
            Catch him!  Catch him!  Kill him!  Kill him!
            The town was aroused, and as Minehan run up Bay street several came down Monk street to join him.
            HELD THE MOB AT THE PISTOL’S POINT—Arriving at the Ocean Hotel he saw it was useless to continue farther, as he would be overtaken and probably killed.  He stepped in the front door and held the mob of infuriated blacks at bay with his pistol.
            THE BLACKS LOTH [sic] TO DISPERSE—Officer Goodbread arrived on the scene at the same time warning his pursuers to leave.  They seemed loth [sic] to leave, and followed both Minehan and Goodbread to jail.
            THIS TIME THE MOB SCATTERED—Fearing serious trouble, orders were again given to the crowd to disperse, and the words this time had their effect, as one by one they left from around the jail.



The Augusta Chronicle (Richmond Co., GA); Tuesday 24 September 1889

Pg. 1 col. 2

CHASED BY A BLACK MOB—A Brunswick White Man Narrowly Escapes Negro Lynchers.

            BRUNSWICK, Sept. 23.—[Special.]—A sensational shooting scrape occurred yesterday morning about 2 o’clock, in which J.H. Minehan (white) shot and probably fatally wounded Frank Golden (colored).
            Minehan, by instructions of his lawyers, refused to talk.  Golden says that the shooting was without provocation.  It occurred in front of Golden’s saloon, on Mansfield street.
            As soon as the shot was fired a crowd of negroes gathered, and Minehan ran, the crowd following, yelling:
            Catch him!  Catch him!  Kill him!  Kill him!
            The town was aroused, and as Minehan ran up Bay street several came down Monk street to join him.
            Arriving at the Ocean hotel he saw it was useless to continue farther, as he would be overtaken and probably killed.  He stepped in the front door and held the mob of infuriated blacks at bay with his pistol.
            Officer Goodbread arrived on the scene at the same time warning his pursuers to leave.  They seemed loathe to leave, and followed both Minehan and Goodbread to jail.
            Fearing serious trouble, orders were again given to this crowd to disperse, and the words this time had their effect, as one by one they left from around the jail.



The Macon Telegraph; Thursday 13 February 1890; pg. 2 col. 5

STRANGE BRUNSWICK CASE—THE VERY MYSTERIOUS SHOOTING OF MISS MINNIE BROWN—She Was Shot as She Was Coming From Her Mother’s Grave—A Pistol Was Found Near Her That Resembled Her Own.

            BRUNSWICK, Feb. 12—[Special.]—A mysterious shooting occurred to-night about 7 o’clock.  The victim was Miss Minnie Brown, a handsome young lady, employed as bookkeeper by the furniture dealer, C. McGarvey.  The shooting occurred in front of the residence of A.A. Delorme on Howe Street.
            Miss Brown claims that late this afternoon she was at the cemetery visiting her mother’s grave and became suddenly sick.  When she recovered sufficiently to seek shelter it was nearly 7 o’clock.  The nearest residence was Delorme’s.  Just as she reached his gate somebody, whom she didn’t see, fired at her with a pistol.  The ball struck her left thigh, making an ugly and dangerous wound.  A passing police officer carried her into the house and a physician was called.  A.A. Delorme, were in the house and heard the shot.
            MISS BROWN’S QUEER REMARK—They also heard Miss Brown scream.  A.A. Delorme says that when Miss Brown was brought into the house, she suggested that an early search might result in finding the pistol with which she was shot.  Search was made and the pistol was secured.  A.A. Delorme declared it to be exactly like one which Miss Brown owned and carried.
            So far it has been impossible to get any other facts.  The matter is very strange and caused a big sensation.
            Up to the first of January Miss Brown was employed as proofreader in the news room of the Daily Times.  She is well educated and well connected.



The Evening Post (Brunswick, Georgia); Tuesday 29 April 1890

Pg. 1 Col. 6

            The street cars are rapidly nearing completion.
            Ground was broken this morning for the new city market.
            Mr. H.S Barkuloo and bride will tender a reception for the Brunswick Riflemen this evening at their residence on Grant Street.
            H.M. Miller & Sons, who have been temporarily over the store of J. Michelson, have moved back to their old quarters on Richmond Street.
            A new safe was put in the Ordinary’s office this morning.  It weighed 3100 pounds, was furnished by Messrs. Bowles & Baker.
            About 1 o’clock to-day a horse attached to a four-wheeled wagon ran down Newcastle Street, and succeeded in demolishing Dr. Tucker’s buggy, and finally riding himself of the vehicle, by running into another wagon in front of Busbee’s fruit store.

Pg. 1 Col. 6

            Cards are out for the marriage, on Wednesday evening, May 7, of Mr. Constant Miller, of Brunswick, and Miss Letitia Harrell, of Quitman.



The Evening Post (Brunswick, Georgia); Friday 9 May 1890

Pg. 1 Col. 5

            Tendered Mr. and Mrs. Constant Miller Last Night.
            The social event of the season was a reception tendered Mr. Constant Miller and bride last night at their residence on H Street.
            The happy couple arrived yesterday afternoon and were met at the depot by a special committee of the Atlantic Band.  From there Mr. and Mrs. Miller were driven to their future home on B Street.
            All during the afternoon friends of the groom’s family called to pay their respects to the bride.
            Last night, about 8 o’clock, guest began to assemble at the residence, and when the hours of the clock pointed to the hour of nine, the parlor and reception rooms were filled to overflowing.
            During the evening Mr. McDuffie’s orchestra discoursed sweet music to the happy throng.  At 11 o’clock the doors of the spacious dining room were thrown open and the guests were invited in to partake of the choicest viands.
            Mr. and Mrs. Miller were the recipients of numerous and costly presents.  Notable among the gifts was that of the Atlantic Band, which consisted of a beautiful and costly set of silverware.
            At 12 o’clock, the guest dispersed satisfied that Mr. Miller had made an excellent choice in the matrimonial field.

Pg. 1 Col. 7

            The stone work on the new city hall is rapidly progressing.
            Complaints are being daily made as to the lack of lights in the northern suburbs.
            The material for the cells in the county jail will arrive tomorrow and work will be commenced next week.

            Lewis C. Hoover, left for Jekyl Island this morning, to make a map drawing of the club house and grounds.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Sunday 27 July 1890; g. 1 col. 7

BRUNSWICK SENSATION—Willful Murder—An Escaped Prisoner Who Couldn’t Get Arrested.

            BRUNSWICK, July 26.—[Special.]—Claudie Gardner shot and killed Isiah Minnifield in Tom Golden’s this afternoon at 1 o’clock.  The row originated about a game in Pollard’s bar last night.  Minnifield threatened Gardner’s life, and the latter got a pistol and killed him at sight.  Three shots were fired, one entering the bowels, one the brain, and the other missed.  Gardner ran out and gave himself up to Policeman Goin and Sheriff Berrie.
            The coroner’s inquest rendered a verdict of willful murder.


            A great sensation was caused by Minehan, who murdered Charlie Brown last September and escaped jail the following November.  He returned to this city, Thursday, and drove in a carriage around the principal streets.  He went to the jail to give up.  Sheriff Berrie was in Florida and no one would let him in the hail.  A reward of $500 is offered for him, still no policeman made the arrest.  He left here at 11 o’clock last night on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia for parts unknown.  The citizens are very indignant because the arrest was not made.

[This article seems to be in error, Minehan shot and killed Frank Golden not Charlie Brown, unless the editor was using “slang” to refer to Mr. Golden who was African-American—ALH.]



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Tuesday 29 July 1890; pg. 3 col. 4

MINEHAN IN BRUNSWICK—Says He Would Have Gone Back Had He Thought He Was Wanted.

            BRUNSWICK, July 25.—[Special.]—G.H. Minehan, the person who shot and killed Frank Golden some time ago, was arrested and escaped from jail, and after remaining away some months, returned to the city and coolly walked around town and then suddenly disappeared, was arrested in Macon last night and brought here to-day.  Minehan seems cheerful and says he would have returned alone if he had thought they wanted him.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 23 November 1890; pg. 22 col. 2

            The news of the nuptials of Mr. Albert Hilsman, of Macon, and Miss Annie Belle Scarlett, of Brunswick, which were celebrated in Brunswick recently, has caused many congratulations to pour from Atlanta to the happy couple.
            The wedding took place at the residence of the bride at “Fancy-Bluff-Across-the-Bay,” in Brunswick a few nights ago.  The attendants were Mr. Mason Scarlett, with Miss Julia Iverson, of Columbus, and Mr. W.P. Robertson, of Anniston, Ala., and Miss Fannie Scarlett, of Brunswick.  The ceremony was conducted by Rev. S.R. Shaw, of Augusta.
            There is no couple better known in the social circles of south Georgia than these, and at their future home in Macon they have the sincere congratulations and best wishes of hosts of friends.



The Daily Times-Enterprise (Thomasville, GA); Tuesday 9 December 1890; pg. 3 col. 1


            Mrs. W.L. Wallace, proprietress of the Commercial Hotel at, Albany, who was shot by her husband a few days ago, formerly had charge of a boarding house in this city, and she will be remembered by quite a number. She was the wife or Mr. Leben, but for some reason they separated; and Mrs. Leben procured a divorce. One day last July she and Will Wallace went to a town near Albany and married. On their return their marriage was announced by means of a certificate which appeared in the News and Advertiser. The marriage was a surprise as the bride was then 40 years of age and the groom only 21. The shooting occurred Friday. Wallace fired several shots, but only one took effect. He escaped, but returned and gave himself up. He said that he intended to kill his wife, and then himself, but his nerve failed him.



The Columbus Enquirer-Sun (Columbus, GA); Saturday 1 August 1891; pg. 1 col. 7


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., July 31.—At Jessup today Marshal Goodbread killed General Fluker (col.), an escaped murderer from Brunswick, while attempting to arrest him.  The verdict of the coroner’s jury was justifiable homicide.



The Columbus Enquirer-Sun (Columbus, GA); Thursday 10 September 1891; pg. 1 col. 4


            BRUNSWICK, September 9.—[Special.]—Alice Westmoreland, a mulatto woman in the employ of G.A. Hanson, white, who keeps a restaurant on Oglethorpe street, was shot between 11 and 12 o’clock last night in Hanson’s restaurant.  The shooting, according to the statement of the woman and Hanson was accidental.  The latter says that he threw his pistol on a table, when it was discharged, the ball entering the left ear of the woman, ploughing through the fleshy portion of the base of the head, coming out three inches in the rear of the ear and making a scalp wound on his head.  The wound on Hanson was examined by your correspondent and it was evident that it could only have been made by some blunt instrument, and not by a bullet.  According to the statement of Mr. S.T. Goodbread, who rents the building in which the restaurant is located, and runs a bar in an adjoining room, and others, the woman is a paramour of Hanson’s.  She was found lying on a pallet in a closet adjoining the restaurant.  When questioned she confirmed the story as told by Hanson.  She told Mr. Goodbread, however, this morning that the shooting was intentional, Hanson married a sister of Goodbread about two years ago, and deserted his wife and two children in Boston.  The woman is not seriously wounded.



The Macon Telegraph; Saturday 26 September 1891; pg. 1 col. 6

GRAVE ROBBERS AT WORK—Suspicious Action of Two Men at a Brunswick Cemetery.

            BRUNSWICK, Sept. 25.—[Special.]—There are rumors of a grave robbery in Brunswick tonight, and investigation does not relieve the mystery surrounding the affair.
            Last night about 7 o’clock, seven children of a lady who lives on Cochran avenue, near Oak Grove cemetery, were passing from one house to another, and were startled by a carriage driven to the cemetery gate, stopping and waiting until two men stepped from it, entered the cemetery and returned, bearing what had every appearance to them of being a child’s coffin.
            DROVE AWAY RAPIDLY—Jumping hurriedly into the carriage, they drove off, and the children rushed in to inform their mother.  She was startled, and later heard a carriage pass her door.  Looking out, she saw that the vehicle answered to her children’s description of the one they saw, but owing to the darkness she could not distinguish the features of the driver or occupants, if there were any.  The carriage turned toward the cemetery entrance, but she was alone and could not follow to see if it stopped.
            NO GRAVES DISTURBED—Today no traces of a disturbed grave could be found.  Last night was one for such a crime.  Heavy, dark clouds hid the sky, and the shadows of immense trees made the cemetery extremely dark, and it is probable if a grave was disturbed the rain covered all traces of the work.



The Macon Telegraph; Thursday 15 October 1891; pg. 2 col. 5

A WEDDING AT SPARTA—Miss Gabrielle Clinch Married to Mr. Tate.

            SPARTA, Oct. 14.—[Special.]—At the residence of the bride’s father, at 10 o’clock a.m., Miss Gabrielle Clinch was united in marriage to Mr. Sterrett Tate of Pensacola, Fla.  After a sumptuous luncheon the bridal party took affectionate leave of the assembled friends for an extensive tour to Northern and Eastern cities.  They will make Pensacola their home, where they carry the love and hope of the community.
            Mr. Tate is a gentleman of fine qualities of mind and heart, and has extensive interests in Florida.
            The bride is the only daughter of Col. H.A. Clinch of this place and granddaughter of the late distinguished Gen. Duncan Clinch, U.S.A., and of Dr. Louis Ford of Augusta.  She is a lady of fine person and a distinguished beauty.



The Morning News; Monday 26 December 1892; pg. 1
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.


            Lumber City, Ga., Dec. 25.—Mrs. Day, wife of Capt. John L. Day, formerly of Savannah, died in this city at 9:40 o’clock a.m.  She will be buried in Laurel Grove cemetery at Savannah at 3 o’clock tomorrow afternoon.



The Sandersville Herald (Sandersville, GA); Thursday 23 February 1893; pg. 2 col. 1

            Two hundred and sixty Arkansas negroes arrived in Brunswick on Friday, to embark for Africa. As no vessel was in port to sail for Africa, their colored friends aidded them in settling and getting them work. If they are the dupes of bogus emigrant agents, such agents should be arrested, and severely punished.



The Americus Weekly Times-Recorder (Americus, GA); Friday 24 February 1893; pg. 7 col. 1


            BRUNSWICK, February 17.—Brunswick’s population was rather undecsribably [sic] increased to the extent of 200 this morning. The influx consisted of Arkansas negroes en route to Africa, but the prospect of sending them to the land of their forefathers is not bright, as no vessel is expected in this port bound for African shores. The colored people of Brunswick are giving them what assistance they can in settling in houses and getting work for them to do.



The Morning News (Savannah, GA); Friday 24 February 1893; pg. 3 col. 2


            BRUNSWICK, GA., Feb. 23.—This afternoon at 2 o’clock in Justice Coker’s office a general row and shooting occurred between the three Mocks, father and two sons, and ex-Assistant Marshal Randolph and Andrew Turner, about the elopement of J.M. Mock and Miss Sarah Turner, who were secretly married here last night. The parties were scared up but none of the balls took effect. The parties were arrested, but later settled the matter between themselves and it was withdrawn from the court.



The Morning News (Savannah, GA); Saturday 25 February 1893; pg. 3 col. 2

NOT BOUND FOR AFRICA—The Negroes Who Recently Reached Brunswick going to the Woods.

            WAYCROSS, GA., Feb. 24.—Six of the 150 negroes from Woodruff county, Arkansas, arrived here to-day. They were in charge of J.P. Stallings of Folkston, Ga. They will work on Mr. Stallings’ turpentine farm at Folkston. It was reported that they were on their way to Africa, but this was a mistake. They left their homes in Arkansas on account of the failure of crops and the scarcity of work. Their destination was from the first Brunswick, Ga. The report that they were in bad circumstances was incorrect. Mr. Stallings found them in good circumstances at Brunswick, Ga., with money and provisions. The majority of there [sic] are able-bodied men. When asked if they left Arkansas to go to Africa, they said they did not, but started to Brunswick. One little black fellow hearing the question said: “Is Brunswick African? If dat’s so, den dat’s whar’ we was gwine.” This section of the state is covered with naval stores and saw-mill enterprises, and work is furnished to thousands of negroes, and the demand for more laborers is increasing every year. Good prices are paid for common labor. The Arkansas negroes were in a good humor, and appeared to be pleased at having found work.



The Waycross Weekly Herald (Waycross, GA); Saturday 4 March 1893; pg. 1 col. 3

DELUDED NEGROES!!—THEY ARE BOUND FOR AFRICA.—Deluded Arkansas Negroes in Brunswick, Ga., on Their Way to Africa. They are Looking for the Agent.

            BRUNSWICK, Feb. 20.—The other day a special train passed through Macon on the East Tennessee road for Brunswick. The train carried 260 negro immigrants from Arkansas, who were bound for Africa via Brunswick.
            They reached Brunswick all right that night, but found no ships, or agent, or anyone to meet them. They were in a deplorable condition.
            Among the immigrants were peo- [sic] of all ages, sizes and colors, and they were half-starved.
            Chief Beach, of Brunswick, and members of the force and detective Wiggins heard the stories of the bewildered negroes and at once lent assistance. Colored people’s hearts were also touched, and they went about securing sleeping places for the African bound visitors. All of the women and children were housed, while many of the men were noticed on the streets all night.
            In the notorious colored lodging house at the corner of Bay and Mansfield streets, a reporter, with detective Wiggins, visited some of the visitors last night at midnight. In a room 12x14 feet, nineteen men, women and five children and one small dog were found, all making efforts to sleep. Some were standing against the walls sleeping, while others were twisted up on the floor.
            An old gray-headed darkey was found in this room who seemed to be one of the leaders.
            He said they were all living comfortably in Woodruff and Jackson counties, Arkansas, a month ago, when a man named Doll, or Doyle, or Dodd, came to them and told them if they would bunch together and come to Brunswick they could take a steamer to Africa and there live without working, or if they wished to work they could get several dollars a day wages working on turpentine farms. They had just closed out their last year’s crops, so they bunched and paid the agent $1,200 and now they are very anxious to come up with this agent. They last saw him at Memphis but expected to meet him here.
            He hasn’t turned up.
            No ship is here bound for Africa.
            The negroes are determined not to starve. They say Brunswick looks a land of milk and honey, and they will start out in search of employment this morning.
            The East Tennessee railroad has a soliciting agent named Doll who spent last summer here and who carried the Knights of Pythias of Brunswick west over his road, and many believe it is he who sent the negroes to Brunswick.



The Thomasville Times-Enterprise (Thomasville, GA); Saturday 25 February 1893; pg. 4 col. 2


            The Brunswick correspondent of the News thus refers to the Arkansas negroes who have been so heartlessly duped:
            “Two hundred and sixty bewildered negroes arrived in Brunswick at 6 o’clock to night [sic] on board of the East Tennessee special train, bound for Africa, the land pictured to them as one of milk and honey, where money grew on trees in big clusters, intermingled with cocoanuts and bananas that would furnish them food. Huddled together in a confused mass near the depot they were found by the Morning News correspondent. Young men and old men, young women with suckling babies and old women with walking sticks that afforded them support, little children crying for bread and older children resting their tired bodies on the grassy lawn enjoying the sleep they had not known for days and nights. It was a pitiful picture, and Chief Police Beach and his kind-hearted policemen, aided by Detective Wiggins, had to act the good Samaritans. Going among them they learned that they were without money and leadership. By hard work they were secured sleeping places, and to-night, with the help of the kind-hearted people of Brunswick, most of them have shelter, while others wander through the streets in search of some place to sleep.”
            A smart negro had told them that a vessel would be ready at Brunswick to carry them to Africa, where they could live without work. He skipped at Memphis with the hard earnings of these wretched people.

The Morning News (Savannah, GA); Thursday 30 March 1893; Pg. 6 col. 2

            The Brunswick Times of yesterday says: “Thomas W. Turner, a brother of the Turner boys of this city, is a truck farmer living four miles out, whose troubles with highwaymen the Times related a week ago. Monday, he says he went to the home of Mike O’Brien, who occupies a house the property of J.E. duBignon near the canal bridge on the road to Island View. Turner, as agent, went to collect the rent from the O’Brien’s but did not get it. Turner was in the city yesterday morning and started out early and for fear of trouble with the highwaymen he says he borrowed a Winchester rifle from his brother Hardy. He went to O’Brien’s house before 6 o’clock a.m., but found no one at home. He says he started to return and sat down on a log beside the road and laid his gun down beside him and shortly he saw O’Brien and his wife Hannah and her mother, Mrs. Mahala Myers and a clean-shaved stranger coming along from toward Brunswick in a one-horse wagon. He says he spoken politely, and but three or four words passed before the O’Briens jumped upon him, Mike grabbing his rifle and striking him over the head breaking the rifle in three pieces. He was knocked senseless, and says all took a hand in the attack. When he became conscious, he was in a strange section of the forest, over 200 yards from where he was attacked, having been dragged across the canal bridge and tied with ropes to a post. He says his captors had spades and a shovel and began digging a long hole in the ground in front of where he was tied, and into this all of the blood from his wounds, which had reddened the ground, was raked, and says they told him they were digging his grave. He said that he was perfectly helpless, and it seemed that he would be buried alive. He saw a negro across the canal and hailed him, asking for help and that he notify his friends. Turner says he saw one of the women take a pistol, with which she held the negro up, not allowing him to cross over to where he was tied. The negro fled toward Brunswick. The next person he saw was a little girl en route to school. He yelled to her and she gave the alarm and news was carried to Turner’s wife, at their home, a mile away. He says in the meantime his captors took his knife, with which they gashed his head and face, and that $18 in silver was also taken from his pockets. Shortly Sam Goodbread and Mrs.  Turner started home with him. They were about half way when they were met by Sheriff Berrie and Chief Beach, who assisted them. Mike O’Brien is a cotton jammer at the New docks and his wife peddles oysters. The O’Briens say Tom Turner came to their house Monday evening and cursed out the females of the household and said he would return Tuesday with his rifle and “do them up.” They say when they came up to him yesterday morning he had his gun in his hand and that it was cocked and he attempted to shoot, whereupon Mike O’Brien took it from him, he says to, save his life, as he had been warned and knew Turner would shoot. They dispute the statement that the gun was sitting by the log and that Turner did not raise the row. Mrs. O’Brien said she would not return to her home, for fear Turner’s friends might trouble her, so she went to Putnam’s stables and ordered wagons to go out and get her effects and bring them to the city. The colored baggagemen went, reaching the house just after dark. They entered and were piling trunks and furniture in their wagons when a mob of negroes came up with guns and ran them away. They fled to Brunswick reaching the city at 8 o’clock last night and what belongings they secured are at Putnam’s stable. Another attempt will be made to get the balance of the O’Brien’s house furnishings.



The Columbus Daily Enquirer (Columbus, GA); 18 May 1893; pg. 4 cols. 6 & 7

CUMBERLAND ISLAND—The Hotel Cumberland will be opened for guests on May 20.  Finest and safest surf bathing in the world.  No undertow and beach twenty-two miles long, 500 feet wide.  Boating and fishing unexcelled.  The finest artesian sulphur water on earth.  Cures dyspepsia and purifies the entire system.  A most excellent orchestra of six pieces.  Splendid livery, run by Mr. Minehan of Brunswick and Jekyl Island fame.  Resident physician throughout the season.  Baggage checked through to hotel.  For further information address WM. C. MORGAN, Manager, Cumberland, Camden Co., Ga.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Tuesday 30 May 1893; pg. 6 col. 5

MORTGAGED TO CREDITORS—Lloyd and Adams Gone in the General Smash.

            Savannah, May 29.—(Special.)—Lloyd and Adams, wholesale druggists and paint dealers, granted a mortgage to creditors today aggregating $18,000.  The mortgages were filed in court.
            C.B. Lloyd as president of the Brunswick State bank which failed last week and the bank holds collateral against his firm here aggregating $15,000.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 20 October 1893; pg. 1 col. 3

            Bossie [sic] Davenport, a young white man, attempted to commit suicide in Putnam’s stable today while drunk.  Davenport grabbed a rope from a negro [sic] and remarked that he would show them how to hang.  Tying one end over a post and the other in a loop knot around his neck he fell back.  The negroes, thinking he was having fun, laughed heartily when his tongue hung out.  When Putnam cut him down all the negroes ran and it required twenty minutes’ work by Dr. Hugh Burford to restore life and consciousness in Davenport.  He was sober when it was ended.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 26 October 1893; pg. 2 col. 3

SHOT IN A BARROOM—Jelow, a Roustabout, Kills a Cripple at Brunswick—The Dead Man Gave No Offense—An Exciting Pursuit in a Boat and the Murderer Captured—Says He Was Shooting at Another Man.

            Brunswick, Ga., October 25 (Special)—William Jelow shot and killed Raford Curry at 6:30 o’clock tonight in William McClure’s barroom, known as “The Office,” located in the rear of the vacant building at the corner of George and Bay streets.  The murder was cold blooded and cowardly.  Jelow’s mind was frenzied by drink and the refusal of a barkeeper to give him more.
            The murderer was a roustabout.  Curry was a peaceful cripple who of late has tried to lead a quiet life, moving about the streets on crutches, while the stump of one limb from above the knee dangled, a reminder of an accident when at work once on a pile driver.
            Jelow, the murderer, staggered into the bar and called for a drink.  Frank Scott, the bartender, refused to hand it out, saying:
            “Billy, you’ve had enough.”
            “You say I am drunk, take that,” exclaimed Jelow as he jerked out a pistol and pulled the trigger.
            The bullet sped harmlessly into the wall, Curry, who was standing quietly by drew away.
            “Take this,” yelled Jelow as he backed out of the door and fired the second time.  This ball struck Curry who began falling.
            “And this,” and another ball struck Curry, who fell to the floor.  Jelow backed further away and Scott ran out facing him, clearing Curry’s prostrate from at one bound.  Again the pistol was raised.  A passerby, Horace Robinson, rushed to the murderer’s side and grasped his arm.  The scene was intensely dramatic.  Robinson swung to Jelow and begged him not to shoot again.  A crowd quickly assembled.  With an oath the murderer broke from Robinson and fled.
            Curry had died almost instantly.  He was hit twice in the breast by the bullets.  Rev. Father Hennessy came by but he was too late to be of assistance.
            The saloon was closed and a crowd started in search of Jelow.  Sheriff Berrie, on horseback, rode at breakneck speed through the streets and woods posting the guards.  This proved unnecessary, for across the bow of his schooner, Matt Henry Heywood observed a man pulling hard against the tide.  Heywood jumped into a boat and gave chase.  He called to Jelow to stop.
            The pursued dropped his oars and said:
            “I give up.  Don’t shoot.”  Turning his boat around Jelow rowed silently to the shore.  His captor followed with a drawn pistol.
            On the wharf Lee Curry stood swearing vengeance against his brother’s murderer.  In the nick of time help arrived and Curry was led off and Jelow carried to jail.  Jelow made a statement in his cell.  He denied any intention to kill Curry and said he shot at Scott in self-defense.  Jelow has a son who bears a good reputation.
            The barroom where the killing occurred was the scene of another murder recently.
            Mayor Lamb will hold an inquest tomorrow.  The coroner is gone and Justice Coker is sick.  To the horror of the epidemic three murders have been added.

[On 3 September 1893, William McClure shot and killed John Kelly, coroner’s jury pronounced it murder.  McClure’s only statement was that he shot Kelly.—ALH]



The Atlanta Constitution; Friday 27 October 1893; pg. 3 col. 3

DENOUNCING THE JURY—Citizens Indignant at a Verdict of “Accidental Murder”

Brunswick, Ga., October 26 (Special)—The coroner’s jury today in the murder of Curry rendered a verdict of “accidental murder.”  The jury as a whole was composed of representative citizens.  The verdict was the best the officer could get under the circumstances.  This verdict subjected the jurors to bitter denunciation on the streets today.  Justice Coker who got out of a sick bed to hold the inquest state that he told the jury, when they handed in the verdict, that it was nonsensical, foolish and unknown to law.  He advised them to let the lawyers say whether it was accidental or not.
            Sheriff Berrie expressed surprise at the verdict.  Assistant Chief of Police Robert Levison, who was instrumental in capturing the murderer, said the jury acted strangely.  Chief Beach could see no sense in the verdict.  The murder was cold blooded and some of the witnesses before the jury are accused of having lied straight out.  Ben Hansen, the chief witness, whose name was given as Olsen last night, has been sent to jail by Justice Coker on account of his testimony.  Judge Coker, and the citizens generally, denounce the jury’s verdict in unmistakable terms.



The Atlanta Constitution; Tuesday 6 February 1894 pg. 2 col. 2

            A report which reached Brunswick yesterday that Mr. Frank M. Scarlett, a wealthy and respected citizen of Glynn county, had killed J. Keen, of Wayne county, has been confirmed.
            The story as told is to the effect that Keen made a violent attack on Scarlett and to save his own life, Scarlett struck him with a quart bottle, which happened to be the only weapon at hand.
            Keen was killed almost instantly.  He was known as a desperate man and had been in many serious difficulties during his life.  Scarlett was in the city this morning and gave an account of the killing.
            He says Keen was drunk and, probably mistaking him for his brother, Joe Scarlett, with whom he was not on good terms, made the attack on him.  Scarlett sought to avoid a difficulty, but Keen persisted and left him no other alternative but to defend himself.  Scarlett says he regrets the affair very much, but it was unavoidable on his part.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 8 February 1894; pg. 3 col. 2

            The coroner’s jury rendered a verdict of justifiable homicide in the case of Frank M. Scarlett, who killed J. Keene, several days ago, while Keene was endeavoring to kill him.



The Weekly Telegraph (Macon, GA); Thursday 8 February 1894; pg. 6
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.


            Lumber City, Feb. 3.— (Special.)—On February 1 friends were present to witness the marriage of Mrs. C.F. Ryals, near McRae, and Capt. John L. Day, at the home of Maj. D.F. McRae.
            The bride wore a lovely Moorish tan silk and lavender velvet, adorned with white roses and smilax.  The ceremony was beautifully performed by the pastor, Rev. R.L. Wiggins.  Very soon guests were invited to the dining room, which was appropriately decorated, the table just laden with choice fruits and flowers and everything the inner man could want.
            At 4 o’clock, after the bride was dressed in her traveling dress of dark green broadcloth, trimmed in satin, the guests, accompanied the captain and his bride to their lovely home, where they were pleasantly entertained until 5 o’clock.
            At 5:15 the happy couple left on vestibule train for Jacksonville, St. Augustine, Cuba and other points.  We wish them a happy life.



The Princeton Union (Princeton, MN); 26 November 1896
Transcribed by James Wade Bishop

OLD-TIME SOUTHERN SPORTS—Members of Hunting Clubs on Whom—Big Fines Were Imposed

             Among the sports of olden times the hunting clubs were prominent everywhere, says the Atlanta Constitution.  In Camden County one of the most famous clubhouses in this country was built at Bear Hammock and kept under the supervision of Gen. John Floyd.  It was there that the Camden County Hunting Club, organized in 1832, held its meetings, made its rules and imposed its fines.  The charter members of this club were Charles R.  Floyd, Richard Floyd, Ben Hopkins, J.H. Dilworth, James Holzendorf, John Holzendorf, Alexander Holzendorf, P.M. Nightingale, William Berrie and Henry duBignon.  Several members joined afterward.  The club dress was a scarlet jacket and black pantaloons and a fine of 500 copper caps was imposed on Alexander Holzendorf at one meeting for not having on the regulation dress.  No member was to be absent from the meeting unless by good excuse, and James Holzendorf was fined 1,000 copper caps for one absence.  After the day's hunt, some-times, with the luck of sixteen deer, an elegant dinner was served before dispersing.  The seventeenth rule read:  "Game is considered by the club to be deer, bear, hogs, cows, bulls, wildcats and turkeys."  Wild cattle and hogs abounded in woods in those days, the latter living to an old age, which was told by the tusks, sometimes eight to ten inches long.



The Daily Times-Enterprise (Thomasville, GA); Tuesday 16 February 1897; pg. 1 col. 4


            A dispatch from Americus says: “Fred Leben, a well known young man of this city, is n a rather precarious condition to-day, the result of sudden mental derangement. Leben was at work yesterday and the attack that resulted in the loss of reason came upon him like a flash. He is so unmanageable that it requires four men to hold him in bed, and it was finally found necessary to bind him with ropes. Leben has been a constant reader of dime novels and imagines himself Nick Carter and other heroes of trashy novels.”
            Leben is very well known here, having married in Thomasville. His mother lived here at one time, keeping a boarding house on the corner of Crawford and Jefferson streets.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 17 October 1897; pg. 26 (all) & 31

REMARKABLE LIFE OF GEO. BEE MABRY, OF BRUNSWICK—Relates The Rise of a Brilliant Young Man in Politics and Law.  WAS DRAGGED DOWN BY A SECRET CHAIN Now He Relates the Hallucinations Which Bound Him.—Colonel Mabry Tells the Checkered Story of His Eventful Life.  THE SPECTER LADY WHO WAS AT HIS SIDE He Was Chased for His Life by a Band of Imaginary Lynchers.

            A story strange and uncanny as that which follows demands that something should be known of its author—a man who once loomed so prominently before the people of Georgia, and whose light went out into such sudden gloom.
            George Bee Mabry was born in Macon, Ga., on July 25, 1855.  His father, Woodford Mabry, was collector of customs for the ports of Brunswick and Darien for sixteen consecutive years, up to the secession of the southern states.
            Young Mabry was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty years, was appointed consular agent of the Spanish government at the port of Brunswick in the spring of 1877 and served for a year, resigning in consequence of the famous Spanish bark, Teresa I Iguerus, case, in which the Spanish government made demand for reparation, on account of a posse from a justice’s court forcibly going aboard the bark and arresting the captain.  It was through his instrumentality and coolness that bloodshed was adverted, he being aboard the vessel when the posse approached and landed.  Shortly after his resignation he was appointed judge of the county court of Brunswick, and at the time he received his commission was the youngest officer in the state, being but twenty three years of age.  He served until the summer of 1880, when he resigned to take part in the campaign of Governor Colquitt against Judge Thomas M. Norwood, and when the legislature met that fall, he announced his candidacy for solicitor general of the Brunswick circuit, and after one of the hottest fights of the session he was elected over Judge J.L. Carter, of Appling county, and Colonel Ira E. Smith, of his own city.  Owing to the lateness of his announcement as a candidate, the bar of the entire circuit, with four exceptions, had indorsed one or the other of his opponents, and the legislators from his circuit were all pledged against him with two exceptions, Hon. T.W. Lamb, of his own county, and William M. Gaskins, from Coffee county.  So that out of the twelve votes in his circuit, he went before the legislature with but two of them.  Despite this handicap he was elected in a fair and high-toned race.  He served the term of four years to the perfect satisfaction of the circuit, and was voluntarily indorsed by the various grand juries for re-election when his term was ended, but his broken health impelled him to refuse.  After h is retirement he continued, though in a most miserable health, to endeavor to attend to his profession, but during the year 1887 he completely collapsed, and did nothing until his recovery in 1891 when he again opened his law office in Brunswick, and has been in practice ever since.
            The story of his reformation is fraught with many interesting incidents of struggle and failure, of desperate attempts and surrender again, and his final triumph over the power of the drug is, as stated by one of the physicians who at different times attempted his release, as “one case out of a thousand”.  His career during the period he was solicitor general was marked by vigorous prosecutions, shown by the conviction and execution of five criminals for capital offenses, and the conviction in Glynn county of the first murderer who had ever been sentenced to death in the history of the courts of that county, but who cheated the gallows two days before the day set for his execution by expiring in the jail of Chatham county.  He never speaks of his enthrallment to the terrible habit from which he escaped, unless approached by some sufferer who desires to know “how he reformed,” at which time his advice is freely given.  He again made the race for his old office of solicitor general at the last term of the legislature, his name being placed in nomination before the caucus by former Governor James S. Boynton, but he was defeated.
            He is now living quietly, engaged in his professional duties and occasional literary work.
            And now for the story, which he tells under his own signature.
            At an early age I was sent away to the University of the South, and for a long period my only associates were the students and such chance acquaintances as I happened to meet and become intimate with.  I was of a genial disposition my ability and attainments not above the average and I was generally liked by my associates.  After leaving the university, owing to failure of my financial support, I came back to my home in southeast Georgia and commenced the study of the Law, was admitted to the practice in due time, and as the saying goes “swung my shingle to the breeze,” gathered a paying clientage, commenced to make a little money and settled down in earnest to the realities of life.  Four years after my admission to the bar I was elected for a term of four years solicitor general of the Brunswick circuit embracing nine counties, and served the term, working hard and from the congratulatory expressions of the grand juries and the people generally, I believe I served the state faithfully.  So much as an introduction.
            The hallucinations, or illusions, of which I shall give account all occurred during a period of three years during the time I held the state’s commission referred to as solicitor general.  The cause of those illusions, or hallucinations was attributed by learned physicians to an excessive use of morphine and opium to which habit I became a slave in the beginning of the last decade of years.  I have no doubt now and I had no doubt then of the truth of that diagnosis, my daily supply was enormous—ten grains of morphine hypodermically administered.  In justice to myself now I declare with solemn emphasis that I have been for a number of years entirely free from the habit and that what follows in the narratives is written under the dictation of a brain unclouded by narcotic stimulant, or other excitant, and I simply record the incidents as reproduced by a memory as clear and faithful as ordinary men are endowed with, asserting most positively that each hallucination, or illusion, as I narrate them, occurred.  I leave the learned to explain under the laws or science of metaphysics the phenomena.  I do not attribute my cure to any strength of will or constitutional ability to withstand the terrible agony that must be endured in throwing off the yoke of captivity to the opium habit but partly by accident, that placed me where I could not obtain the drug and therefore had to endure, and partly through the aid of a medicine, potent, I believe to give relief if taken as directed (and therein lies the secret of the medicine’s failure) my cure was effected and I again lived, and now live a free man.
            HALLUCINATION FIRST—A Woman as Prosecutrix—It was during the spring term of Glynn superior court that I was called on as solicitor general of the Brunswick circuit to prosecute a case of peculiar local interest.  The night before the case was called I heard my door bell ring, and on going to answer the call a lady stood on the threshold.  She was a stranger, I had never seen her before.  Of medium height, finely modeled, blue eyes and black hair (a combination seldom seen), a woman anyone would unhesitatingly pronounce beautiful.  Before I could utter a word of salutation or inquiry this stranger spoke raising her hand in a warning manner, and a hand it was of snowy whiteness.  “colonel, I trust this call is not inopportune, but I am your friend, although you do not know me I know and appreciate the fact that you are not well.  On tomorrow your strength and brain will be taxed to the uttermost and I have come to say that I am going to constitute myself your alter ego.  I will become a part of yourself and aid you.  Ask me nothing, I will not answer.  Some day you will know.  Goodnight.  I started to speak to follow her as she passed down the front steps and into the street.  I could not move but stood with straining eyes and watched her retreating figure as she passed down the sidewalk out of sight.  Slowly I closed the door and went back to my library.  Think as I did speculate as I did I was completely dumfounded.  Of three things I was certain first that I had never seen the lady before, second I had no idea who she was, and third, I could not divine the cause of her interest in me, or her object in volunteering to aid me.  “Of course I will politely decline her assistance” I thought “the idea of a lady aiding the solicitor general in a prosecution is ridiculous.”  I sat till long after midnight, and then retiring slept soundly until morning.  After a light breakfast, I walked to my office, thinking of the strange occurrence of the night but no “fair lady in white” did I encounter greatly to my relief for somehow I rather dreaded the curious aspect of the novel situation.  After arranging my papers and telling my office boy to say to any lady who might call that I would not be able to see any one that day I repaired to the courtroom.  On the way I met a lawyer friend (Frank H. Harris) and confidentially related my night’s experience to him.  He laughed heartily and made some remark about “some old sweetheart whom I had forgotten come to renew acquaintance,” which sally I indignantly denied.  Arriving at the courthouse we went inside the lawyers’ pen or part of the room reserved for the bar, and I felt greatly relieved to see that my fair visitor of the night before was not in sight.  I finally concluded that the woman I had seen was some adventuress who had endeavored to interest me in her welfare—but court was called to order and the clerk began to call the jury.  While his voice was sounding in monotones the names of the jurors I suddenly felt a light hand rest on my shoulder and the lady of last night, smiling bowed and passing to my right sat in a vacant chair by my side.  I leaned over and tried to offer her my hand but it seemed that a slight paralysis caused my movement to be stayed.  I spoke in a low voice and bid her good morning, to which she whispered “You must not even look at me.  I am here to aid you.  If you speak to me or look at me it will create comment against you, mind you, against you be passive to my will and I will lead you.”  The strangeness of the woman’s actions in thus putting herself in such a position completely mystified me, but a strange feeling of passive obedience took possession of me, and completely controlled me.  I was impelled by an unknown force, a subtle weird influence, to submit to a condition, in which my mind seemed to take its work by a system of mental induction from the strange sibyl at my side.  It was a most delightful sensation.  Sir Thomas More in his creation of Utopia must have been as I, at the time, felt—so safe and strong under the protecting smile of my lady.  After the impaneling of the jury the case of the state vs. Horace Cadone was called.  The state and defendant both announcing ready, the battle was begun.  Legal talent of high order was arrayed against me.  I was then twenty-six years of age.  At every stage of the trial they assaulted the state’s case but surely and fully the web of guilt was woven, and the state closed.
            The argument—my brain seemed to be mellowed, and yet strengthened, by the softest soporific soothed and calmed by the melodious whispers of the strange being at my side.  The facts of the case, as developed by the witnesses, grouped themselves in wonderful symmetry and sequences.  Every salient point of the defense was marked in my mined.  The crime, the evidence, the defense, the law bearing on the case, all stood in my brain.  Not a point or utterance of counsel, court or witness escaped me.  I did not see the crowded courtroom.  I heard not the noise from the street.  I was oblivious to all save the case and the whispers of my lady.  I made my argument without effort perceptible to me only.  I knew the woman by my side was intently watching me.  I swear I felt her presence.  I know that she was gulking [sic] me and I was strong.  I had the concluding argument—I finished, reeled to a chair, and for a brief moment was unconscious, at the instant being aroused by the judge’s stern rebuke of a ripple of applause that came from the spectators.  I looked to the seat where my lady had sat.  She was not there but I swear I felt her warm breath on my cheek and heard her whisper “goodby” [sic].  The next morning the following article appeared in The Advertiser.  “In the case of the state vs. Horace Cadone filed yesterday the solicitor general made a magnificent speech and masterly argument.  All who heard it pronounce it a great effort, that none like it was ever before heard at this bar.”  I was confined to my bed for some days after the trial.  The good doctor pronounced my illness “nervous prostration.”  After my recovery, fearing comment I carefully inquired about the lady who had sat by me during the trial.  No one had seen her there, or elsewhere.  The truth dawned on me but to me she had been a living presence.  I would know her voice or whisper in the darkness of Erebus.  GEORGE B. MABRY
            CHASED BY LYNCHERS—There had been a “lynching bee” in Coffee county, in the Brunswick circuit.  A tramp named Willie Johns accused of burning the store of Daniel Lott, was the victim.  At that time there was a feud between the Lott and Curry families, and at the fall term of the superior court strenuous efforts were made to indict certain members of the Lott faction as the perpetrators of the crime.  I drew the indictment and laid it before the grand jury but owing to the lack of available evidence the jury returned “no bill,” but with the instruction of that body to prefer another bill at the next session at which time it was expected the evidence would be forthcoming to fix the crime on the guilty ones.  About two months after court had adjourned I received an anonymous letter, in the following terms:
            “Colonel G.B. Mabry, Solicitor General.  Brunswick, Ga.—Sir.  As a friend I advise you not to press the Willie Johns case any further.  The Lotts are strong and influential and your life will be in danger if you persist.  You had better stay away from court next term and it will probably be dropped.  Take my warning.  A FRIEND.
            “P.S.—I cannot give you my name as I am afraid the Lotts would get hold of it and do me harm.”
            I immediately consulted Judge Mershon (at that time judge of the circuit), and he advised me to pay no attention to it, but to “keep my eyes open.”  I heard nothing more from any one of a threatening nature, and when the time had come for me to attend court I went in company with the judge and the attorneys who generally practiced in Coffee county.  We left eh train at a little station on the Brunswick and Western railroad (Pierson) on Saturday evening, and on Sunday rode through the county to Douglass [sic], the county site, arriving there about dark.  Of course I had been thinking of the lynching case, and of the anonymous letter, and although I believe I was a man of reasonable courage, I confess that a feeling of uneasiness pervaded me.  After supper I decided to ride over to Jonathan Peterson’s, a warm friend of mine, and talk over the Willie Johns case and find out anything he might know.  The night was clear, and a bright moonlight enabled me to see objects for some distance.  I had ridden about a mile when I distinctly heard some one hail me from the direction of Douglass, from whence I was riding.  I reined in my horse, a fine animal belonging to Joseph Lichtenstein, the tavern keeper, and listened without answering the call.  A cold chill crept over me, and then a feeling of horror, for I heard the tramp of many horses and loud voices cursing and threatening, and above the voices I distinctly heard Dr. Pat Hall a strong sympathiser [sic] of the Lotts, shout, “Come on, boys, he ain’t far ahead.  I was in the horse lot when Lichtenstein gave him his horse.  We’ll shoot him and put him in the swamp.  Come ahead.”  In an instant I seemed to be transformed, all of the chances and avenues of escape passed in a flash before me.  I was armed with a 38-caliber Smith & Wesson pistol, but I knew I would stand no chance of getting off alive in a battle with a crowd of armed men in pursuit of me.  Realizing this, I gathered my reins, urged my horse to a rapid gallop and guided him in the direction of Hazelhurst [sic], a small town on the Southern railroad (then the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia).  I did not believe that my pursurers [sic] would follow me where they would be known.  On and on I urged my horse.  I heard the shouts of my pursurers I heard the shots from their rifles and pistols.  I heard their oaths and maledictions and knew that a hidden grave in the “river swamp” would be mine if I was overtaken.  The distance I had to ride before I reached Hazlehurst was about ten miles.  I know not the time I was on the way but I do know that when the station light came in view I uttered a “thank God,” and crossing the the [sic] railroad track I leaped from my horse and rushed into the hotel office where a negro was asleep in a chair.  I told him to carry me out the back way and show me the house of Jim Curry who was marshal of Hazlehurst.  I literally dragged him through the hotel, for just then I heard the voices of my pursurers as they were crossing the railroad.  Out through the back yard through a little belt of pine saplings, and the frightened negro pointed to a small house surrounded by a garden as the home of Marshal Jim.  Grabbing him by the arm I fairly hissed, “I’ll kill you if you tell any one where I am.”  The negro promised and I sprang over the fence (I did not look for the gate) and running to the door called, “Jim, Jim, for God sake open the door.  It’s Mabry, I am in trouble.”  I heard him spring out of bed and walk to the door.  “Who is there?” he asked.  “It is Mabry open the door there is a crowd of men trying to kill me.”  The door opened and I passed in and hastily related my terrible ride, and then told him the party was in town near the hotel.  Hastily dressing himself Jim told me to wait until he returned and buckling his pistol around his waist went out.  It seemed to me that I lived an age in the brief half hour he was gone, the horror of that wild ride and my peril now impressed me with its awful reality.  I sat in silence.  Not a sound disturbed me although my sense of hearing was strained to the uttermost.  Finally I heard a gate open and footsteps ascending the stairway of the little house.  I was relieved to hear Curry’s voice say, “Open the door, colonel.”  I instantly turned the key and Jim stepped in, closing the door after him.  Hen then lighted a lamp and sitting down said, “Colonel, there ain’t any one in town that I can see or find out.  The station agent says he saw you when you galloped up to the hotel, as he is sitting up to give the train some dispatches, and that not a soul came after you.”  I felt relieved, but I knew he was mistaken.  However, I concluded that the lynchers had given up the pursuit, not daring to be recognized, and so telling Jim I would stay with him till daylight, I used the little hypodermic syringe I carried with me, and lying down on a couch was soon asleep, despite my determination to keep awake.  I was aroused just at dawn of day by Curry, and after bathing my face, I sat down and began to think over the events of the night.  Soon I was invited into breakfast, and the hot coffee revived me more than my sleep.  As soon as I had finished I related to Curry the incident of the anonymous letter, my intended visit to Peterson’s, the lynchers’ pursuit, and my determination to at once report the matter at court.  He seemed to doubt my statement, but my jaded horse and undoubted excitement the night previous, and positive assertion (added to my request) induced him to agree to accompany me on my return.  We started at once.  My return trip was devoid of any incident other than the meeting of Dr. Pat Hall at the intersection of the roads, about four miles from Douglass.  I saw him and recognized him at some distance away.  I got my pistol ready and told Curry to watch him.  As soon as he got in speaking distance he spoke to me in a courteous manner asking after my health and then inquired “What in the world are you coming from this direction for?  I thought you lawyers came by Pierson.”  He said “he was just from his home, ten miles away, on his way to court.”  His demeanor and conversation persuaded me that I had made a mistake in thinking it was his voice I had heard in the pursuing party of last night.  I, however, carefully interrogated him as to the pursuit making up my mind to find out the truth.  He laughed and remarked to me that I was not well, and that “he would advise me to take a good rest after we reached Douglass.”  The doctor had a flask of whiskey and invited us to take a drink, a common hospitality in that part of the county in those days.  I drank heavily from the flask.  The liquor seemed to clear up the mystery of the night before.  I all at once realized my situation.  I knew that I had been the victim of a vivid hallucination.  The experience of that awful ride, in front of a band of bloodthirsty lynchers, dwelt with me in memory for many a day, and I began the struggle to free myself from the cause, as I knew it.  Strange to relate, after reaching Douglass, and begging my two friends to say nothing of the occurrence, I repaired to the courthouse and attended to my duties.  I felt no ill effects from the terrible nervous strain to which I had been subjected, and preferred the bill of indictment in the Willie Johns lynching case, but the grand jury returned it marked “No bill.”  GEORGE B. MABRY.
            HALLUCINATION THIRD—My Only Murder—In the spring of 1883 the government dredge boat in the harbor of Brunswick was sunk by a Nova Scotia bark named Alice Roy.  The contractor filed his libel in the United States court at Savannah and I was employed by the owners of the bark to make the ship’s defense.  Judge Spencer R. Atkinson, attorney for the tugboat that had the vessel in tow at the time of the collision, and he, Captain U. Dart, and I went to Savannah to attend to the case.  After my business was arranged I went to my room at the Screven house, and after taking my usual dose of morphine, hypodermically, I lay down and was soon asleep.  I did not wake until after dark, and then I was aroused by voices in the next room.  I heard one of the men (as I recognized the people to be) say, “He is asleep now, we can easily unlock this door and go in, and to be sure we do not get into a rumpus by waking him up, I will give him the knife.”  I had about $200 in my pocket and felt sure it was the money they were after, until I heard a voice I recognized as that of Lawrence, the government contractor, say, “Damn him, if I get him out of the way, those Canadians will pay up the $10,000 and be done with it, but as long as he lives his infernal advice will keep us in hot water.”  I did not wait to hear more but quickly getting up, I drew on my shoes, and hastily putting on my coat, quickly unlocked my door and hurried to the office and asked the clerk to send up my card to the gentlemen in the room next to mine.  He did so.  My intention was to get some friend or the clerk himself to go with me and accuse Mr. Lawrence to his face of the dastardly intent evinced by the language I had overheard, but in a few minutes the bellboy came back and reported “No one in.”  I then asked the clerk who occupied the room.  He looked at me in a curious manner and said, “A gentleman from new York,” and began to look over the register for his name.  “Never mind,” I exclaimed.  I was then more certain than ever that it was Lawrence I had heard and that “the gentleman from New York” was his partner, who really did reside there, and who only came to Brunswick at intervals, presumably to see how the work was progressing.  I immediately ordered my valise to be brought down, settled my bill, and as it was nearly two hours before the night train left for Jesup, at which point I would change for Brunswick, I sat down and watched for Mr. Lawrence and “the gentleman from New York.”  I was growing more and more uneasy and nervous for I realized that the man must be desperate to resolve upon assassination to carry his point.  I resolved to say nothing to him until I reached Brunswick, where I was sure he would be in a short time.  Finally the bus driver came into the office and cried out, “All aboard for the Savannah, Florida and Western road.”  I pointed to my valise and passed out and took my seat in the omnibus and was soon at the depot.  I at once went aboard the train and in a few minutes was relieved to see Judge Atkinson and Mr. Dart enter.  They spoke cordially and presently Mr. Dart came over to my seat and we were soon engaged in conversation about our case, but somehow I kept thinking of Lawrence and “the gentleman from New York” and wondering whether they would be on that train bound for Brunswick.  But the train pulled out and was away for Jesup without my seeing anything.  After the first station was reached I went into the smoking car, and lighting a cigar, tried to compose myself, but somehow I was becoming more uneasy.  I felt as if some impending calamity was at hand.  I became thirsty, and getting up to get a drink of water, as I approached the cooler I looked toward the door, and there stood Lawrence peering through the glass panel of the car door.  As quick as a flash he drew aside from the door, but as his hand passed the glass panel seemingly to balance himself against the jerk of the car, I saw a long bright dirk held by him.  I then resolved that I would not be murdered by him.  I was satisfied that he had concealed himself on the train and that he had seen me come in the smoking car, and had taken his stand there on the platform with intent to stab me and hurl me from the train as I attempted to pass back into the coach I had left.  Though I was desperately excited, and in a nervous tremor, yet was I not alarmed.  I was armed with a fine Smith & Wesson double action, 38 caliber pistol, and besides that I opened my pocket knife, quite a formidable weapon itself, and kept it in my hand.  I went back to my seat without a word to any of the passengers but turned the back of my seat so that I faced the rear door, where Lawrence was standing hoping that Judge Atkinson or Mr. Dart would come into the smoking car, when I resolved I would acquaint them of the conspiracy.  I sat in that position for about fifteen minutes when the train came to a stop and I again saw Lawrence peer cautiously through the glass.  I sprang up and walked rapidly to the door, my knife in hand, and just then the conductor (Lovick DuPont) came through the door of the first-class car on his way to the smoker.  As he opened the door, I asked him “to bear witness to anything that happened.”  He seemed not to understand me, for, calling out “All aboard” the train moved on, he slammed the door and I had lost the opportunity of passing into the first-class car with an eye-witness to check Lawrence if he attacked me.  I sat down but was in such a state of frenzy, at the infamous intention of Lawrence, that in a few minutes I determined to pass him if he was still at the car door, even if I had to kill him.  I became an enraged being incapable of controlling the torrent of anger and revengeful thought (?) that completely pressed me.  “The villain, the would-be assassin, the dastard.  “I’ll confront him, and shoot him like a dog.”  At once I arose, and walking rapidly to the door, peered through the glass and panel [sic] and saw Lawrence sitting or rather crouched on the steps of the coach.  “Now is my time.”  I thought and opening the door with a jerk I stepped on the platform, closing the entrance after me.  “Lawrence,” I shouted “you are trying to kill me, are you?  I heard you tonight at the Screven plotting to assassinate me.”  My futher [sic] denunciation was stopped, he sprang up and made a lunge across the rail of the two coaches at me his aim was not true, or the swinging of the train made him miss my breast at which he seemed to strike.  His knife struck the iron rail of the platform and went whizzing into the air.  Now was my time.  I saw him put his hand to his hip pocket.  I knew what that meant and to know was to act.  My knife was still in my hand, and sharp and bright it was.
            Drawing my right hand and forearm well up over my left shoulder (a blow the frontiersman strikes when the death angel is near) I drove the blade into his breast.  He uttered not a word and I heard not a groan but backward over the platform his body plunged.  In an instant the horror of the situation appalled me.  I threw my knife out into the darkness and went into the first-class car and saw Judge Atkinson and Dart looking at me intently.  Had they seen my act?  I must have looked as I felt.  God grant I may never feel the like again, even in delirium.  I sat down by Dart and he asked me if I was ill.  I told him yes.  Upon his inquiring the cause of my illness and the character I could only answer that I believed I had taken an overdose of stimulant.  The next stop of the train they carried me into the baggage car and Conductor DuPont held the train up and sent for a cup of coffee at a wayside restaurant.  I drank it, and on being assisted back to the coach I was made as comfortable as possible and thank God fell asleep.  They aroused me at Jesup and I went into the Brunswick train but no more sleep.  My brain was in a tempest of fear for the consequences of the murder.  Would they find the body early?  Would I be suspected?  Would I be arrested and tried?  How could I defend myself?  I ought to have had him arrested in Savannah.  A thousand horrors presented themselves.  A vision of the barred cell of a prison, a dream of the gallows.  “O God have mercy upon me a sinner,” I cried.  While in this condition I remembered I had a flask of whiskey in my valise.  I went and drunk enough to have ordinarily made a [illegible] drunk.  It only calmed me.  I reached my home in the early morning and went at once to bed.  The strain of my nerves had apparently paralyzed my sense of trouble and I slept for seventeen hours.  When I awoke it was near midnight a light was burning low.  My memory was with me—all the details of my murder were with me but I now realized it was a terrible hallucination!  GEORGE B. MABRY
            HALLUCINATION FOURTH—The Race With Death—In the fall of 1882 I was attending the superior court in Coffee county.  Douglass, the county site is fourteen miles away from Pierson on the Brunswick and Western railroad the little town the judge and lawyers always stopped at en rout to Douglass which latter place we reached by buggy or horseback.  As usual I rode over on Sunday evening so as to be on hand to attend to my duties as solicitor general Monday morning.  I arrived about dark and as was my custom stopped with Joe Lichtenstein who kept one of the taverns.  After supper I returned to my room and after disrobing I took my morphine syringe and the bottle of a dissolved drug and prepared to administer to myself the injection that was necessary to keep me free of the agonies attending a deprivation of the accursed potion.  I had begun to feel the need of it long before supper but desisted till bedtime.  In consequence of which I was extremely shaky when I attempted to put the needle beneath the skin of my left arm.  I gave a start as the point [illegible] rather too deeply and that little spasm caused the syringe to fall from my hand to the floor and it was broken in a hundred pieces.  I had the bottle of the dissolved drug on the table by my side and as I reached in spasmodic haste to catch the falling syringe my right arm struck against the bottle of fluid and it too fell with a crash to the floor and was shattered.  My God ye who have never felt the pain the mortal agony the anguish the wild terrible longing for relief as felt by the opium and morphine cursed no language though the most forceful of the adjectives of the tongues of the earth be employed can even remotely catch the meaning of anguish and horror of such a situation.  I quickly resolved what I must do but in the resolution I saw the terror and pain in its accomplishment.  There was no physician nearer than Pierson fourteen miles away there was none of the drug or its substitutes in Douglass.  I must make the ride to Pierson.  I must start at once there is no time to be lost even now I feel the coldness of approaching dissolution.  I dressed as quickly as I could, went down, and calling the landlord told him I had to go over to a friend’s in the neighborhood and asked for a good saddle horse.  He agreed and gave me a fine animal which I at once mounted and after getting out of sight I plied the lash and into the darkness of swamp and forest I rode.  My brain was beginning to turn cold.  I felt the cold perspiration trickling down my spinal column intense pains were shooting through my nerve centers bright flashes as of livid streaks of lightning were playing before me.  I had just entered a belt of swamp bordering a creek when I heard the swish of a lash and a large black horse blacker than the night around me dashed up by me.  On his back was a phosphorescent figure grim and ghastly.  Plainly could I see by the pale light of his own body the deathly pallor and horrible smile on his face.  My solemn word for it my horse seemed to realize the terrible presence for he plunged forward and flew through the darkness of the swamp.  As I drew away from the specter I heard him yell “At 12 o’clock tonight I will away you.  You cannot [illegible].  Your doom is at hand.  I will break the doctor’s charm and you will be mine.  I am Death.”  I caught the full meaning of the words.  It was a race for life.  I leaned forward and urged my good horse on.  He seemed himself terror stricken for his pace was quickened and on through the darkness and gloom of the night he plunged.  I had completely lost my bearing and what if the animal I rode should miss the way?  The though intensified the horror of my condition my heart’s blood rushed through the arteries in streams as cold as ice.  Ever and anon I heard the sound of the black horse’s footfalls and the demoniac laugh of his ghostly rider.  Once in a paroxysm of pain and horrible thought I drew my pistol until then forgotten and pressed the cold muzzle to my temple but a flash of vivid light streaked the air in front of me, my horse plunged wildly and the weapon dropped in the darkness of the way.  “Oh, Christ! help me!  Oh Jesus! save me” I shrieked and I lost the sound of the black horse’s tread.  I heard a terrible yell—a crash as if a thunder bolt had fallen—and then I swear oblivion came over my senses.  I was aroused by the ringing of my horse’s hoofs on the iron rails of the railroad track.  I looked around and recognized the station house and lamp of the depot in Pierson.  I was in an agony of doubt of fear of mortal pain.  I was conscious that my horse had stopped—I listened far off beyond the limits of the village.  I heard the yell of the specter.  I will be there to claim you was borne to my straining ears.  I struck my horse and in a minute I was before the doctor’s door.  Tumbling from the saddle I staggered to the door and knocked with all my strength.  I heard his footsteps coming.  For God’s sake doctor hurry I’m dying!  He had been on a sick call and had not yet retired.  He opened the door and I fell before him.  “Morphine doctor!  Give me morphine quick or I die!”  Thoroughly aroused he lifted me and carried me into his dining room and placed me in an easy chair.  “Quick good doctor.  For Christ’s sake quick!  Death is near at hand!”  Hurriedly he emptied the drug in a glass dissolving it in water and equally as quick he drew in the accursed portion and piercing my arm the injection was completed.  Instantly the circulation had done its work and I felt calm—but Doctor don’t go to the door it is Death I won the race hear him knocking.  O Death! you've lost your sting.  I have won!  I have won!  I remember no more until I was aroused by the doctor bathing my face in water.  I opened my eyes and looked around.  The sun was just rising.  I had been placed on a coach and the good doctor had been with me since my arrival.  I remembered my accident my wild ride against Death and my victory.  He administered another injection and I felt well again.  My poor horse was jaded but after a light repast I rode away to Douglass arriving in time for court.  I borrowed the good doctor’s little syringe supplied myself with enough of the drug to last me and was among the last to leave the courthouse at the end of the week.  The horror of that awful night the terror of my condition and the narrowness of my escape from Death will be fresh in my memory as long as life shall last.  On my ride back to Douglass that morning I accompanied the mail carrier.  He called my attention to a pine tree evidently riven by lightning.  I didn’t notice that tree yesterday he said.  It didn’t storm last night.  It must have been a stray bolt out of some passing cloud lightning plays funny freaks some times.  I was silent.  I remembered the peal that I had heard last night.  My pistol was found by a negro in the grass by the road.  It was bought by William McClure a mechanic in the employ of the railroad.  I never laid claim to it.  I would not have owned it again for the wealth of the Indies.  GEORGE B. MABRY
            HALLUCINATION FIFTH—Asbell’s Knife Leaves a Scar—I had been ill.  At times I was delirious but at not time did I forget or lose sight of the little morphine syringe and bottle of dissolved drug I had concealed beneath the mattress of my bed.  The noise around my hotel and my own loud groans and cries at times caused them to send me to the hospital in Brunswick.  Dr. H.M. Branham was the physician who attended me.  After my removal I rested easier.  My nerves were in a calmer state and I had freer access to my syringe and drug as I had concealed it successfully in my removal and after my retirement in the hospital.  I noticed the first night I spent there that I was harassed by dreams of a horrible nature.  When I would wake however my brain would immediately grasp the situation and I would know at once that I had only been disturbed by one of that class of dreams known as “nightmares.”  The evening of the third day I spent in my new quarters I took an unusually large injection of the drug and besides drank about two ounces of whiskey to stay the nausea that sometimes followed the use of my syringe.  I fell asleep about 9 o’clock and was aroused about the middle of the night (judging from the reckoning of two other inmates of the same ward I was in) by the voices of George Asbell—now on the police force of Brunswick—and his brother Dudley.  I heard George say “He is on the cot in the corner you wait here by the window and I’ll go in by the side door.  If he should wake and try to get away or fight you fire through the blinds.  I will go in easy though and try and kill him by one blow of my knife.”  In an instant I was alert and planning escape.  I had no weapon and felt that I was completely in their power unless I could elude them.  The other patients in the ward I knew could not aid me.  One was a sufferer with inflammatory rheumatism and the other a simple minded fellow I knew would fall on his knees and ask for money instead of giving me aid against the men who sought my life.  Quickly I resolved on my line of action.  There was a window in another ward adjoining the one I was in and I determined to wait until I heard Asbell in the other room through which he must pass before reaching me and then I would spring through and attempt to reach the police barracks.  My brain was clear.  I realized fully that the chances were desperate and that my only safety was in flight.  I got out of bed and commenced to dress but before I had a single piece of my clothing on I heard Asbell stumble on a chair at the door of my ward and hear him mutter a curse and start toward me.  I waited no longer, but sprang through the door of the next room rushed to the window hastily threw it up and out in the dark and cold drizzling rain I leaped.  It was in the month of January.  A cold spell with rain, was upon the city, but I felt I not.  Clad only in my undergarments bareheaded and shoeless, I climbed to the top of the hospital fence, and was in the act of springing to the ground on the outside when I heard Asbell say “I’ll kill you tonight.  You let off those fellows who I prosecuted for trying to mob me and now d—n you I am going to get even with you.”  I sprang to the ground and started in a run through the woods that borders the hospital.  I heard the dull thud as he also dropped to the ground on the outside of the fence and the race began.  I became confused as to my direction and lost my reckoning.  Through brush and over logs now dodging behind a tree now squatting in some hollow—but it seemed of no use—Asbell was surely following.  He seemed to trail me with the persistence of the bloodhound.  I was becoming weak.  My heart sounded with beats like a drum.  My breath was like the hissing of steam.  It fairly scalded my lips as it was poured forth by my straining lungs.  I felt that I was in a desperate position.  Asbell was a man of fully 180 pounds.  I was scarcely 120.  I calculated the chances of a hand to hand encounter I unarmed—he with a murderous knife, and probably pistol.  Folly I would but invite death to grapple with him.  Once only in the chase did I hop for aid.  I was crouching behind a log listening hoping praying that the man had given up his intended assassination.  As I strained every nerve of my being to aid in catching sound I heard way off through the woods a voice say “We must find him quickly or twill all be over with him.  That voice was evidently alluding to me.  The conspiracy of the Asbell’s must have been discovered and there were men now out chasing him and hunting me.  I arose and started forward in the direction from whence the voice came.  I would have called for help but feared I would reveal my position to the man who was thirsting for my blood and who I knew was searching for me and was following me with unerring footsteps.  I had moved forward only a few steps when to my sorrow I saw Asbell about a hundred feet from me immediately in the direction I would go.  He saw me at the same time and called to me to stop for I immediately turned and commenced in a wild run—I know not where for I was lost.  I was confused localities were blanks distances were forgotten.  But on and on I struggled now entangled in the vines and brush of the forest then tripping over logs and falling heavily now and again from sheer exhaustion.  My underclothes were in tatters my limbs were torn and bleeding and my feet were bruised and lacerated.  Yet the thought of the terrible death I would suffer if overtaken by my pursurer [sic] urged me on.  Once I thought me [sic] of s sermon I had heard and that had impressed me it was on the efficacy of prayer.  In the tension of my ordeal to think was to act.  I stopped and listened.  I heard no sound save the nightbirds cry and the moaning of the trees as the winter wind touched their branches.  I felt safe for at least a few minutes.  Down on my knees and I sent up to heaven a prayer.  But again I heard the rapidly approaching footsteps of Asbell.  My God!  Could I not elude him?  Off again I struggled but my strength was gone and I fell heavily to the ground.
            God have mercy now and receive my soul was the wild cry I uttered.  I looked up and Asbell was standing over me.  His hair was dishevelled [sic] his eyes gleamed like coals from hell his face was horribly distorted his clothing was torn and hung in rags about him and there!—My God! in his upraised hand gleamed a murderous knife.  One word only he spoke—Die!—and his hand and the blade descended toward my breast.  But a sudden frenzy of desperation possessed me.  I sprang up—I seemed to be endowed with the strength of the tiger.  I leaned aside as I rose and the knife which had been aimed at my breast, missed its mark.  The force of the stroke unbalanced him and he fell forward at my feet.  I turned to flee.  Again he struck, wildly blindly, and I felt a twinge and stinging pain in my right knee.  The point of his knife had struck me my strength was revived.  I sprang away again and tore through the woods calling for help.  Suddenly the woods began to be more open.  I saw the bright light and turning toward it saw the chimney and black smoke from the cotton factory of Kennon & Co.  I ran to the boiler room door and there met McCardle the night watchman who was firing the furnaces for the day’s work the red streaks of dawn were then in the eastern sky.  He caught me in his arms as I staggered before him.  I heard him say, “What in the name of God is the matter, colonel” and then I knew no more until I regained consciousness in my cot at the hospital.  McCardle had carried me into the boiler room wrapped me in quilts and telephoned to police headquarters from whence an officer (Jerry Wilcher) was sent in a carriage to take me back to the hospital.  The attending physician placed a watch over me the next night but I was not troubled again.  How the wound in my knee was really made I do not really know, but to me if my reason and sense of truth did not control me the vividness of that wild chase and attempted assassination would impel me to say—aye, even to swear—that the livid scar was made by Asbell’s knife!  GEORGE B. MABRY
            HALLUCINATION SIXTH—A Study for Metaphysicians—When Dr. O.W. Tucker was in charge of the city hospital in Brunswick I was an inmate during the months of June and July.  My illness was extreme nervous prostration, the direct result of the morphine habit.  My long confinement left me in an extremely weak condition, physically in consequence of which I was detained for a week or more after my sickness, gathering strength.  About a week before my departure a Norwegian who could not speak a word of English neither could I speak or understand Norwegian was brought in.  He was suffering from severe inflammation of the bowels and was in a high fever.  Dr. Tucker was exceedingly kind to the poor fellow and often left his directions and medicines with me to administer.  The sufferer seemed to appreciate the attention of the doctor and my little assistance and often took my hand and muttered in an unknown tongue evidently trying to make me understand something I know not what.  The night before he died I began to feel very badly.  I took much more than my customary supply of morphine, and drank five or six ounces of whiskey to allay the nausea that frequently followed excessive injections of the drug.  Some time toward midnight I was conscious of some one whispering to the sick man.  As well as I could hear and judge from my position it was the whisper of a woman.  At times she would apparently forget herself and her words were distinctly audible to me.  It occurred to me rather peculiar that her whispered language was in English for the reason that the sick man could not speak or understand that language.  After she had been thus whispering for about ten minutes I heard her say “Now be sure and tell him he will understand.”  By this time my curiosity mastered me and I turned on my cot and looked over to the other end of the ward where the sick man lay and by the dim light of the lamp I distinctly saw the form of a tall woman as she passed into the next room but I hear no footfalls.  The Norwegian had not answered the whispers but had remained in perfect quite.  I arose and went over to his cotside.  He was evidently in a deep sleep and I therefore turned down the lamp and, not a little worried and puzzled to know who the woman was, I lay down and tried to compose myself.  But I continued to try to think who the woman was, and how she expected a Norwegian, who did not know English, to comprehend her in that language.  At last however, the drug gave its after effect of somnolence, and I slept.  I was awake and sitting up when the doctor came in the morning.  I had taken my usual morning injection of the drug and was experiencing the delightful feeling of absolute rest, that is only felt by the confirmed captive after a period of troublous nervousness.  He spoke cordially with me and passed on to the Norwegian’s cot.  As soon as he reached his bedside the sick man raised himself on his elbows and his face took on a wild excited expression and he began to mutter something I could not understand.  His excitement was contagious with me.  Seeing his staring eyes and distorted face, and realizing that a crisis was at hand, I was myself thrown into a paroxyism [sic] of nervous trepidation.  I rose and walked over to the cot and stood by the doctor.  As soon as I got to his bedside the sick man fell back on his pillow and extended his hand to me and drew me to a sitting posture.  Then he began in hurried quick language to tell me “that his trunk was at the house of a woman named Jennie Green,” and that there was $35 in it besides his clothes.  He said that “he wanted the money sent to his sister in New York,” and putting his hand under his pillow, drew forth two letters and handed them to me.  They were from his sister.  He ceased speaking and closed his eyes.  The doctor said “he was delirious,” and noticing my own condition, took me by the arm and led me to my cot telling me to compose myself and try to take a nap.  I lay down and then said “Doctor, you had better take these letters and see what they are about, I suppose, though, they are from his sister he told me he wanted his money sent to.”  “What sister?  What money?” asked the doctor.  “Why, didn’t you hear him telling me of his trunk at Jennie Green’s and of the $35 that is in it?”  “Try and go to sleep,” spoke Dr. Tucker, “you are nervous.  I heard the poor fellow rattling off something in Norwegian or some other foreign language but of course did not understand him.”  I was impressed by his coolness, and I wondered if I had been the victim of another hallucination.  After the doctor left I used my syringe, and was soon asleep.  The next night the Norwegian died.  I left the hospital the day following.  A few days after Dr. Tucker stopped me on the street and said “Mabry, do you remember what you told me about that poor fellow having a trunk and $35 at Jennie Green’s?”  “Yes,” I replied.  “Well it’s strange,” said the doctor “but Jennie Green sent the trunk to the hospital yesterday.  We opened it, and sure enough in the top flap we found the money and it had a lot of good clothes also.  We sent all to his sister’s address given in the letters you handed me after telegraphing her.”  There was a negro nurse—Isaac—who also heard and saw I have been told there are recorded instances like the one in which I heard and understood the Norwegian language.  Dr. Tucker published the incident in a medical journal.  GEORGE B. MABRY.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 6 October 1898; pg. 8 col. 3

ONE HUNDRED LIVES LOST. That is the Estimated Loss of life in Sunday's Storm.

            Brunswick, Ga., October 5--(Special)--Martin Anderson, master of the steamer Hessie, from Darien, reports eighty bodies found on Butler's Island.  These, with twenty previously reported at Campbell Island, runs to a total of one hundred.  There will probably be other returns when the vessels begin to get into the surrounding rice fields and island waterways.  The property damaged at Brunswick, Darien and surrounding country will probably go to one million.  At Jekyl island the clubhouse and cottage damage will go thirty thousand.  Jekyl's dock is on Joseph Pulitzer's cottage porch.  The above and other news now coming in simply confirms.


            Waycross, Ga. October 5--(Special)--Reports continue to come in from the storm stricken districts of this section.  The latest information is that the bridges across the creeks were washed away and the woods are so boggy that the sawmill and turpentine wagons have been unable to haul the products to the manufacturing plants.  A number of bridges in Waycross and vicinity were washed away.  The estimated damage to property in Waycross will not exceed $5,000.  The roads are impassable in the country and it will be impossible to get election returns promptly from several precincts of the railroad.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 8 October 1898; pg. 3 col. 4

REJOICING AT BRUNSWICK; Over the Election and the Subsidence of the Waters

            Brunswick, Ga. October 7.--(Special)--The sanitary department has had over 200 men at work cleaning up for several days and the merchants are beginning to get their stocks dried out.  Bonfires of rubbish and brush are ablaze on many streets, while barrels of carbolic acid have been sprinkled in every wet street where sickness was liable to develop.  This prompt action of the sanitary department has made it practically impossible for bad health results to follow the flood.  Brunswickians, as a whole, are peculiarly happy-hearted, meeting disasters with a steady nerve and going to work cheerfully afterwards to clean up and enjoy life.
            As an illustration, there is tonight a torchlight procession on hand, with which the good government peo9ple intend to celebrate their political victory of Wednesday last.  As this is being written the people are crowding Newcastle street to participate in and view the procession.  Fireworks are going off and where three days ago a flood of water five feet deep destroyed the citizens' property, many of them are now gathering as if to witness a carnival street ball.  All is life, light and merriment, without a trace of gloom from either the defeated or winning side.  It is the ability to forget disaster and nerve and pluck necessary to work hard which keeps Brunswick growing, and she will yet come to the front with both feet on top of the ground and everybody prosperous.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 24 August 1899; pg. 3 cols. 1 & 2

TROOPS WERE SENT TO DARIEN—Negro Mob Objects to Removal of Prisoner—IS CHARGED WITH ASSAULT—From Darien to the Jail at Savannah—SHERIFF TELEGRAPHED THE GOVERNOR—Asked for Troops, Which Were Sent on Special Train from Savannah.  Negro Prisoner Brought to Chatham Jail—Quiet at Darien.

            Darien, Ga., August 23—(Special)—On Monday Henry Delegal, colored, charged with assault upon a white woman in the country, gave himself up.  The sheriff had him in the McIntosh jail, and the colored people gathered in great crowds, fearing there would be an attempt to lynch Delegal.  The authorities attempted to remove Delegal to Savannah, and were met by an armed mob of negroes, who said they did not want him to be sent and that he be left here in our jail.  The authorities determined to place him in Chatham jail, and asked the governor to send troops to take him to Savannah.


            Savannah, Ga., August 23—(Special)—The first news of the trouble at Darien here came through a telegram from Governor Candler to the commanding officer of the First Georgia volunteer regiment, directing him to take 200 men to Darien at once by special train.  Captain P.F. Gleason, of the Irish Jasper Greens, being the senior commanding officer in the city, at once asked Mayor Myers to have the riot call rung, and the eleven strokes from the big fire alarm bell made the volunteers hurry to their armories.
            The Savannah Volunteer Guards also assembled, but their services were not needed.  Captain Gleason got his 200 men from the five companies of the First regiment and completed the requisite number of twenty-five men from the Georgia Hussars, ordered out by Major Berne Gordon, senior commanding officer of the First Cavalry regiment here.
            A special train on the Florida Central and Peninsular railroad was secured in short order, and the troops left the city in command of Captain Gleason at 5:30 o’clock.  At 6:30 o’clock they reached Darien junction, and within half an hour after that were in Darien.
            The Savannah troops had no trouble in taking Delegal from the jail.  It was supposed that the troops had come there simply to protect the prisoner.  Judge Paul E. Seabrook had made a speech to the assembled mob, and there was no attempt at any outbreak.  The troops took the prisoner to their special train, and at 8 o’clock left Darien to return to Savannah.
            THE TROUBLE IN DARIEN—On Monday Henry Delegal, learning that he was wanted on the charge of rape, made by his alleged victim, gave himself up to Sheriff Black, of McIntosh county.  That evening a mob of negroes gathered around the jail.  They thought he was to be lynched, and they were there to defend him.  Yesterday an effort was made to bring him to Savannah, but the threats of the negro mob prevented it.  This morning there was to be another attempt on the part of the authorities to bring him here for safe keeping, of which the negroes were apprised.  They rang the colored Baptist church bell as a warning signal, and the negro mob again assembled, though there was no violence.  This led to the action on the part of Mayor Kenan and prominent citizens of Darien requesting the governor to order troops there at once.
            As soon as the bell rang, four or five hundred negroes assembled, many of them under arms, and there was considerable excitement all during the day.  The mob made no attack on the jail, but simply announced its intention of preventing the negro being taken away or being lynched.
            Mayor Kenan telegraphed the governor that the town was in charge of an armed mob of negroes, and his request for troops was promptly responded to.
            A telephone message from Darien tonight stated that there had been nor disorder there at all, though it was feared on account of the threats of the mob.  Yesterday a party of Darien citizens called on Judge Seabrook here and requested him to call a special term of court to try Delegal, fearing that a lynching would take place unless this was done.  In the event of a lynching, a race riot was predicted.  Judge Seabrook was willing to do anything possible to prevent a disturbance, but things began to look more ominous, and precautionary measures had to be taken.
            According to the story, the alleged offense was committed nine months ago, and it only became known when the girl in question gave birth to a mulatto child a few days ago.  Then it was she had to explain, and she named Delegal as her assailant, stating that he had used force in accomplishing his purpose.  She said she had not told it before because Delegal had threatened to burn her father’s house and to kill her father and herself in the even she informed upon him.
            The special train from Darien arrived tonight at 10:30 o’clock, western time, and Delegal was taken at once to Chatham county jail, where he will be safely kept.  Captain Gleason left seventy-five men in Darien in command of Captain Grayson, to preserve order.
            ALL QUIET AT DARIEN—The latest report from Darien said the negro mob had practically dispersed, and no further trouble was anticipated.
            The name of the woman is Mrs. Matilda Ann Hope, a young woman aged twenty-two years.  Her husband left her some time ago.  The alleged offense was committed in McIntosh county, about twelve miles west of Darien.

GOVERNOR ORDERS TROOPS—Chief Executive of Georgia Promptly Puts an End to the Riot at Darien.

            Governor Candler was notified by telegram at noon yesterday of the imminence of a riot at Darien, Ga., and was urged to hurry troops to the McIntosh county town without delay.  The dispatch received at the executive office stated that as the result of the arrest of Henry Delegal, a negro charged with assault, a mob of 400 negroes from the surrounding counties had assembled at Darien and held the town at their mercy.
            Governor Candler acted with his usual energy and discretion and in five minutes after the receipt of the telegram from Darien, a dispatch from him was on the way to Savannah to the commander of the First Georgia regiment ordering him to Darien with 200 men.  The commander of the regiment was instructed not to lose a moment if necessary to get a special train for his troops.
            The telegram from Darien called on the governor for 500 men, but with his recent experiences with mobs before him, Governor Candler was satisfied in his own mind that a body of 200 troops, well officered, could quell any negro riot that might arise.
            Following is the telegram received by Governor Candler from prominent officials of Darien and McIntosh county:

Henry Delegal, colored, charged with rape of a white woman now confined in McIntosh county jail.  Attempt was made by officer to remove him this morning to Savannah, but was checked by armed mob of 400 negroes; own now in hands of mob; desire to remove him to Chatham county tonight for safekeeping; forces at command inadequate; please order here immediately 500 troops.  Send arms and ammunition for local troops; presence of troops here tonight imperative.  W.C. CLARK, Chairman County Commission.  T.B. BLOUNT, Sheriff.  S. KENAN, Mayor.  R.H. KNOX, Mayor Pro Tem.

            In addition to the telegram to Governor Candler a dispatch was received by Adjutant General Byrd from Captain B.F. Sinclair, of Troop F, First Georgia cavalry, stationed at Darien, asking for arms and ammunition at once.
            Scarcely half an hour after filing his telegram to the commander of the First Georgia regiment ordering him to Darien, Governor Candler received a dispatch in reply from Captain Gleason, of company B, as follows:
Obedient to your telegram ordering 200 men of the First Georgia to Darien, I leave in thirty minutes with that number under arms and will report promptly to sheriff.  CAPTAIN GLEASON, Company B, First Georgia.
            Last night Governor Candler was notified of the safe return of Captain Gleason to Savannah with his prisoner.
            The prompt manner in which the Savannah troops responded to the call of Governor Candler is taken as one of the signs of the thorough reorganization of the state militia which Governor Candler determined to bring about with the aid of his active adjutant general immediately upon his inauguration.



Davenport Daily Leader (Davenport, Iowa); Sunday 27 August 1899; pg. 1 col. 2


            Darien, Ga., Aug. 26—The roundup of the riotous negroes in McIntosh county by the military today resulted in the surrender of Henry Delegal, the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend at the location of Delegal’s brother and the woman directly implicated in the killing.  Delegal’s surrender was made to Lieut. Wood in charge of a detachment of soldiers stationed fifteen miles in the country to back up the sheriff’s posse, who were scouring the swamps.  Delegal stated he surrendered for protection as his capture was only a matter of a few hours.  The arrest of Delegal and the arrival of reinforcements for the military seems to have broken the backbone of defiance by the negroes.  There are still several ring leaders of the blacks wanted by the officers of the law.  Unless they come in and surrender or are brought in by friends and turned over to the authorities the troops will go after them tomorrow.



The Atlanta Constitution; Monday 28 August 1899; pg. 1 cols. 1 & 3

A BUSY NIGHT FOR MILITIA AT DARIEN—Quiet Day Followed by Hours of Active Work in the Dark—NEGROES SEEMED SUBDUED—Judge Seabrook Calls a Special Term of the Superior Court—SESSION WILL OPEN WEDNESDAY—Citizens Employ Prominent Attorney To Take Part in the Prosecution of the Men To Be Indicted and Arraigned.

By C.W. Deming.

            Darien, Ga., August 27—(Special)—At 10 o’clock tonight Captain Sinclair has a detachment of the McIntosh dragoons marching toward the Lower Bluff mill on the hill of Dodge Lumber Company.  The dispatching of these men followed reports from dragoons on the outposts’ country districts which told of a big fire reported in that direction.
            Considerable apprehension is felt, and a sweep of the country around discloses fire reflections between Darien and Brunswick.
            The negroes are thick around Hilton and Dodge’s Hill, but the fire did not last long enough to warrant apprehension that the mills have had the torch applied to them.  The dragoons’ posse is heavily armed and well equipped for trouble.
            Sounds of filing in the jail have just been reported to the dragoons’ armory, and Captain Sinclair has acted promptly.  The town marshal was hurriedly sent for and returned.  With his soldiers he attempted to open the door, but the sheriff had barricaded in on the inside.  The marshal had no key to the other doors, and the sheriff is three miles away at the ridge.  Captain Sinclair has thrown a double guard around the jail, and at the first efforts to escape the prisoners will be fired upon.  John Delegal, the murderer of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, is one of these prisoners, and it is thought the filing is being done by him.
            LIBERTY TROOP GOES HOME—The Liberty Independent troop at Crescent City today were given permission to return home.
            Scouting parties of dragoons coming in from the country tonight report to Captain Sinclair that thirteen heavily armed negroes are in the swamp near the river road.  These negroes hide in the swamp during the day, and come out at night.  The dragoons asked and were given permission to return to the scene with an arrangement by which a detachment of dragoons will go forward at daybreak to re-enforce them should they not be heard from by then.
            At midnight shots near the depot called out all the troops in the dragoons’ armory, and the entire First regiment from their camps.  Captain Sinclair, at the head of the dragoons, hurried to the depot and found the sentinels had fired on suspicious parties.
            The dragoons and sentinels where thrown out as searchers, but could not capture the parties.  Every company in the First regiment was formed and prepared for action.  Dragoons detachment from Lower Bluff mills returned at midnight and reported Hilton Dodge mills safe.
            TROOPS ARE SENT HOME—This morning Colonel Lawton returned 86 men and three officers to Savannah, and now has remaining 175 men and officers, all told, from the First Georgia regiment and the McIntosh Light Dragoons.  Colonel Lawton states he cannot say how long all of these troops will be kept on the scene, but says a large portion of them will be held in camp here until the special term of McIntosh superior court is over.  This special term has been called by Judge Seabrook, of the Atlantic circuit, and will open Wednesday next to try the thirty-five negro rioters now in jail at Savannah and Henry Delegal, the negro about whom the trouble here originated, and John Delegal, his son, who is in jail here now for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, together with such others as may be arrested in the meantime for riotous conduct.
            A committee of prominent citizens acting on behalf of the whites of this section, has formed and engaged special counsel to assist Livingston Kenan in prosecuting the negroes.  This counsel is Walter C. Hartridge, of Savannah, and W.G. Charlton, of Savannah, who is well known as a prosecuting attorney employed by the government in the case of Captain Oberlin M. Carter.  These attorneys are due to arrive tonight and will at once be taken in charge by the citizens’ committee and furnished evidence on which to base the prosecution.
            MONOTONOUS FOR SOLDIERS—In military circles the day has been monotonous, barring the departure of Captain Grayson and his men for Savannah and the arrival of tents for Colonel Lawton’s troops.  Among the citizens of Darien quiet has been partially restored, but the people in outlying districts are very apprehensive and occasional reports of armed bodies of negroes being seen in the swamps keeps Darienites on the alert.  Today reports of a negro mob in King’s swamp and continual gun firing in this section resulted in scouts being sent out and their reports on the situation is expected tonight.
            It appears that at least until Wednesday the situation will not be changed.  All the negroes appear to be thoroughly overawed by the determined action of citizens and the military.  They now realize that the whites will not tolerate their lawlessness and that the whites remain masters of the situation.  They have viewed the arrival of many rifles and much ammunition and noted the armed men scattered throughout the country until they have come to understand that all negroes must be peaceful.  In Darien and through the country where they military have passed the soldiers have had a wonderful quieting effect.  What the situation will develop on Wednesday when the negro rioters arrive is a matter of conjecture, but indications do not point to an outbreak.
            MILITARY WILL REMAIN FOR DAYS—Colonel Lawton says tonight that he is here to preserve order and enough military will remain in Darien during the special term of court to keep everything quiet, and that he considers the county practically quiet tonight.  Colonel Jacob E. Dart, the well-known Georgia politician, is here with a party of Brunswickians, consisting of Robert Pyles, Mason Scarlett, J.A. Clark, of Jekyl Island; William Davenport, Clarence Leavy, Charles Morgan, Clinton Brown.  They came on a special boat in response to calls for re-enforcements Friday night and have been doing splendid service as special deputy sheriffs.  Inspector General Obear, of the state militia, left for Atlanta tonight, after two days here with the troops.
            The credit for the part taken by the military in the search for and surrender of Delegal was given to Lieutenant Leonard Wood.  No such named officer has been here.  The military that accompanied the sheriff’s posse was commanded by Lieutenant Edward A. Leonard, of Savannah.  Colonel Lawton and others request a correction of the error in names, and in making the request Colonel Lawton said:
            “I regret that Lieutenant Leonard’s name was not used.  He is a splendid officer and deserves fully the credit for the military part in yesterday’s affairs.  Lieutenant Leonard acted fearlessly and with a great deal of discretion and diplomacy in securing Delegal, and I think he deserves all the praise that can be given him.”
            Robert R. Hopkins, whose brother was wounded by Delegal at the time he killed Townsend, says of Lieutenant Leonard:
            “He is a brave officer, and did his duty well as one of the sheriff’s posse.  I know of Leonard’s worth and work and wish you would give him full measure of praise.”
            I can also testify to the bravery, tact and good judgment of Lieutenant Leonard, having been a witness to his work in the Delegal swaps at the time of the murderer’s capture.



The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 30 August 1899; pg. 3 col. 3

DELEGAL NOW QUITE HUNGRY—McIntosh Negro Says the Wallaces Are Persecuting Him.

            Savannah, Ga., August 29—(Special)—Henry Delegal, the negro from McIntosh county, who is in jail here, waiting to be carried back to Darien to be tried for a criminal assault, talked quite freely today about the recent trouble at his home in which is son killed Joseph Townsend and shot another white man.  Henry knows nothing about the trouble except what has been told him, but he feels sure something must have been done or said to his son to make him take the life of the deputy sheriff.
            The negro gave a new version of the trouble between himself and Troup Wallace, the father of the woman who alleges that he committed a criminal assault upon her.  He says there is malice behind the whole affair.  A nephew of Wallace tried to sell a stolen ox to Delegal several years ago, he says, and Delegal reported the matter to the authorities.  The nephew was sent to the penitentiary for six months, he says, and the Wallace family has been after him.  They tried to get him arrested once on a charge of cutting timber on another man’s land and failed.
            Delegal says he is a pretty hungry man now, despite the fact that he is given jail rations.  He does not complain of the fare except that he gets bakers’ bread to eat, and he has not cultivated a taste for it.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 2 September 1899; pg. 3 cols. 1 & 2

FIVE ARE CONVICTED OF RIOTING; THE TRIAL AT DARIEN YESTERDAY—First Block of Five Negroes Found Guilt but Sentence Not Passed—FIVE MORE BEFORE A JURY—Twenty-Seven Have Been Indicted and the Court Will Be Very Busy—WILL TAKE A WEEK TO TRY CASES—After These Trials Have Been Concluded, the Cases of the Murderers of Deputy Sheriff Townsend Will Be Taken Up.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 1—(Special)—The first block of five rioters were found guilty today.  The jury was out only fifteen minutes.  The rioters were three men and two women who were most prominent in the leading affair against the sheriff on Wednesday last.
            The opening speech for the defense was made by Attorney Colding, followed by Attorneys Hartridge and Charlton, for the prosecution.  The closing argument was made by Judge Twiggs, for the defense, in a speech over one hour long.  His main line of argument was that the negro rioters were not rioters at all, but out of curiosity assembled when the church bell began to ring.
            The general sentiment in McIntosh county is that the verdict was a just one.
            Court took recess for one hour and reconvened for tonight’s session.  There are thirty-seven indictments out, but only about twenty-six arrests have been made so far.
            It took all day to try the first block of five and at that rate it will be a week before these trials are concluded.  In the meantime there are the other arrests to be made.
            Following these trials comes that of the three Delegals for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend.  No sentences will be passed until all riot cases are disposed of.
            The rioters convicted today are Ben Dunham, James Wylly, Marshall Dorsey, Louisa Underwood and Maria Curry.  Those on trial tonight are Jonas Green, a bad negro, Lawrence Baker, Josephine Bird, a mean negress, Abram Green and Moses Miller.

REVIEW OF THE DARIEN ROW—Showing How Delegal Ruled the Negroes of McIntosh County.

            Darien, Ga., September 1—(Special)—There have been many race riots reported in this country and many peculiar features connected with them, but the Darien affair can be safely said to stand without a parallel in the history of all the troubles.  Between time spent in riding about from one part of McIntosh county to another with military and sheriff’s posses, and tracing down various rumors of more or less exciting nature, some of which were veritable “hair curlers.”  I have learned a great deal of what can happen to alarm people in a county where negroes outnumber whites about four to one, and woods are so thick a man can hardly force a horse through.  To get to the bottom of this trouble one has to review a situation of many years’ existence.  In years gone by negroes ruled the county vote and negro office holders were the rule and not the exception.  There are two here now, the postmaster and deputy collector of customs, but President McKinley put these two where they are and they cut no figure in the present situation except the influence their holding such responsible and prominent offices has upon the minds of the average negro.  But to go back to the beginning is to tell of the days of the carpet baggers and the means that intelligent whites had to employ to get rid of them as office holders.  To accomplish this end the work of negro leaders had to be secured.
            HENRY DELEGAL’S INFLUENCE—One of the negroes who became identified with the whites in this effort was Henry Delegal, now in jail charged with raping a white woman and about whom the present trouble originated.  Delegal worked with the whites for years and then became a rank republican negro leader.  He forsook the even peaceful tenor of white democratic ways, and moving into a dense swamp settlement, became ruler of the inhabitants.  The settlement became known finally as the Delegal Settlement, so powerful was the negro’s domination.  Around this settlement many poor white people who had their little property and could not afford to give it up and leave, but who viewed year by year the domineering manner of Henry Delegal and his black followers.  To the blacks Delegal was a hero, a king, and they worshiped him as a god, while to the whites around he was a terror and a man to be always feared.  At the infectious increase of negro lust for white women spread over Georgia it reached the Delegal settlement and it was during that time that Delegal began to sleep with the white woman who recently gave birth to his black child.  She was a woman of bad character, but despite that the whites of McIntosh county, in view of their knowledge of Delegal domination, believed her story that Delegal gratified his lust under threats of death to herself and entire family if she told of his crimes.  Not until the black child came did the whites know that Delegal had gone so far with his power and when the physician attending the woman reported the facts, the blood of the whites began to boil.  A citizens’ meeting was called and conducted by fair-minded men.  The consensus of opinion was that no negro could sleep with a white woman in McIntosh county and go unpunished.  With this determination a warrant was sworn out for Delegal’s arrest and he was jailed.  There was some talk of whites from other counties harming him and the sheriff decided to remove his prisoner to Savannah for safe keeping.  Unexpectedly and to the great astonishment of the whites the negroes arose in arms and declared that Delegal should not be removed from jail here.  They constituted themselves protectors of Delegal from a mob which only existed in their excited imagination and from every side came to his rescue from a supposed danger which never existed.  Every lumber boom was deserted, laborers ran from their work at the mills or quit their work of loading vessels, while from the country districts they flocked in overwhelming numbers.  The negro church bells rang to call them in, and then for the first time the peaceful white citizens of this county learned that Delegal’s friends had been arming and preparing themselves for just such an event for the past ten days.  The whites, totally unprepared for such an occurrence, and outnumbered five to one by armed negroes, could not assist the sheriff and he returned Delegal to his cell in the face of five hundred or more desperate blacks, who held the streets in front of the jail.  Immediately the whites began to order arms and call for troops and re-enforcements, which came in numbers.  With their arrival came the exciting events in which the whites were victorious and Delegal was removed to the Savannah jail.  Quiet was partially restored and the remaining troops grew tired under the monotonous strain of unexciting guard duty, when like a thunderclap came the report Friday morning of the killing of Deputy Sheriff Townsend and the wounding of Deputy Hopkins while they were attempting to arrest Delegal’s sons for riot and jail them with a few others that had been implicated in the affair with the sheriff.  Like a seething cauldron the rage of the whites then exerted itself and determination to bring the murderers to justice and subdue the negro population was evident on every side.
            HAD CONFIDENCE IN SOLDIERS—The situation grew critical and Governor Candler was called upon for more troops.  His response with two hundred men and the later events which followed are fresh in the public mind, as they appeared in these dispatches and it is not necessary to review them here.  But there is connected with these events some circumstances which call for more than passing mention, and they present a new phase to the latter days.  IT is the relation of the military to the negroes that is strikingly illustrated.  To the military only have these rioters surrendered, and to the man in uniform they have given their unreserved confidence.  When Lieutenant Leonard was negotiating with the Delegal’s mother in the swamps of McIntosh he wore the coat of the “U.S.V.” which had been part of his uniform while a captain in the late Spanish-American war.  This “U.S.V.” was taken by the negroes to mean that Lieutenant Leonard was a United States soldier, and soon, throughout all that negro settlement the news spread that the president had sent down United States troops to protect the negroes.  Lieutenant Leonard then became the negroes’ idol and the Delegal who fired the fatal shot surrendered to him willingly.  How strongly this idea of United States troops prevailed is best told in the fact that the first circular issued by the negro preachers and intelligent leaders, referred to the United States troops having protected Delegal from being lynched and calling upon all rioters to come from their hiding places and give themselves up and rest under the protection of these soldiers.  The whites of McIntosh objected to the wording of these circulars and it was called in and another one issued which contained no use of the word “lynching.”
            Following the issuing of this circular negro leaders visited the swamp settlements and called their people in.  Many surrenders followed and the most important one was the surrender of Ed Delegal on Tuesday last to Lieutenant LeonardDelegal regarded Lieutenant Leonard as his brother’s savior and to him only would he give up.  Sixteen miles from the soldiers’ camp, and in a lonely wood Lieutenant Leonard was piloted to Delegal and there received his arms.  A posse of military were in the background two miles away, but the negro did not know it.  Delegal came from the swamp and his friends with him.  Lieutenant Leonard then held a semi-reception with the blacks, who gazed at his should straps and the “U.S.V.” in wonder and admiration.  The opportunity was one not to be missed and Lieutenant Leonard made the negroes a speech, advising them to go in town and give themselves up for trial, promising them full protection by the military.  That his advice was well taken was evident from the many subsequent surrenders and complete abandonment of the swamps by the blacks.  The court trials and scenes attendant followed and now one of the most unusual occurrences of a century is coming to a close in the little city of Darien, situated on the coast of Georgia.



The Stevens Point Journal (Stevens Point, Wisconsin); Saturday 2 September 1899; pg. 2 col. 5

MILITARY IN CONTROL—Outbreak of Riotous Negroes in Georgia Is Likely Soon to Be at an End.

            Darien, Ga., Aug. 28—The round-up of riotous negroes in McIntosh county by the military resulted in the surrender of Henry Delegal, the murderer of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, and the location for future arrest of Delegal’s brother and the woman directly implicated in the killing.
            The arrest of Delegal and the arrival of reinforcements for the military have broken the backbone of the defiance of the law by the negroes.  A whole regiment of troops are now on duty in and about Darien, under command of Col. Lawton, but it is not believed there will be further bloodshed.
            There are still several ringleaders of the blacks wanted by the officers of the law.  Unless they come in and surrender or are brought in by their friends and turned over to the authorities the troops will go after them to-day.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 3 September 1899 pg. 4 cols. 1 & 3

[Photo of troops in front of Darien court house with this article—ALH]

RAPID WORK OF COURT AT DARIEN—Jurymen on Second Batch of Five Were Divided—REPORTED TO THE JUDGE—That They Were Unable To Agree as to the Guilt of Some Prisoners—THEIR VERDICT, HOWEVER, ACCEPTED—Three Rioters Convicted, One Acquitted and a Mistrial Reported on the Other—Grand Jury Has the Delegal Case in Hand.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 2—(Special)—At Darien today the court moved more rapidly in the trial of the negro rioters.  The jury, out last night on the second batch of five, sat on the case for twelve hours and then returned with the statement that it was impossible for them to agree on the guilt of Josephine Bird, the negress, while as for Abram Green they found a verdict of not guilty.
            Judge Seabrook sent the jury back and told them to agree and report.  The foreman stated that they would not agree if they were out six months and Judge Seabrook told them they could sit seven if necessary.  In about an hour the Judge sent for the jury, accepting their verdict, as they were then ready to return it.
            Those convicted were Jones Green, Moses Miller and Lawrence Baker.
            Josephine Bird’s case was reported a mistrial and Abram Green was found not guilty.
            The cases against Charles McDonald, Dave Petty, Hugh Thompson, Moses Bailey, and John Thompson were on trial in the meantime and the jury was out only about ten minutes when a verdict of guilty against them was returned with the exception of John Thompson.
            The case against Bill Jenkins was tried separately, he having employed a different lawyer from the rest, and the jury brought in a verdict of guilty against him in about ten minutes’ time.
            Court then adjourned until Monday morning next.
            The grand jury this afternoon took up the case of Henry Delegal, charged with rape, and about whom the entire trouble at Darien originated.  The jury did not conclude its labors and court adjourned until Monday.
            Lawyers for the defense of the rioters today intimated that they would endeavor to secure new trials for the negroes and asked the court when they could make a motion to that effect.  Judge Seabrook stated that he thought they had better wait until all the cases had been tried and sentences were passed before the lawyers began to consider propositions for new trials.  He state, however, that he was not exactly clear on that point and he would let the lawyers know later.
            Judge Seabrook is rushing things at Darien.  Three juries a day are sitting and the trials are being pushed night and day, although it will probably take all next week to get through with them.  Then the murder case is to come up, followed by the rape case.

BRUNSWICK FOLKS VERY INDIGNANT—Editorial in a Negro Newspaper Conveys a Threat—ITS AUTHOR IS WELL KNOWN—As a Very Bad Negro, Who Has Caused Trouble Before—GOOD MEN OF HIS RACE AGAINST HIM—Attacks the Mocks Family and States That Negroes of Brunswick Are Ripe for a Row.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 2—(Special)—The people of Brunswick have perhaps never been so deeply aroused and indignant as they are today from an editorial publication in The Brunswick Herald, edited by Henry A. Hagler, a well-known negro, in which he states that “there are upward of 200 negroes well armed in Brunswick, who are ready and sworn to protect us with the last drop of their blood.”
            The editorial in question is a second one of the like character, the first having appeared last week, during which Hagler wrote very strongly regarding a case now pending in the courts, here against Mr. J.B. Mock, who is being tried for an alleged offense of assaulting a young negro girl.  Hagler seems to have the idea that the Mock family are after him, and the editorial starts out directed at them, but includes all the whites of Brunswick, in a desperate effort to bring a bloody conflict between the whites and blacks of this county.  The editorial in full reads:
            THE MOCKS ARE MAD—“Tell Hagler to see me, and see me damn quick,” the is the message that reached me this week while out in Camden county soliciting subscribers from one of the Mocks, of whom we wrote last week as having raped a little negro girl in his store in Brunswick some days ago.  Judging from the past record of the Mocks, they are not yet the angels we would like them to be, but we were fully acquainted with this fact when the former article was written, and for the information of the whole crowd of Mocks we state that we will be in Brunswick about the middle of next week; that we have a brace of revolvers and Winchesters, and with assurances of kindest consideration we state that the first person that disturbs the even tenor of the way will have the early opportunity of being fanned by the gentle zephyrs from the delectable mountains.  It is not our intention to be discourteous to any one; no gentleman would.  We wish to be fair and impartial to all mankind and in return all mankind must treat us as a man, not as a pigmy; a gentleman, not a lackey.  If the Mocks have any grievances against us, let them be written out and sent to our office, and they will receive consideration.  Threats with us count for nothing.  We know now how we are situated, and for the benefit of the Mocks and any other hothead who would rush in where angels fear to tread, we will state that there is upward of 200 negroes well armed in Brunswick who are sworn to protect us with the last drop of their life blood.  It behooves the Messrs. Mocks, et al, to awake to the fact that times and conditions with the negro have changed.  They are now not the arrant coward they once were.  They have reached the conclusion that the cause of one is the cause of all, and that since they are doomed to die anyway, they may as well leave some vacant homes other than theirs when they are ushered into the eternity.  We guess this is enough said.
            CAUSED CONSIDERABLE COMMENT—When the editorial appeared on the streets it created a wave of intense comment amongst the whites and blacks of Brunswick.  The white people, and the better class of colored people alike, felt outraged at the attempt of Hagler to bring on trouble between the whites and blacks of this community, and on every corner the talk was heard as men gathered in groups.
            Tonight correspondent’s offices were visited by Deputy Revenue Collector W.H. Matthews and Deputy Collector of Customs Eugene Belcher, the latter of whom is chairman of the republican eleventh district congressional committee, and they, on behalf of the colored people, denounce Hagler as a crazy man who was irresponsible for his attacks and whom the colored race all condemned for efforts to cause trouble.  They stated that they colored people would call a meeting for Monday and pass resolutions condemning Hagler’s utterances.
            Hagler’s history is one of an effort to arouse the whites against the blacks.  Bill Pledger, the noted republican leader of Atlanta, seized his office there for his writings against prominent people, and in Brunswick the sheriff has his office, and Hagler publishes The Herald at Charlotte, N.C.  From Charlotte The Herald is mailed to Brunswick for distribution.  Hagler is the same negro who aroused the whites of the south so greatly several years ago by the bitterness of his attack in his Atlanta paper against the memory of Jefferson Davis.  It was at the time of the removal of the ex-president’s remains to Virginia, and the day the casket passed through Atlanta the editorial appeared.  It inflamed the whites and began Hagler’s downward career in Atlanta.  He then embittered John H. Devereaux, collector of customs at Savannah; Henry A. Rucker, collector at Atlanta, and many of the leading colored men in the state against him by the savagery of his attacks on them personally and against President McKinley.
            Hagler is a firebrand in any community, and the sentiment of both the whites and better class of colored people here is that Brunswick does not want him any longer.
            Following so closely on the Darien race trouble, his writings are like a match to a powder magazine.
            Tonight the leading negroes of Brunswick furnished your correspondent with a card denouncing The Herald’s article as untrue, and stating that they are law-abiding citizens, and do not want trouble with the whites.



The Atlanta Constitution; Tuesday 5 September 1899; pg. 4 col. 1

JUDGE SEABROOK GRANTS THE DELEGALS A CHANGE OF VENUE—Slayers of Deputy Sheriff Townsend Will Be Arraigned for Trial in Effingham County—DECREE CAUSES SENSATION—Prisoners Will Be Carried to Savannah Today for Safe-Keeping—CASES TO COME UP WEDNESDAY WEEK—Judge Declares He Does not Question Wisdom of Governor Candler in Sending Troops to Darien, but Fears a Fair Trial Is Impossible.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 4—(Special)—“I am opposed to trying cases that involve human life, where the shadow of the courthouse falls upon the military,” was in substance the statement made by Judge Seabrook from he bench of McIntosh superior court today, as he announced his decision to grant a change of venue in the cases against John Delegal, Ed Delegal, and Mirrandy Delegal, under indictment for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend.
            This statement created a stir in the courtroom and great discussion on all sides.  Judge Seabrook followed it with the declaration that he did not question the wisdom of Governor Candler in sending the military forces to Darien at the time he did to protect the place, neither did he mean to criticize the judgment displayed by Governor Candler in calling out the military, but for the reason given and for other reasons he did not think necessary to mention from the bench, he had decided to grant the change of venue to the accused and set the case against them for trial in Effingham county superior court on Wednesday week, September 13th.
            The calling of the murder case today was something of a surprise and attorneys for the defense immediately sprang their plea for a change of venue.
            Judge Twiggs, for the defense, opened with the declaration that the accused could not secure an impartial trial in McIntosh county, due to the inflamed condition of the public mind, and in support of this argument presented affidavits from Captain Gleason, Captain West and others of the First Georgia regiment, who were present from Savannah during the exciting times that followed the murder of Deputy Townsend, and cited the fact that Henry Delegal and other prisoners had been removed to Savannah for safe keeping.
            The three prisoners had been brought to the courtroom under a military escort of twelve men and the courtroom was crowded with spectators.
            When the defense summoned Colonel Lawton, who is in charge of the entire military forces at Darien, there was a buzz of excitement.  Colonel Lawton, when questioned by the defense, made a statement to the effect that he preferred not to testify in regard to the case at all.  He said in substance that occupying the position he did in the adjustment of the troubles in McIntosh county, he did not think it would be proper for him to testify and he firmly requested to be excused.  The defense decided to grant the request, and Colonel Lawton stepped from the stand.
            Attorney Charlton, for the prosecution, stated that as the defense had not offered any facts in evidence, only surmises and suppositions that the accused could not get a fair trial, the prosecution did not feel it necessary to offer counter evidence, but if the court wanted counter evidence presented the attorneys for the prosecution would have to have a little time to prepare it, as the plea for a change of venue was unexpected.  Judge Seabrook gave the prosecution until 4 o’clock this afternoon to present counter evidence.
            In the interval the court took up the cases for riot against Ben Brown, Bob Odistal, Harper Gordon, Henry Gordon, and Freeman Elverson.  The jury convicted three and acquitted Bob Odistal and Ben Brown.  This evening the cases against Jim Ross, Morris Seabroe, Dan Johnson, Kit Alexander and Ed Follien were tried.  Four were found guilty and the court ordered Ed Follien discharged.  There are eight more rioters now in jail and they will be tried tomorrow.  Indictments are out now for several more, and these will be tried as soon as they are arrested.
            Wednesday morning the case against Henry Delegal, charged with raping the white woman, will be called.  Advices from Darien tonight are that the military forces will, in all probability, leave tomorrow for Savannah, taking the Delegals to Savannah jail.



The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 6 September 1899; pg. 3 col. 4

DARIEN RIOTERS GIVEN TERMS—Twenty-Two of the Convicted Negroes Sentenced—SIX ARE HEAVILY FINED—One Thousand Dollars or Twelve Months Imposed on the Leaders—SIXTEEN GOT OFF A SHADE LIGHTER—The Case Against Harry Delegal, Charged with Assaulting White Woman, Will Be Taken Up When the Court Convenes Today.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 5—(Special)—Sentences were passed on twenty-two rioters at Darien today, six being fined one thousand dollars each or twelve months on the chain gang and sixteen being fined two hundred and fifty dollars each or twelve months in the gang.  Two others are out on bond and were not present to have sentences passed.  It is presumed that they will not show up and it is hardly probable that any of the convicted ones will be able to pay their fines.
            The ring-leaders who got the thousand dollar sentences were Jonas Green, James Wylly, Ben Dunham, Charles McDonald, Joseph Kimmon, Charles Turner.  The others sentenced were Moses Miller Jr., Hugh Thompson, Dave Petty, James Bailey, Freeman Elverson, Sharper Gordon, Henry Golden, James Ross, Kit Alexander, Dan Johnson, Horace Seabroe, Levi Mitchell, Charles Baptist, Marshall Dorsey and two women, Maria Currey and Louisa Underwood.
            In passing sentence Judge Seabrook took occasion to deliver the rioters and the spectators a lecture on the necessity of upholding the law at all times and the penalty that must follow any violation of it.  The trial of the last batch of eight rioters today, the conviction of four and passing of sentences on the twenty-two, were the main features of the court proceedings, and tomorrow the court will take up the case of Henry Delegal, charged with raping the white woman.
            Colonel Lawton left Darien today with the remainder of his military forces, it being in his judgment unnecessary for the military to remain longer.  Henry Delegal was brought over from Savannah on tonight’s train under a military escort of forty men and these will probably remain throughout his trial.

DELEGALS ALL IN ONE JAIL—Prisoners Held at Darien Have Been Transferred to Savannah.

            Savannah, Ga., September 5—(Special)—John Delegal, Eddie Delegal and Mary Delegal, their mother, arrived from Darien at 1:30 o’clock this afternoon.  They were immediately placed in the Chatham county jail, where they will be held until the day of their trial in Effingham county.  Colonel A.R. Lawton, Lieutenant Edward A. Leonard and the Liberty Independent troop, thirty-eight strong, came from Darien with the prisoners.  They were met at the depot by Sergeant of Police Owen Reilly, and a squad of eleven patrolmen.  The “red maria” attracted a great deal of attention as it hurried down Liberty street loaded with blue coats.  Many persons thought there was a riot and that this was the reason for the assembling of the officers of the law.
            “It is needless for me to march them through the streets of Savannah and attract a crowd.  You are fully able to take care of them and transport them to the jail without any excitement,” said Colonel Lawton to Sergeant Reilly.
            The patrolmen formed in double ranks and the Delegals were handed over to them.  They were handcuffed to each other and were escorted by Deputy Sheriff T.A. Baily, of Darien.  Mary Delegal, the mother of the two boys, followed behind.  She was not shackled.  Up to this time Henry Delegal, who is charged with rape, did not know that his wife and youngest son, Eddie, were under arrest.  He was in the corridor on the first floor looking through the bars.  The sight of his wife and two boys startled him.  He could hardly believe his own eyes.
            “Praise to God, my whole family is in this place; God will do right and justice is my hope,” he said.
            Colonel Lawton announced on his arrival that he was home to stay.  The commanding officer of the First Georgia regiment, who has been in Darien almost since the trouble first started two weeks ago, looked quite fatigued.  He stated that everything was quiet at Darien and that the trouble had all ended.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 7 September 1899; pg. 3 col. 3

IS HARD TO SECURE A JURY—McIntosh Residents Are Prejudiced Against Henry Delegal.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 6—(Special)—Trouble is being experienced in McIntosh county in securing a jury to try Henry Delegal.  Today over seventy jurors were summoned and out of that number only eleven have been secured.  The jurors go down mostly for cause and about nine-tenths of them admit their prejudice in the case.
            Court has adjourned until tomorrow to give the sheriff another chance to bring in men and that official is actively at work tonight hunting available material to present to the court tomorrow.



The Atlanta Constitution; Friday 8 September 1899; pg. 3 col. 2

DELEGAL’S CASE WITH JURY—Defense Offered No Evidence, but Prisoner Makes Statement.

            Brunswick, Ga., September 7—(Special)—The twelfth juror in the case against Henry Delegal was secured in McIntosh court today and after a heated trial behind closed doors the case is late tonight in the hands of the jury.  There is a belief that it will result in a mistrial.  The woman’s character precludes the probability of the jury agreeing on the case tonight at least.  The trial opened today with the woman’s father on the stand and the impression made by his testimony was unfavorable to the prosecution.  The woman was then placed on the stand and told a story of Delegal having forced his way into her house on the night of December 2d last.
            The defense offered no evidence beyond the statement of the accused and he denied the charge against him.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 9 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 4

DELEGAL GETS A MISTRIAL—Jury Was Unable To Agree and Change of Venue Was Granted.

            Brunswick Ga September 8—(Special)—The Jury in the case of Henry Delegal returned a statement that they stood seven for conviction and five for acquittal after being out all last night.  Judge Seabrook ordered a mistrial.  Declared on motion for change of venue it was granted and the case set for re-hearing at the special term of Effingham court the same week that the Delegal murderers are to be tried.  Judge Seabrook and all the Savannah attorneys returned to Savannah today.  Delegal was carried back under military escort and lodged in Savannah jail.
            Effingham’s special term of court begins next Wednesday.  The prisoners will all be removed next Tuesday night.



The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 13 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 2

DELEGALS ARRIVE AT GUYTON—Will Be Placed on Trial for Their Lives Today.

            Guyton, Ga., September 12—(Special)—Sheriff W.W. Griffin, assisted by Deputies L.B. Smith and J.J. Usher, of this county, arrived here from Savannah at 3 o’clock this evening, with Henry and John Delegal, the alleged murder and rapist, on their way to Springfield, where they will be placed upon trial tomorrow morning for their lives.  It will be remembered that old man Henry Delegal was placed upon trial a few days ago at a special term of McIntosh superior court for an assault upon a white woman, and a mistrial resulted, whereupon a change of venue was made by Judge Seabrook to this county.  The brothers and friends of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, who was killed by John Delegal, in McIntosh county, a few days ago, accompanied the sheriff’s posse to Springfield and will be present at the trial tomorrow morning.



The Atlanta Constitution; Friday 15 September 1899

Pg. 3 col. 3

JOHN DELEGAL GOES FOR LIFE—Convicted of the Murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend—DURING THE DARIEN RIOT—Jury Recommended Him To Mercy of the Court—AND THIS SAVED HIM FROM GALLOWS—Henry Delegal, Charged with Rape, Was Placed on Trial Yesterday Afternoon at Guyton—All the Evidence Has Been Taken.

            Guyton, Ga., September 14—The case of John Delegal of the Darien rioters sent to the Effingham court on change of venue from McIntosh county was concluded today in a verdict of guilty of murder with a recommendation to the mercy of the court.  He was sentenced to life imprisonment.  John Delegal it will be remembered shot and killed Deputy Sheriff Townsend, who went to arrest him during the time of the riots.  His brother and sister, who were indicted with him, were acquitted.
            The case of Henry Delegal for rape which, after a mistrial in Darien last week, was sent to this county on a change of venue was taken up this afternoon.  This covers the case out of which grew the riots.  There was no trouble in securing a jury and the evidence was quickly submitted.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 16 September 1899; pg. 3 col. 2

HENRY DELEGAL IS SET FREE—JURY BROUGHT IN A VERDICT OF NOT GUILTY—Crime Charged Against Him Caused the Recent Riot at Darien.

            Guyton, Ga., September 15—Henry Delegal, colored, was today acquitted in the Effingham court of the charge of criminal assault upon a white woman in McIntosh county.  This was the affair out of which grew the Darien riots.  Arguments of the attorneys were made at a late hour last night, and the jury remained locked up until noon today when a verdict of not guilty was returned.
            The cases of Edward and Melinda Delegal, charged with being accessories to the murder of Sheriff Townsend, were begun this afternoon.  These are the last the [sic] Darien riot cases.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 17 September 1899; pg. 7 col. 4

EDWARD DELEGAL FOR LIFE—Convicted as Accessory to Murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend.

            Guyton, Ga., September 16—The Darien riot cases were cleared up today by the Effingham court.  Edward Delegal was convicted as accessory in the murder of Deputy Sheriff Townsend, of Darien, and sentenced to life imprisonment.  Malinda Delegal, his mother, indicted under the same charge, was acquitted.  A summary of the riot trials show:  Henry Delegal, for criminal assault, acquitted; John and Edward Delegal, for murder, sentenced to the penitentiary for life, and twenty-eight rioters sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.



The Kansas City Journal (Kansas City, MO); Saturday 14 October 1899; pg. 7 col. 5

TERRORIZED BY A NEGRESS—Georgia Community in Deadly Fear of a Crazy Woman Who Has a Gun.

            BRUNSWICK, GA., Oct. 13.—The section of Glynn county around Sapp’s still is being terrorized by a crazy negro woman, stark naked, roaming the woods, shooting at any one she sees.  Already one man has fallen dead before her pistol, while two other negroes, her husband and a brother, have been wounded by her bullets.
            The woman’s name is Mary Eason.  A few days ago she became violently insane, stole the weapon with which she is now armed and a box of cartridges from her husband and was oof to the swamp.  Persons go armed in the neighborhood and houses are guarded as protection for the women and children.



Union Recorder (Milledgeville, GA); Tuesday 30 January 1900; pg. 3 col. 2


            Mr. F.W. Leben, manager of the City Baker, mysteriously disappeared from this city last Monday evening.
            Late Monday afternoon, Mr. Leben, accompanied by Mr. Iverson Barnes, went to the Oconee river, for the purpose of fishing, and young Barnes left him standing on the banks of the river, near a boat, and went off for a light. When he returned, Mr. Leben and the boat were gone. He called several times, and receiving no answer, came back to the city. Early Tuesday morning a party went to the river and made a diligent search for the missing man. A paddle, which was in the boat, was found near the bridge, and the boat was found several miles down the river, where it had apparently drifted.
            These are the circumstances immediately preceding the disappearance of Mr. Leben, but is thought that he left the city by another route, and is still in the land of the living.



The Macon Telegraph; Monday 7 May 1900; pg. 6 col. 4

GRETNA GREEN AFFAIR—A Waresboro School Girl Eloped With Her Lover.

            WARESBORO, Ga., May 6.—On last Sunday afternoon Miss Nina Furlong, a pupil of the Institute, eloped with Mr. Allen Spence.  They were married by Judge Cribb.  The brothers of Miss Furlong desired that she finish her education before thinking of marriage, and had, as they thought, broken up the love affair of the two young people, but they found they were mistaken.



The Atlanta Constitution; Monday 7 January 1901; pg. 2 col. 3

HOME OF CARNEGIE IS BURNED; Was Located on Cumberland Island and Loss is $50,000

            Fernandina, Fla.; January 6--The residence of W.C. Carnegie, at Stafford Place, five miles from Dungeness, on Cumberland Island, was burned to the ground yesterday afternoon.  The loss was almost total, very little being saved on the lower floor.  The estimated loss is $50,000.  Mr. Carnegie is a son of Mrs. Lucy Carnegie, of Dungeness, and of national reputation as an expert golfer.  The origin of the fire is unknown.



The Atlanta Constitution; Wednesday 12 June 1901

Pg. 2 col. 3

GRIFFIN TO BE HANGED FRIDAY—Slayer of Conductor Latimer Confesses and Is Ready To Die.

            Brunswick, Ga., June 11—(Special)—Tricy Griffin, the negro slayer of Conductor Latimer, is to hang on Friday, and the scaffold has been erected in the jail yard.  The hanging will be private.  Griffin has confessed that he killed Conductor Latimer and says he is now willing to die.



The Atlanta Constitution; Saturday 15 June 1901

Pg. 5 col. 4

GRIFFIN STRANGLED TO DEATH—Slayer of Conductor Latimer is Hanged at Brunswick.

            Brunswick, Ga., June 14—(Special)—Tricy Griffin, convicted of the murder of Conductor Latimer, was hanged in the jail here today at noon, in the presence of about forty people, including Detectives Conally and Scarlett, of Atlanta, who effected his capture and conviction.  Prior to the hour set for the hanging, the streets surrounding were well filled with people anxious to catch a glimpse of the condemned man.
            Griffin was kept in his cell until a short time before the execution, when he was brought into the jail corridor to prepare for the death trap.  He was allowed to talk to the crowds outside the jail fence, and to many of these he said goodby [sic].
            In the jail corridor Griffin reviewed the act which sent him to the gallows at length and said that he did not intend to kill Conductor Latimer, but only meant to frighten him.  He attributed all his present trouble to women, cards and whisky.  Griffin was led to the trap and unflinchingly stood while the black cap was fastened and the noose adjusted by Deputy Sheriff Price of Wayne county.  The drop was sprung and Griffin’s body shot downward to recoil from the jerk.  It was seen that the knot had slipped from under the jawbone to the back of his neck.  This prolonged his death evidently by strangulation, and it was about five minutes before Drs. Blanton and Blaine [sic] pronounced life extinct.  The body was cut down and placed in a coffin for burial.  This ended the first legal hanging in Glynn county in seventy years.



The Atlanta Constitution; Monday 20 January 1902; pg. 2 col. 1

Stafford Heirs To Sue for Cumberland Island Property

            Brunswick, Ga.,--January 19.--(Special)--The heirs of Robert Stafford are preparing to bring suit against the Carnegies for the possession of Cumberland Island property.
            The Carnegies have spent about a half million dollars in improving the property on the island, and the suit will be an interesting one from many standpoints.



Historical Newspapers, Birth, Marriage, & Death Announcements, 1851-2003; The Atlanta Constitution; 27 April 1902

BRUNSWICK HEARS ATLANTAN—Hon. Albert Cox Delivers Eloquent Memorial Address There.

            Brunswick, Ga., April 26.—(Special.)—Memorial day was appropriately celebrated in this city today.  The feature was the unveiling of the monument recently erected in Hanover park to commemorate the confederate dead, and about which there has been considerable discord in the ranks of the veterans.  That body turned out today only about half of its members to assist in the unveiling exercises.  Commander Dart was greatly missed at the head of the old warriors, this being the first parade he has not commanded in many years.
            The unveiling address was delivered by Hon. Albert Cox, of Atlanta, and it was thoroughly enjoyed by the large crowd present in Hanover park.



The Savannah Morning News (Savannah, GA); Wednesday 29 April 1903; pg. 9 col. 1

CHARGED WITH POISONING—Will Adams, a Brunswick negro, is behind the bars of the Glynn county jail for poisoning some eight or ten Brunswick people. It seems that Mrs. J.K. Nightengale entertained with a small party at her residence on Halifax Square Friday night, and nearly everyone of the guests became afterwards ill. One by one they were attacked, until the illness of them all brought on suspicion, and an investigation revealed the fact that they had all eaten rough on rats, which was said to have been the work of this negro. The supposition is that the negro entered the pantry of Mrs. Nightengale and mixes the rough on rats in the jars containing sugar and rice.



The Savannah Morning News; 3 June 1903; pg. 2 col. 1

PRISONER GETS 25 YEARS—Will Adams Convicted for His Wholesale Murder Attempt.

            Brunswick, Ga., June 2.—In the Superior Court yesterday, Will Adams, the negro who poisoned a number of prominent people at a social party at few weeks ago, was arraigned and sentenced to twenty-five years in the penitentiary.
            He pleaded guilty to the charge, there being three cases against him, but there could have been sixteen, as that is the number of persons that he poisoned. He stated that he placed Rough on Rats in the ice cream to poison the cook, and not the guests at the party, but this tale is not believed to be true.
            The party was given at the residence of Mrs. J.K. Nightengale, one of the most prominent families in the city. Eighteen or twenty guests were present, and the following morning a number became suddenly ill. An investigation revealed that they had been poisoned. The police department was at once notified, and late in the afternoon succeeded in placing the negro in jail. It was discovered that he had purchased Rough on Rats, slipped into the residence of Mrs. Nightengale and placed the poisonous drug in the ice cream, which he knew would be served at the entertainment. A number of the guests were ill for several days but they all recovered.
            Joe Story, the white man who has been confined in jail for two years on the charge of killing Hamp Shriver, also white, and who has twice before faced a jury, both times a mistrial being declared, will be arraigned again to-morrow. It is generally thought that it will be difficult to secure a jury.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 14 June 1903; pg. 5 cols. 2 & 3

Brunswick, Georgia Social News June 13

            Miss Arabella Wright has returned from Lucy Cobb, and after a few days at home leaves for Europe, where she will spend the summer.
            Mrs. R.T. Hicks is spending some time in Brunswick, the guest of her mother, Mrs. C.H. Colesberry.
            Mrs. Jennings Butts is spending a few days on Cumberland Island.
            Mrs. C.L. Elliott and her guest, Mrs. R.L. Branham, of Waycross, are with friends in Jacksonville for a short time.
            Mrs. Courtland Symmes and little sons are spending some time with friends in Atlanta.
            Mr. and Mrs. Julius May have returned to Brunswick, after a visit to New York.
            Mrs. William Naussbaum leaves next week to spend some time in Albany, the guest of Mrs. L. Ehrlich.
            Miss Calla Lilly, of Vienna, is expected in a few days, to spend some time in Brunswick, the guest of Misses Bessie and Fannie Symmes.
            Mrs. W.B. Clarkson has returned to her home in Florida, after a visit to friends in Brunswick.
            Misses Marie and Josephine Torras are spending a short time the guests of friends in Atlanta.
            Mrs. J.F. Bays has returned from a visit to friends in Jacksonville.
            Dr. and Mrs. Wyllys Rede and children have returned from a week on St. Simons Island.
            Mrs. Robert Levison entertained a few afternoons ago in compliment to Mrs. S.J. Oppenheim of St. Louis.
            Mr. and Mrs. A.M. May have moved into their cottage on St. Simons, and have as their guests Miss Annie White and Mr. W.H. Morse, of Abbeville, S.C.; Mr. and Mrs. John Townsend and Miss Nora Hendry, of Quitman, and Mrs. J.E. Way and children of Walthourville.
            Captain and Mrs. W.M. Tupper, Mr. and Mrs. R.B. Tupper and little Miss Tupper have moved down to their cottage on St. Simons for the summer.
            Mrs. C.T. Calnan entertained with flinch a few evenings ago, her guests being Miss Mamie Page, of Savannah; Miss Bessie Smith, Miss Florence Porter, Mrs. Lillian Hurst, Messrs. Oren Douglas, W.C. Brown, F.C. Bunkley.
            Mr. and Mrs. A.C. Banks entertained Tuesday evening in compliment to Miss Susie Lamar, their invited guests being Misses Susie Lamar, Arabella Wright, Hazle Nightingale, Ethel Conoley, Marie DeVoe, Clara Lamar, Maude Nightingale, Lula Burdette, Fannie Symmes, Reta McKinnon, Marie Burdette, Messrs. Roy Fuller, Lawson Lamar, C.C. Cosby, Frank Stacy, Holmes Sheldon, Tom O'Connor, J.Y. Brame, Ivine Burdette, J.W. Bailey, C.M. Peddicord, Fred Penniman, Howard Smith, George Smith, J.L. Andrews, Hunter Hopkins, Hugh Burford, M.C. Sale, Insley West.
            Mrs. May Screvin has retunred to Darien after a short visit to Brunswick.
            Mr. and Mrs. J.J. Conoley and Miss Ethel Conoley are spending some time in their cottage on St. Simons.
            Miss Aline Jeffers, of Waycross, is the guest of Misses Laura and Louise Baker for a week or tow.
            Mrs. Constant Miller and children are spending some time with friends in Quitman.
            Miss Etta Rothschild, of Darien, is the guest of Mrs. J.J. Lissner for a week or two.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 27 December 1903; pg. 10 col. 6

BRUNSWICK, GA—The engagement has been announced of Miss Mary Emily Scarlett, of Fancy Bluff, and Mr. Frank A. Dunn, of this city, the wedding to occur January 6 at the home of the bride’s mother, Mrs. G.S. Scarlett.  Both these young people are well and popularly known in Brunswick.  Miss Scarlett is one of Glynn county’s most popular young girls, and Mr. Dunn is one of the city’s most popular young men.  He has been closely identified in military circles for several years and has served as captain and lieutenant of several companies.  He occupies an important position under his father, Colonel H.T. Dunn, who is collector of customs at this port.



The Americus Weekly Times-Recorder; Friday 26 January 1906; pg. 5 col. 2

THEIR MARRIAGE IN DECEMBER—Will Be Announced to Friends This Morning.

            Mr. and Mrs. A.V. Toole of Atlanta announce the marriage of their sister, Mrs. Bertha Hudson Troutman, to Mr. E.J. Leben of Americus, the marriage having occurred at Spring Street Presbyterian church in Atlanta, on Saturday, December 30th, 1905.
            The rites were solemnized by the pastor, Rev. Geo. H. Mack.
            Mr. and Mrs. Leben will be “at home” after Thursday, January 24th, at their residence, 804 Lee street. Both are well known here, and a tinge of romance surrounds the wedding.
            Last summer, while ill with typhoid fever at the Americus Hospital, Mr. Leben was attended by a pretty nurse there who was none other than the lady he now claims as his bride. Later he called upon her at her home in Atlanta, their marriage following.
            The marriage has since been kept a profound secret, not even their most intimate friends suspecting, but now announcement of the nuptials is made and Mr. and Mrs. Leben will be the recipients of many and sincere congratulations today.
            Mr. Leben has resided in Americus for more than a year and is a successful young jeweler.

The Savannah Morning News (Savannah, GA); Saturday 10 March 1906; pg. 5
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.


            McRae, Ga., March 9.—Capt. John L. Day of Lumber City died at his home about 7 o’clock this evening after an illness of two months of Bright’s disease.  Capt. Day was owner and operator of a line of steamers on the Ocmulgee and Altamaha rivers for years and had accumulated a handsome property.  He was a prominent Mason and Odd Fellow, a trustee of Emory College at Oxford and South Georgia College of McRae.  He is survived by his wife and two children, Col. Thomas Day, Mayor of Lumber City, and Mrs. J.H. Barrett of Guyton.
            The burial will take place in Laurel Grove Cemetery at Savannah on Sunday.

The Telfair Enterprise (McRae, GA); Thursday 15 March 1906; pg. 1
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.


            The subject of this sketch, Capt. John L. Day, was born of English parentage in the city of New York, April 22, 1838.  His parents moved to that place from Bristol, England in 1831.  His father was manager of a line of steamboats for a Georgia Company and in 1858 on a trip from Augusta to Savannah his cotton laden vessel caught fire and the passengers and crew had to jump overboard and of the twelve of fifteen who were drowned he was one of them, for he could not swim.
            Capt. John L. Day served seven years with his father at three branches of mechanical industry—Millwrighting, in the machine shop, and at pattern making.  At the age of twenty two he entered the employ of the government as a journeyman, and was in consequence exempted from military duty.  Since the year 1867 up to a short time before his death he had several steamboats running on the Ocmulgee and Oconee rivers in connection with railroad lines.  In this work and in his machine shop he had accumulated a nice fortune, variously estimated at from forty to sixty thousand dollars.  His first wife was Miss Mary Strobar [sic] of Savannah, who died several years ago.  To this union four children were born, Mrs. John H. Barrett of Savannah, Harry G., who died in 1885, John P. who died in infancy, and Col. Thomas F. Day.  His second wife was Mrs. Christian McRae Ryals who with Mrs. Barrett and Col. Day survive him.
            Captain Day had always led a very active and industrious life, had had very little sickness and only the last of last year did he realize that the trouble which caused his death was of a serious nature.  This disease was a cancerous affection of the bladder and early in this year he was carried to Atlanta and operated upon, but little hope was ever felt for his recovery after the operation as the disease had a strong hold upon him.
            Three weeks ago he was brought home and he continued to grow weaker until the end last Friday night when he quietly and peacefully fell into sleep.
            A funeral service was held in Lumber City Saturday afternoon at the Methodist church, conducted by the pastor, Rev. W.L. Wright.  Sunday morning his remains were carried to Savannah where with Masonic ceremonies his body was laid to rest in beautiful Laurel Grove cemetery.  The local lodges of Masons and Odd Fellows, of which he was a member sent delegations and a number of friends, besides the family, accompanied his remains.
            Captain Day was a prominent Mason, being a member of the Royal Arch, Chapter and the Shrine, and he was also an enthusiastic Odd Fellow.  He was faithful and earnest in his devotion to these orders and had held the highest offices in them.
            He was a member of the Methodist church and for sixteen years he had represented the church in the General Conferences, this being the highest honor a lay member could receive and he always led the delegation in point of popularity.  He took great interest in all classes of church work, was true, loyal, and zealous in every department.  One of the noblest works he did was in the Sunday school, he having been Superintendent of the Lumber City school for many years, and the great sorrow expressed and shown by the members of the school gave striking evidence of his success in this line.
            Capt. Day was an honored member of the Board of Trustees of the South Georgia College here and of Emory.  He was also one of the trustees of Wesleyan Christian Advocate.
            Promptness, earnestness, honesty, strict attention to duty, and a happy disposition were characteristics that contributed largely to his success in life.
            Lumber City as a town, our county, the secret orders, the Methodist church of this section and of the South Georgia conference will sorely miss the presence of this good man, and his enthusiasm and helpful influence.
            His life was a splendid illustration of the successful Christian business man.  With him Christianity was a principle and he steadfastly adhered to it since his conversion forty two years ago.
            When told that he could not live, he calmly remarked that he was perfectly prepared and death had no terrors for him.  He wanted to live because life to him was a pleasure, but he was ready for the transition to that other country and when the summons came he wrapped the drapery of his couch about him and lay down to pleasant dreams.
            As he sleeps in the flower covered tomb, he can well be remembered by the good that he has done.
            His life has been a blessing to many who will ever hold him in grateful remembrance.  To all his relatives we extend our sympathy in this hour of bereavement.

Note on above obituary:  According to his tombstone (Laurel Grove Cemetery Savannah) Capt. Day’s son, Harry G., died in the year 1884, Sept. 5 instead of 1885 as written in paragraph two of article. Harry died in Macon.

The Atlanta Georgian (Atlanta, GA); 7 June 1906; pg. 8
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.


            The marriage of Miss Mabel Young Guild and Mr. Thomas F. Day took place Wednesday evening at 8 o’clock at the home of the bride on Crew Street.  Rev. J.E. White, of the Second Baptist Church, performed the ceremony, after which the bride and groom left for Savannah to go by water to New York.  They will be at home after the 12th in Lumber City, where Mr. Day is a prominent lawyer and is mayor of the town.

The Atlanta Georgian (Atlanta, GA); Monday 10 September 1906; pg. 7 col. 1


To the Editor of The Georgian:

            Permit me a few words in your columns on the “Reign of Terror” question.
            First, what shall be done with the negro rapist, who assaults a white woman?
            Second, what shall be done with the white man who lives with negro women and is the father of mulatto children?
            The solution of the one demands the solution of the other.
            They are inseparable. Their results, unmolested, would in time bring about the same end, namely, racial equality.
            You may search history through all ages and you will f ind this truth. Where two races live on the same soil it is only a question of time until the higher will pull the lower up to its standard, or the lower will drag the higher down to its level. If the negro remains amongst us, one of these two things will inevitably happen in time, therefore, I say, as the United States owns the Philippines and the majority of the inhabitants of those islands are negroes, why not send all the negroes to the Philippine Islands, giving them in exchange there the same value in property that they possessed here and bring to the United States all the whites now residing in the Philippines, giving them the same value in property here that they possessed there, and, if necessary, put on a pro rata taxation on the whites of the United States to pay their transportation? I, for one, would be willing to pay my just share. This taxation could be extended over ten or twenty years, if necessary.
            Castrating the negro males would never do. The animal passions of the negro females not finding gratification with their equals would seek, more than ever, their superiors, which would mean more dangers for wayward men and innocent young boys, and—more mulattos.
            If you castrate the negro male you must also unsex the female, and if the object is extermination, why not experiment them outright and be done with it? Better, I say, remove them from our midst before it is too late.
            Increasing the police force in Atlanta and Fulton county will not solve the problem. An outrage is just as likely to occur in South Carolina, South Georgia or Alabama as Atlanta. It is a national question, and must be settled by the nation.
            Forcing the negro to co-operate with you in catching and punishing the rapist is not a remedy. Co-operation makes the remaining negroes more united in brotherly feeling. Hence co-operation is one step nearer to assimilation.
            Every white man who is guilty of co-habitation with a negro females is partially responsible for every terrible outrage on our noble white women, and a just God will some day hold him so.
            The solution of the first question demands also the solution of the second.
            Faithfully yours, for purity, justice, reverence for our noble women and the welfare of my country, I am a subscriber. Yours truly, E.J. Leben, Gainesville, Ga.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 28 October 1906; pg. 12M cols. 4 & 5


            Brunswick, Ga., October 27.—(Special.)—The “liberty tree” celebration of the Daughters of American Revolution of this city, which will be held in this city on Friday evening next at the Oglethorpe hotel, to be followed on Saturday afternoon with the planting of the “Liberty tree” in Magnolia square, where the new county court house is now being erected, is attracting widespread attention.
            Mrs. E.F. Coney, of this city, who first took up the affair, has carried it to success.  Letters of encouragement have been received from President Roosevelt and the governors of all the states.
            Friday evening an exhibition will be held in the parlors of the Oglethorpe at which will be shown the soils sent by the governor of each state and many interesting relics.  Other enjoyable amusements will be provided.
            On Saturday afternoon the planting of the “Liberty tree” will be an occasion which will interest every one, and in which about seventy-five young girls will take part.  Congressman Brantley will be the orator of the occasion.
            Miss Lucile Ware, as Columbia, with her maids will be the first in the line of march to be formed at the Oglethorpe, and will be followed by the members of the Daughters of the American Revolution, the speakers, etc., and also the following young girls representing the states:
            Alabama, Helen Branham; Arkansas, Louise Elliot; Arizona, Irene Leben; Connecticut, Pearl Bankston; California, Ernesting Eisenberg; Colorado, Leila Sheridan; Delaware, Lillie Schoeppel; Florida, Annie Ricks; Georgia, Ophelia Ricks; Illinois, Eva Harris; Indiana, Willie Cornell; Indian Territory, Ida Long; Iowa, Dorothy Burford; Idaho, Gertrude Briesnick; Kentucky, Ethel Mason; Kansas, Irene King; Louisiana, Louise Baker; Mississippi, Carrie Atkinson; Michigan, May Stiles; Massachusetts, Winnie McKinnon; Maryland, Catharine Stiles; Minnesota, May Joe Lott; Montana, Virginia McGarvey; Missouri, Eunice Brieseneck [sic]; Nevada, Alice Wilson; New Hampshire, Miriam Gonto [sic]; New Mexico, Ruth Irvin [sic]; New York, Blanche McDonald; New Jersey, Aranita Oldham; North Carolina, Vinita Raffo; North Dakota, Carrie Raffo; Nebraska, Olma Harris; Ohio, Helen Baumgartner; Oregon, Lillie Rumph; Oklahoma, Ophelia Harris; Pennsylvania, Fryphena Manoe; Rhoda Island, Martha Loewenstein; South Carolina, Frances Beach; South Dakota, Rita Doerflinger; Tennessee, Clara Wood; Texas, Maria Raffo; Utah, Corinne Southard; Virginia, Leona Clark; Vermont, Lillie Arnold; Wisconsin, Mary Lou Gatchell; Washington, Mary Blitch; West Virginia, Mattie Brown; Wyoming, Lois Rumph; District of Columbia, Lucile Ware, Florence Jones, Pearl Anderson, Maude Lott, Effie Arnold, Florrie Hall, Hester Hill, Maude Manoe, Mattie Lowe, Ruth Iverson, Helen Thornton, Rhoda Iverson, Frances Leben, Clara Jackson, Martha Westbrook, Lillie Lowe.



The Washington Post; Tuesday 15 January 1907; pg. 3 col. 3

TO OUST MRS. CARNEGIE; Cumberland Island Estate of Philanthropist's Sister-in-law in Dispute

            Savannah, Ga., Jan. 14.--Deputy United States Marshall Wilson has returned from Dungeness, the home of Mrs. Lucy C. Carnegie, on Cumberland Island, where he served her with papers in what is expected to develop into a suit for the land she now occupies with her country home.  An effort is being made by Cornelius [Cornelia] Stafford Williams, of New York, and Nancy Stafford Gassman, of Zurich, Switzerland, to perpetuate the testimony of several aged witnesses.
            The plaintiffs claim that it is their intention to file suit for 7,740 acres of land on Cumberland Island, now claimed by Mrs. Carnegie, as it was the property of Robert Stafford, whom they claim was their father.  The deputy was informed that Andrew Carnegie is expected at Dungeness next week.  Mrs. Carnegie is his sister-in-law.



The Atlanta Georgian & News (Atlanta, GA); Thursday 28 February 1907; pg. 5 col. 3

KILLED WIFE AND WOUNDED COMPANION—Brunswick Man Shoots Couple While in Park.

Special to The Georgian.
            Brunswick, Ga., Feb. 28.—Richard L. Davenport shot and killed his wife, Mrs. Lillian Davenport, and seriously wounded A.R. Brown, a bartender, here last night.
            Davenport and wife came to this city about six months ago with the Parker Carnival Company. Mrs. Davenport claimed her husband was a drunkard and they had been separated for some weeks, Mrs. Davenport taking a position as waitress in the Metropolitan restaurant, on Newcastle street.
            After the separation Mrs. Davenport met Brown. Davenport became jealous, and after warning Brown, it is said, from further association with his wife, he followed them last night to Windsor Park, where the tragedy occurred.
            Brown states that he and Mrs. Davenport were walking in the park and Davenport came up from behind them, shooting Brown first through the abdomen, then turning upon his wife and fired one shot, which penetrated the heart.
            Mrs. Davenport was a pretty brunette and attractive in appearance. Davenport has made many friends in this city.
            Brown has been removed to the city hospital.

The Atlanta Georgian & News (Atlanta, GA); Saturday 2 March 1907; pg. 3 cols. 1-2


Special to The Georgian.
            Brunswick, Ga., March 2.—Teddy Mercatos arrived in the city yesterday with positive proof that he was in Savannah at the time of the Davenport-Brown shooting.
            The coroner’s jury met at 3 o’clock and after several hours were discharged. Various conjectures are indulged in, but there are no material developments in the cases. It is believed by many that Brown and Mrs. Davenport engaged in a quarrel, which finally resulted in a battle to the death between them. Brown made several statements and all of them materially differed. No tracks except those of Brown and Mrs. Davenport were found in the park. Two roses found on the scene were identified as having been worn by Brown and the woman, also a pocketbook and a fascinator were found some distance from where the body of Mrs. Davenport laid, and it is claimed as evidence of a struggle. A majority of the members of the coroner’s jury, as well as Coroner Jennings and Acting Solicitor Butts, held to this belief.
            Mrs. Davenport was laid to rest in Palmetto cemetery yesterday.
            Brown’s body was carried to his home, in Americus, by his brother Joseph Brown.


Special to The Georgian.
            Brunswick, Ga., March 2.—The shocking double tragedy which occurred on Wednesday night in Windsor park, is as yet a mystery. Richard L. Davenport and wife, Lillian Davenport, came to this city several months ago with the Parker carnival, for the purpose of wintering here. As long as the carnival was running their domestic affairs seemed to move along smoothly. Shortly after they went into winter quarters an estrangement between the two occurred. Matters finally reached a climax and the young wife left her husband and was employed as a waitress at the Metropolitan restaurant, on Newcastle street, she claiming that Davenport was unkind to her when under the influence of whiskey.


            Shortly after Mrs. Davenport secured employment she met A.R. Brown, a bartender. Rumors reached Davenport’s ears and it is stated he [illegible words] his friends, that her conduct was grieving him and that he could not live without her. Davenport, it is said, made a persona visit to Brown Monday and told him that the woman was his wife and warned him from further association with her.
            Nothing more was heard of the affair until Wednesday night, when Brown, shot through the stomach, made his way to his room and told his room mate he had been shot and that Mrs. Davenport had been killed, and that Davenport had done the shooting. Brown stated that he and Mrs. Davenport had walked to the park and that they had been there only a short time when Davenport appeared on the scene with a revolver and shot first at him and then turned upon Mrs. Davenport and fired one shot, which penetrated her heart.


            Brown was removed to the city hospital, where he afterwards stated that “TeddyMarcatos, a Greek, owner of the restaurant where the woman was employed, was very much in love with her and that he believed she was killed by Marcatos and not Davenport, as he first stated. While Brown and Mrs. Davenport were out for a walk Monday evening he claimed they were followed by Marcatos. However, a fellow Greek stated that Marcatos left Monday night for Savannah and there he was located. No one has been found who has seen him since the tragedy occurred.


            Davenport was arrested, but proved that he was at his boarding house from 8:30 o’clock until the hour of the arrest. He was released Thursday afternoon from jail.
            After hours of suffering at the city hospital, Brown died Thursday evening. It is thought by some here that Brown may have been shot by the woman and he in turn secured the weapon and shot her. Brown’s first statement after reaching his room was that they had been shot by Davenport, and later he was uncertain and said it was Marcatos who did the shooting.
            At no time, it is stated, did Brown show a desire for hunting down and punishment [sic] of the one who had shot him nor express pity for the dead woman.

The Manning Times (Manning, SC); Wednesday 6 March 1907; pg. 1 col. 3

SHOT IN PARK—An Actress Killed and Her Escort Seriously Wounded—BY UNKNOWN MAN—Brown, the Wounded Man, Says the Man, Who Did the Shooting, Was Davenport, the Woman’s Husband—Davenport Denies the Charge and Says That He Can Prove An Alibi.

            The police of Brunswick, Ga., are trying to solve a murder mystery. Lillian Davenport, an actress, was shot and almost instantly killed, and W.H. Brown, a bartender, who was with her, was also shot, and will probably die, in a secluded part of Windsor park, in that city, Thursday inght [sic]. R.L. Davenport, manager of the Majestic theater, and husband of the dead actress, is under arrest suspected of the killing.
            Davenport denies that he killed the woman. Brown at first thought that Davenport did but later, at the inquest, was doubtful. Davenport’s friends say he can prove an alibi.
            Three shots in all were fired. Two pierced Brown’s body, and the actress, trying to defend him, started toward the man who shot, and herself was shot. Before Brown could bring assistance to the dying woman, she succumbed.
            Winsor [sic] Park is a resort near Brunswick, and it was there that Brown and the actress went. They sat on a bench in the moonlight, in a secluded spot and had been there only a short time when the man appeared.
            The man, according to the bartender, slipped up on them. Before Brown knew that he was being watched, he says, he heard two shots and simultaneously fell over. Both bullets had taken effect, one entering the abdomen, and the other following it closely.
            The woman screamed, and in response to Brown’s appeal to shoot his assailant, rose to her feet and started toward the man, now in full view in the moonight [sic].
            She had gone but a few steps, however, when a third shot was fired. The bullet entered the actress’ breast, and she fell, mortally wounded.
            Then, Brown says, the assailant disappeared under the trees, but he himself, although probably mortally wounded, went to the woman’s assistance.
            “I am dying,” she cried. “Loosen my dress. Let me breathe.”
            Brown, followed her instructions, and placed her on a bench. Then staggering from loss of blood, Brown started toward the city for assistance. He first notified the police, and Assistant Chief of Police Owens, with his mounted officers, and a physician, hurried [blank space] the park.
            They were too late, however, to render the Davenport woman any assistance. She was dead when they arrived, and near her, on the ground, were found her wrap, jacket, a book and a cluster of roses.
            Meanwhile, Brown, having notified the authorities, fainted from loss of blood and was borne to the city hospital. There the doctors said that his chances of recovery were small.
            The police after a search, found Davenport at his quarters in New Castle street and placed him under arrest. Davenport stoutly denied that he had shot the actress and Brown.
            “I have been right here since supper,” he declared.
            Brown, however, thought Davenport was the guilty man, and Davenport was arrested.
            Davenport is the manager of the Majestic theater, which was recently opened here. He came to Brunswick last January with the Parker Amusement company. His wife the dead actress, was “Superba,” the leading attraction carried by the carnival company. Brown is a bartender at the Mecca saloon, and has lived in Brunswick only a short time.

The Americus Weekly Times-Recorder (Americus, GA); Friday 8 March 1907; pg. 6 col. 1

BROWN IS DEAD AS RESULT OF SHOT—Americus Man Succumbs To Wounds—WOMAN IN CASE WAS KILLED—“Ronnie” Brown and Woman Were Sitting Together in Park When Unknown Party Shot Woman Dead and Wounded Brown.

            RonnieBrown, the Americus young man fatally shot on Wednesday night while sitting in Windsor Park, Brunswick, with a woman, Lillian Davenport, died at 1 o’clock on Friday morning from the pistol shots fired at him by an unknown man.
            The woman in the case was also shot fatally, and died a few minutes thereafter.
            The woman, Lillian Davenport, is remembered by hundreds in Americus, where she was seen in November last in “Superba” a dancing show with a carnival company here.
            Newspaper accounts of the tragedy, sent out from Brunswick yesterday morning are as follows.
            The couple were in Windsor Park, a suburb east of the city. Brown was shot through the back, the ball passing through the body, passing out at the right of the abdomen and probably penetrating the bladder.
            According to Mr. Brown’s story, he was shot before he knew of the presence of any one. The woman ran toward the assailant, whose hat was down over his eees [sic]. The next moment a second shot was fired and the woman reeled, shot through the heart.
            After firing a third shot at Brown his assailant ran.
            Brown, after trying to aid the woman, stumbled through the brush for over a half a mile before securing aid. It was midnight before the police were notified.
            At 3 o’clock, Davenport the woman’s husband from whom she had separated a few weeks ago, was arrested in his boarding house and held under arrest until at noon Thursday he proved a positive alibi before the coroner’s jury. He was released at 5 o’clock.
            The woman’s body was buried at 10 o’clock yesterday at Palmetto Cemetery. She was born in St. Joseph, Missouri, and the couple were married in San Antonio, Texas. They had been with the show for some time.

 [Another newspaper said that the Parker Amusement Co. was in Tifton in early January 1908 and were last from Illinois.]

The Evansville Ind Journal (Evansville, IN); Sunday 14 April 1907; Part 2 Pg. 7 cols. 1-7


Journal-News Special Service.
            BRUNSWICK, Ga., April 13.—Haunting mystery—mystery that will not be denied, that seems hopeless of solution—envelops this city, and all its inhabitants, dominating every one like an obsession that is persona and not to be thrown off.
            About Lanier’s Oak, which marks the romantic border of the Marshes of Glynn, just beyond the town’s limits, the mystery centers. There it is thickest and most impenetrable. The roots of the grass that grows lustily near the old oak have lately been nourished by human blood—blood that gushed from the hearts of a man and a woman, leaving them dead, one instantly and the other too soon for the tragic impulse to reveal itself. It was night—a night late in February, but still a pleasant night here in this Southern clime. If the mists that rose from the Marshes of Glynn held a slight chill that was the only discomfort. Possibly those mists were thick enough to conceal the form of an assassin, or perhaps he hid himself in the shadow of the old oak—no one knows.
            All that human lips have testified to concerning that midnight scene was told by the man, when he staggered into the apartmetn [sic] of a friend in the town with a gaping, mortal bullet wound in his abdomen. And the essentials of the man’s testimony have been disproven. It is known that the man was infatuated with the woman. She was Mrs. Lillian Davenport, an actress, wife of R.L. Davenport, manager of the Majestic Theatre of Brunswick—a beautiful and fascinating young woman two or three years short of thirty.
            The man was A.R. Brown, a young business man of the town, a bachelor, not wealthy, but with wealthy family connections and good social position.


            Mrs. Davenport came to Brunswick last December. She was the star of a carnival company which appeared at her husband’s theatre in January. There were large audiences. Mrs. Davenport was very much admired. Mr. Brown in particular, was so interested that he attended the performance almost nightly.
            He sent flowers to the star, and finally sought her acquaintance. This was not difficult to gain—less difficult, perhaps, in a small city than in a large one.
            Mr. Brown was known as a “man’s man.” All men like him, and he had several close friends to whom he was rather frank about his infatuation with the beautiful actress. The situation became apparent to quite a number of the townspeople.
            There was another element in the affair that added zest to the gossip. Mrs. Davenport was said to be neglected and cruelly treated by her husband.
            Suddenly Brown and his friends became aware that although Davenport may not have been altogether kind to his wife he was desperately in love with her. Was she the cruel one? Was she a coquette? Was she making her husband’s life miserable through the attentions she acepted [sic] from other men? So the gossip ran. Then presently there was a definite and quite delicious morsel furnished to the gossipers.
            Davenport met his wife while she was in Brown’s company. The meeting between the two was public, outwardly harmless. But Davenport was in a rage.
            “You are Mr. A.R. Brown, I believe?” said the manager.
            “That is my name,” answered Mr. Brown with dignity.
            “Well, sir, this lady is my wife.”
            “Of that I am well aware, sir.”
            “Then when I tell you that I object to your attentions to this lady possibly you understand what I mean?”
            “If the lady objects, also,” said Brown, quite imperturbably, “whatever you mean will certainly have weight with me.”
            As though she feared a scene, Mrs. Davenport put out her hand, which Mr. Brown took.
            “Good night, Mr. Brown. Thank you very much for your courtesy.”
            “Good night, Mrs. Davenport.”
            That was all—upon this occasion.
            While Mrs. Davenport continued in this life there were no more fresh pegs upon which to hang gossip. After her dead body was found near the old oak by the border of the Marshes of Glynn—the oak named ofr [sic] the poet Lanier—on the morning of Feb. 28, the fact of at least one clandestine meeting came out.
            At about 8 o’clock on the evening of the tragedy Mrs. Davenport and A.R. Brown were seen to meet at the post-office. Several persons saw them walk together out Gloucester street to Windsor Park, beyond which lay the Marshes of Glynn.
            Many persons were in the park, for it was a lovely evening. A bright moon shone through the branches of old oaks and pines. Over beyond the Marshes of Glynn was the ocean, that “gray and melancholy waste” of Lanier’s poem.
            Even as midnight drew near the park was not yet deserted. Several persons heard the faint reports of three pistol shots coming from the direction of Lanier’s Oak. There were no screams or other disturbances, so they gave no special thought to the matter.
            An hour later Brown staggered into his friend’s apartment and sank to the floor unconscious. A physician was called. He saw that the man’s wound was mortal, but after a time he succeeded in restoring him to consciousness.
            Then Brown told his story. He had walked into Windsor Park with Mrs. Davenport. They had continued their walk out to the border of the Marshes of Glynn. When near Lanier’s Oak thye [sic] had stopped to survey the beauties of the scene. As they turned at the sound of footsteps the man fired a pistol. Brown fell, shot through the abdomen. He heard another shot and saw Mrs. Davenport fall. Then the man ran away.
            In the bright moonlight he saw the man quite clearly. eH [sic] believed him to be R.L. Davenport. He crawled to the woman’s side and saw that she was dead. Then he managed to drag himself back to town and to his friend’s apartment. At daylight the police found the dead body of Mrs. Davenport. It lay close by Lanier’s Oak. They found Davenport and arrested him for the murder of his wife.
            But at the inquest held a few hours later, Davenport proved a complete alibi. People where he boarded testified that he had not left his room during the entire evening.
            This was a tremendous surprise to the townspeople, who fully believed that the meaning of the tragedy was a wronged husband avenging his honor. Now they knew that not only was Davenport innocent, but that he was crazed with grief over the murder of his beautiful and desperately loved wife.
            Brown, already in the throes of death that found him a few hours later, seemed amazed. He thought deeply, and then said that, Davenport being found innocent, he could think of but one other man who would be likely to commit such an act. He named Teddy Mercatos, the former proprietor of the Metropolitan restaurant, where Brown had first met Mrs. Davenport.
            Mercatos was arrested in Savannah, to white [sic] city he proved he had gone several days prior to the tragedy, and had not since left it.


            Brown died without making any further accusations. The police investigations were brought up short against an impregnable wall of mystery.
            A wealthy brother of Brown took his body to Sumter county for burial. The funeral of Mrs. Davenport was attended by all the members of her company, who earnestly proclaimed her to have been a good woman. The bereaved husband was chief mourner. His love and his grief were too genuine to be for a moment doubted.
            The police were not long in coming to the conclusion that it was useless to work on the theory that there was a third party in this tragedy. The intimate friends of Brown shared in this opinion. They had noticed something in the manner of Brown during his last hours which, upon reflection, convinced them of his determination to carry with him to the grave the secret of that last scene beneath the branches of Lanier’s Oak. But if there were no other actors and no other witnesses connected with the tragedy of that February night, how would it be possible to ascertain the manner of it, or the motive?
            All who knew Brown well agree that no woman in his company would even dream of the need of a weapon with which to hold him at a distance. He was of a mild, pleasant, most agreeable disposition, with all the characteristic chivalry of Southerners in their attitude toward women.
            Those who knew Mrs. Davenport agree that she was too experienced in the ways of the world, too used to the attention of admiring men—which no footlight favorite can easily escape—to make it possible for an unfortunate love affair to drive her to the homicidal extreme.
            So murder and suicide, as well as shooting in self defense, must be eliminated so far as the woman is concerned.
            When the position and character of Brown are analyzed the situation appears in a different light. If she accepted his attentions in the light and thoughtless manner characteristic of women in her profession who count their admirers by hundreds, it is certain that Brown’s state of mind was very different.
            He was so infatuated with the charming actress that dignified gentleman as he was, he stooped to clandestine meetings in the face of her husband’s warning. He was a bachelor, free to marry and abundantly able to support a wife. He had heard of Davenport’s alleged cruelty. Perhaps he belisved [sic] Mrs. Devenport [sic] would willingly procure a divorce in order to marry him.
            Indeed, his conduct latterly had been that of a man so thoroughly infatuated that his whole future seemed to him to be wrapped up in this woman.
            She must have realized this, thought probably without realizing how serious to him would be the farewell she intended saying to him, as perhaps she had said to other admirers.
            Women are incurably sentimental, even when they do not love deeply. They can not reconcile themselves to brusque or offhand partings with men who adore them. The parting scene must partake of the nature of a ceremony. There must be handclasps, and, if not kisses, at least a few tears and assurances of everlasting regard, or the little comedy will lack its proper sentimental and artistic ending.
            So behold Mrs. Davenport meeting Mr. Brown at the postoffice [sic] that evening to take advantage of the silver moonshine and the natural beauties of Windsor Park for a romantic setting of the final scene of her innocent little comedy in which she would let her latest admirer “down easy” with a sentimental farewell and “God bless you.”
            If, terribly in earnest, Mr. Brown carried in his pocket a loaded revolver, he was doing no more than many another man who had been threatened by a jealous husband.
            Perhaps it was in Windsor Park that Mrs. Davenport gave to Mr. Brown the first intimation that it was really all a little comedy and was about to end with a touch of sentiment mingled with pathos. Perhaps then he first realized that there was no way of escaping the tragedy.
            In the park there were people all about. Did he tell her about the incomparably romantic interest centering about Lanier’s Oak and the moonlit border of the lonely Marshes of Glynn? If so, would not a woman in her position, with her sentimental object in view, eagerly accept his proposition to walk in that direction?
            The exact details of the last tragic scenes are not material. Women of the stage are accustomed to act in emergencies with greater promptness and resolution than their less independent sisters in private life. It is a part of their training. It is credible that when Mr. Brown with his last hope gone, drew the revolver to end his life she seized the weapon and was killed by the bullet which he had intended for himself. Finding that she was dead, there was another and even stronger reason why he should carry out his original purpose. Perhaps it was his extreme agitation that caused the bullet aimed at his heart to strike a less fatal spot, and the third shot heard by person in Windsor Park—to miss him entirely. Then, the suicidal impulse having departed, it was natural for the wounded animal to seek relief—and Brown [directed?] himself toward home.
            But why did Brown accuse two men as possible assassins? It is known that he entertained a strong hope of recovering from the effect of his wound. He had this hope when he made his accusation against the woman’s husband. Would he not rather live as the innocent victim of a jealous husband’s act, than as the suspected murderer of a woman who died while defending her honor?
            Brown died knowing that the men he had accused were safe. Therefore there was no occasion for him to recant or to divulge the real secret of the tragedy.



The Macon Daily Telegraph; Monday 18 November 1907

Pg. 1 col. 3


            HAZLEHURST, Ga., Nov. 17.—A.D. Strickland, a prominent farmer who lives seven miles south of here, was brought through town today en route to Baxley jail, charged with the murder of John Cole, Strickland’s tenant.  The story is that Cole went to Strickland’s house last evening, Strickland asked him what he wanted.  He replied that he had come for a settlement, Strickland said all right, I will give you a settlement, reached for his gun and fired a load of No. 4 shot into his breast.  Cole died this morning.  Cole’s brother and Gus Herrington were present.  The brother ran and Strickland asked Herrington if that other man who was running was Cole’s brother.  Receiving an affirmative answer Strickland fired a load into the brother’s back.  The latter’s wounds are slight and he will recover.  Herrington then ran away from the scene.  It is said that there had never been any disagreement between Strickland and Cole, and the general opinion is that Strickland is deranged, although there is a difference of opinion on this and some hold to the theory that there will develop past ill feeling.  Strickland seems to be unconscious of what has occurred.



The Macon Daily Telegraph; Monday 16 December 1907

Pg. 1 col. 6


            HAZLEHURST, Ga., Dec. 15.—A.D. Strickland, who shot and killed John Cole a few weeks ago, was given a preliminary trial yesterday and was re-committed to jail for murder.  He will be given a trial as to this sanity before the grand-jury takes action on the case.  He converses as intelligently as he ever did but his memory is blank on many things.  He avers vehemently that he has not killed Cole, that Cole had trouble with his wife’s people and left this section.  There can be no doubt about his being unbalanced.



The Brunswick Journal (Brunswick, Georgia); Saturday 11 January 1908
[no page numbers on any of the four pages. I have full copies of pages and margins, but no numbers--June (Lott) Nevar]

First Pg. Col. 2

            Notices have been issued for the annual election of officers of the Glynn Circle of the King’s Daughters, the meeting to be held at the home of Miss Katie Hall, 501 Union Street, at 8 o’clock on the evening of Jan. 10.

            The Episcopal Church has always had a charitable organization whose work was non-sectarian, St, Mark’s Church of this city has reorganized this branch of church work under the head “Chapter of Mercy.”
            A meeting was held yesterday and the following efficient officers elected: Miss Ethel Conoly, warden; Miss Fannie Mason, treasurer, Miss Josie Smith, secretary, to act until the return of Miss Maria Blaine.
            Any appeals for aid in the way of clothing, food, or along any other line of want, will be promptly met and relieved by any of the officers named.

First Pg. Col. 4

            Judge Reagan from Henry County was named yesterday by Governor Smith to open Glynn Superior Court Monday afternoon at 2 o’clock and preside for the first week of the term in the place of Judge T.A. Parker, who remains quite ill at his home in Waycross.
            Judge Littlejohn of Americus will hold court the second week of the term. The order was received at noon today by Clerk duBignon.

            George F. Gay, the furniture man, expects soon to get up a sign to read, “Gay & Sons,” as another young man arrived at this home early this morning. Mrs. Gay and the little chap are doing very nicely.

            An important meeting of the Ladies Aid Society of the Methodist church will be held at the home of Col. D.W. Krauss, Monday afternoon at 3 o’clock.

            These officers were elected by the Progress Club at its annual meeting to serve through 1908: L. Goldsmith, President, and Fred Pfeiffer, Secretary.

First Pg. Col. 5

            It is now R.B. Pyles, Deputy Sheriff of Glynn County and Deputy U. S. Marshall for southeast Georgia from Brunswick to Waycross, Brunswick to a point halfway between this city and Savannah and on the Southern to Lumber City. U. S. Marshall White, while in the city yesterday, made the announcement.

            It was announced on the streets today that Col. C.P. Goodyear will be an applicant before Council for city attorneyship. Col. Goodyear’s many friends will be interested in this announcement.

First Pg. Col. 6

            The third in a series of concerts being given by the Oglethorpe Orchestra at the Oglethorpe promises to attract all lovers of good music who are cordially invited to attend.  Leader Ternest has arranged a pleasing program for Sunday evening, commencing at 8 o’clock.

No page number, Col. 2


            Mrs. J.D. Sparks will entertain her son Robert this afternoon.
            Mrs. John C Stiles is the guest of her mother, Mrs. Burdette, in Savannah.
            Miss Edith Wilkes returned to her home in New York on today’s Mallory.
            Mrs. Haym and Harry Haym are being welcomed home after a two month visit to Columbus.
            Mrs. W.S. Stacy, who spent some time in the city, has returned to her home in Fort Mills, South Carolina.
            Miss Madeline Downing is the guest of Miss Mary Coachman in Jacksonville.
            Mr. and Mrs. George Hill are recently arrived guests at Mrs. C.L. Elliot’s.
            Mr. and Mrs. Guy Harvard are back from a visit to relatives in North Carolina.
            Mrs. James Foster and little son are being entertained by Mrs. J.B. Wright at her home on Union Street.
            Dr. and Mrs. Blanton have their daughter, Mrs. Edward E. Smith, and her little daughter, of Atlanta, as guests.
            Mrs. Anson W. Ball and her little daughters will arrive in the city the early part of the coming week, to visit Mrs. Ball’s parents, Sheriff and Mrs. Berrie.
            Mrs. J.F. Baya is the guest of Mrs. J.W. Thomas for a few days. Mrs. Baya has been the recipient of many social attentions and is warmly welcomed by many who miss her as a resident.
            Tuesday of next week, Mrs. H.W. Cornell, will entertain at luncheon in the Oglethorpe, where she is a guest.  Mrs. Cornell is a most thoughtful hostess, and entertained delightfully several times last winter.
            Mrs. Alice Clay’s card party was very enjoyable.  A very handsome drawn work tea cloth was the first prize, won by Mrs. R.R. Hopkins.  A bottle of fine perfume fell to the lot of Mrs. A.C. Banks, and was a delightful consolation.
            The Ladies Aid Society of the Presbyterian Church will meet with Mrs. W.M. Tupper, as is their annual custom, for the election of officers for the year.  Mrs. Tupper always makes meetings enjoyable, by holding a social session, serving refreshments, after all business has been transacted.
            Miss Ophelia Dent will take a congenial party down to Hofwyl on Sunday for a short stay at her father’s plantation, her guest including Miss Florence Stevens, Miss Anna Stevens, Mrs. Beirne Gordon, Jr., Mr. Fort Hammond and Mr. Joseph D. Taylor--Savannah Press.

No page number Col. 3

            Mrs. J.W. Griffith returns to her home in Savannah today, after a visit to Brunswick, where she was cordially welcomed by her girl friends.  As Miss Rita McKinnon, Miss Griffith was one of he brides of 1907 and one of the most popular ladies of this social set.
            Miss Arabella Wright, one of the handsomest of Brunswick’s society belles, is rejoicing in the possession of a new horse which has just reached the city from Atlanta.  The arrival is a perfect beauty, and his proud owner looks forward to some happy hours in the saddle and driving.
            The Acacia Club will enjoy a most original scheme of entertainment today when Mrs. F.D. Aiken will be hostess for the club.  Miss Sallie Aiken of New York will be the guest of honor.  Mrs. Aiken has adapted the “Katzenjammer Kids” as the decorative feature, and Uncle Heiney and the long suffering Mrs. Katzenjammer will figure as markers and decorations.  Miss Fe Symone has done some very clever work, and the figures will be prized for their daintiness.  The prizes will be very pretty pieces.

No page number Col. 3

WANTS (Want ads)

            For rent-Two furnished rooms, one large room and one small.  Apply to Mrs. Williamson, corner Norwich and Monk Street.

            For rent-unfurnished rooms, suitable for light housekeeping.  Apply 608 S. Albany Street.

            A nice country home, dwelling of 6 rooms, kitchen, servant house, garden, strawberry bed, and some patches, one mile from depot, church, and good school, healthy climate, and water.  50 miles above Augusta on C. & W. C. R. R.; price $13.50 a month. Address Mrs. B.C. Cade, Bordeaux, S.C.

            Cottage, 5 rooms and bath; close in.  Apply Mrs. Hattie Latimer, 117 North Union Street.
            Found-a bunch of keys on F Street.  Owner may have same by proving property and paying for this ad.  B. Journal Office.

WANTED- One room, unfurnished, near business center and in good locality.  Address G. 204 E Street.


Dr. C.R. Bullock, after a pleasant two week visit in Atlanta, returned to the city yesterday.



The Brunswick Journal (Brunswick, Georgia); Monday 10 February 1908; pg. 1 col. 5

            The personal popularity of Host Miller, of the Hotel Royal, the new European hotel opposite the Oglethorpe, which opened Saturday, assures the new house fine patronage.
            As the Host of the Central, Manager Miller made a success which in his new quarters he will more than repeat.
            The first day’s arrivals Saturday included guests from New York, Baltimore, and several northern cities.
            The Hotel Royal occupies the entire upper floor of the new Brunswick building and is a perfectly appointed, up to date hotel in every detail. Mr. and Mrs. Miller have leased the house for a number of years, thus adding another fine hostelry to care for visitors.

Pg. 3 Col. 2

            Little Miss Bunkley is with Mr. and Mrs. Chas. Bunkley.
            Mr. And Mrs. Eugene Creamer is entertaining a little son.
            A little daughter has arrived at the home of Mr. and Mrs. W.M. Lucree.
            Miss Arabella Wright entertains with a formal tea this afternoon, inviting her girl friends to meet Miss Chaffee, a visitor at the home of Mrs. William Nightingale.
            The Cinderella dances at the Oglethorpe every Saturday are enjoyed by the younger set.  Dancing is indulged in until twelve, and then a feature resembling the dance the little maid of the fairy story took part in.  Usually a number of suppers, more or less on the chafing dish order, follow, and the week’s social candle goes merrily out.



The Macon Daily Telegraph; Tuesday 23 February 1909; pg. 8 col. 1

STRICKLAND SAYS HE WAS ARCH ANGEL—Jeff Davis Man Held for Murder, Tells Remarkable Tale.

            HAZLEHURST, Ga., Feb. 22.—Jeff Davis superior court convened this morning.  Judge T.A. Parker presiding and J.H. Thomas, the newly appointed solicitor general, appearing for the state.
            Rev. DeFoor opened court with prayer.
            Four murder cases are ready for trial.  A.D. Strickland, who killed John Cole and was soon afterward adjudged insane and sent to the asylum, is well and back ready for trial.  He says the whole time from before the date of the homicide to his awakening at Milledgeville is a blank; that when his mind becomes rational it appeared to him that he had reached heaven, having had all sorts of delusions during his insanity.  He can recollect signing checks for millions of dollars and feeling like he owned the world; not only that but he occupied an archangel’s place in heaven.
            The case of the state against Walter Carter for the homicide of Elias Mobley, which resulted in a mistrial when tried before, will likely be tried this week.
            Carrie Miller and John Supple, colored, will be tried for the killing of other negroes.
            Frank Hall, who is charged with having burglarized the southern depot and Wilson Hardware store, has been captured after a lively chase in Florida and after being shot in the leg is here for trial.
            In addition to this there are fifty misdemeanor cases and seventy-six civil cases on the docket and ready for trial.



The Brunswick Journal; 24 May 1911 (Extracted by John Frost Murlin)

COL. DART WRITES OF LIEUTENANT PETTIGREW—History of Lieutenant Geo. W. Pettigrew.

            How few know those finer traits of human character, in our daily contact with each other until after being brought out by crucial tests; here was a Brunswick boy who made no pretense of a more heroic mould than his average, every day acquaintances, yet, when occasion offered, towered above them like some incarnate knight.
            He was almost the first of the old riflemen to form our company on October 20, 1860, and when the call was made in “61” for volunteers, almost the first to answer, and was mustered into service with the company on May 27, 1861, and marched away to the call of duty, leaving behind a young wife, though the bridal kiss had scarcely left her cheek; was it an innate soul prophecy, no one ever knew, but he always contended he would be killed in the first battle; laugh as they might, as the boys guyed him he was ever firm in this belief.
            He was possessed of a rich contralto voice, and often in camp would sing for the boys.  His favorite was “Woodman Spare That Tree”.  After a hard day’s march we arrived on the 12th of December 1862 near Hamilton’s Crossing just south of Fredericksburg.  That night (a cold one) gathered around a camp fire, Capt. Dart asked him to sing, “Woodman Spare That Tree”.  He was standing near a large oak.  At first he excused himself, but we became insistent and he yielded.  I had heard him sing that old, old song before, but never with the same deep pathos as that night, and when he came to that part, “Woodman, forbear they stroke, cut not this earth beyond ties, oh spare that aged oak now towering to the skies” his voice grew tremulous, and he thinking of the old oaks he saw so often in his boyhood, bamboled beneath with his youthful playmates, in the loved home, Brunswick.  Boys from other commands gathered around to listen to the song, and when he ended there was more than one moist cheek.  After a pause he said:  “Let us get some rest, for who can tell what tomorrow may bring.”
            At about ten o’clock the next day (13th), we took position on an old country road; in front were dense woods.  Skirmishing was going on in our front, we being held in reserve.  I think it was about one o’clock when Meade, who had his division marked in by two lines, assaulted.  (I think it was Gregg’s brave boys as ever faced a foe), but they were overpowered and driven back, and our brigade, Lawton’s—afterwards Gordon’s—under the command of Col. E.N. Atkinson (than whom no more gallant officer ever wore a sword), were ordered forward.  The woods was thick with briers, wild roses and fallen limbs, many cut down by shot and shell from the enemy’s batteries in front.
            Our company, A 26th Georgia, was on the extreme right.  The railroad ran through a copse of woods before coming out toward Fredericksburg.  Lieut. Pettigrew was on the right and a few of the company following him went through those woods.  I think I can give the names of those with him:  Jake Sykes, Clay Williams, Ben Williams, Tobe Goodbread, and the writer.  There may have been others but I fail to remember now.  As we passed through and came upon the open plain, the battlefield in all its terrible grandeur broke in view upon us.  Thirty pieces of Federal artillery were hurling shot, shell, canister and grape on their mission of death, while there was one incessant crash of musketry.
            It seemed that all the demours of the lower regions were there riding in high carnival on the warring passions of men, gleating, gibering, and laughing in fiendish delight over the harvest of death.
            Yet there stood Pettigrew, calm, tall and commanding, his sword pointing toward the artillery, saying “Boys, forward and take those batteries!”  About twenty paces in front there was a ditch and he jumped across.  I saw him sway a moment, then settle down on his right knee, then on his elbows with his sword still grasped in his hand.  Running up I asked, “Lieutenant, are you hurt?’  “yes, but don’t’ mind me, go on and take those batteries!”  It was his last command.
            In my next I shall let the old news-paper clippings, old faded letters, which have been blurred with tears and the mists of forty-nine years, tell of his heroic death and sad burial in the city of Washington.  J.E. Dart.



The Brunswick Journal; 30 May 1911 (Extracted by John Frost Murlin)

DEATH OF LIEUTENANT PETTIGREW DESCRIBED BY COLONEL J.E. DART—History of Lieut. Pettigrew Brunswick Riflemen (Concluded).

            In my last article I said that I would let old newspaper clippings and faded letters finish his history.  Had I said I was writing as his school mate, his comrade, his kinsman, it might have been said it was from a partisan view.  J.E.D.


“Lynchburg, Va. Sept. 2, 1862

My dear Wife:
            Your letter was received with the deepest feelings of joy.  I have for some time been anxiously waiting to hear from the loved ones at home and that I have been permitted to persue those lines of deep affection traced by the hand of a fond and muched loved wife, I am now fully recovered, but I cannot say how long it will last; cannot say how soon I shall be able to return to my suffering family, and accept the noble offer made by my friend Mike.  I feel grateful to him for his kindness to me and mine, and should I never be able to repay him, may God reward him and vouchsafe him a long and happy life.”
            Further on he says:
            “I see the army is now at Manassas and have a terrible battle in which Ewell’s division was twice driven back with great loss, but being reinforced they charged the third time and swept the enemy from the field.  Our brigade is attached to this division.  I tremble with fear as to the result.  May God forbid that my brother could fall victim to this cruel war.”  (His brother, Moore, was killed at Turky Ridge June 1, 1864.)
            Speaking further on he writes:
            “Oh, God, what a happy hour it is for him (his brother, only 16 years old) when peace is declared he could shed tears of joy at the bare prospect of peace and a happy reunion with those dearer to me than life.  Give my love to my dear mother and tell her that I will never forget that inestimable being to whom I owe my existence, and upon my heart is indelibly stamped the image of a fond and revered mother.  Goodbye, your ever true and devoted husband.
            George W. Pettigrew.”
            Note from the battlefield:
            “The enemy has treated me kindly.  Those who will send you this will tell you where I am, if alive.  George W. Pettigrew.”
            On the back of the note:
            “Your son was sent to Washington, D.C. yesterday.  W. Pollock.”

“Washington, D.C. Jan. 3, 1863

My dear Mrs. Pettigrew:
            Being one among your late husband’s friends that attended his dying bedside, I offer you my sincere sympathy, and write a few incidents of his last moments.  I was sent for on Sunday, to go and see him, accompanied by Mrs. Wilson, who kindly wrote you of your meloncholly loss.  I sent for the Rev. Dr. Hall, formerly of Augusta, Ga. and communicated to him his dying state.  He received it with christian resignation.  The Lord’s Prayer was read for his family, then under affection he then asked that the Apostles Creed be read.  When I finished he took the book from my hand saying:  ‘I want to see those blessed words’.  Oh, Merciful God, look with pity upon you all, is the prayer of your friend.


            What Mrs. Butts writes:
            “I called to see your husband at the Patent Office Hospital, on the Sunday previous to his death and took a memorandum of what he desired me to say to you which was that he wanted his mother or wife, one or both, to come to see him.  He was wounded in the left knew at Fredricksburg, and I shall never forget how his countenance lighted up as I asked him at what time he was wounded and he replied ‘I was wounded on Saturday about three o’clock, while making a charge on the enemies batteries.’
            (did I uote history in my first article?)
            He had every attention from kind ladies that could properly be given him.  I regret that the lock of hair was taken out by the Federal officer who examined the letter.
            Comment is not necessary on this incident, save he belonged not to those high toned christian soldiers who wore the blue like our honored fellow citizens, Maj. Downing, Goodyear, Dunn and others.  They would not have deprived a grey haired old mother and sorrowing wife the sad sweet privilege of moistening with tears that harmless token, a tress of hair from that brave boy’s brow.”
            What the Washington papers said:
            BURIAL OF A REBEL OFFICER—The funeral of Major Geo. W. Pettigrew who was wounded at Fredericksburg and taken a prisoner took place from Masonic hall this afternoon and was attended by a large number of Masons, who followed his remains to the Congressional cemetery and was buried in the lot belonging to the Grand Lodge.
            He was a relative of a distinguished lawyer of that name of Charleston, S.C.
            In the battle of Fredericksburg he was wounded in the knee.  He was brought to this city and taken to the Patent Office Hospital on Wednesday last, but steadily refused to allow his wound to be dressed until all the wounded, who had come up at the same time, had been attended to and when his case came it was found that modification had taken place, which resulted in his death Monday night.  On Sunday finding that there was no hope of his recovery he made himself known as a Mason to the surgeon in charge, and asked that the fact should be made known to some of the Masons in Washington.
            Grand Master Stansburg was at once informed and hastened to his bedside.  A will was drawn leaving his property to his mother, wife and children, about whom he seemed to be mostly concerned.  He also requested that the Masonic fraternities would take charge of his body and it be buried with the usual honors.
            After his death, which took place Monday night, his remains were placed in a handsome mahogany casket and laid in state at Masonic hall and this afternoon the services of the Episcopal church, of which he was a member, was conducted by Rev. Dr. McCurdy of Kentucky.  The Masonic services at the grave were conducted by Grand Master and Lecturer E.L. Stevens.
            Extract from another Washington paper:
            The death of Major Pettigrew was caused by the mortification of the wound, which resulted from his persistent refusal to have his wounds dressed until after all of our wounded men were attended to—not his comrades in gray, but his late foes upon the field of battle.
            Let song and story tell of Leonidas and his Spartan band.  Let poets sing of the charge of the light brigade at Balaclava; let Phillips in the House of Lords, speaking of Napoleon’s death, say “he was the greatest man that, in the annals of the world ever rose, reigned or fell.
            Let marble shafts rear high their heads to commemorate the heroism of men; let golden medals be pinned upon their breast for noble deeds, but here was a Brunswick boy seeking no fame or reward, forgetting mother, wife, and prattling babes, reaching out in that broad field of suffering humanity, though they were his foes.
            With that charity extending beyond the grave, knowing that every hour his chances of life were growing less and less, saying:  ‘Don’t mind me or my sufferings, help the other suffers, they are no longer foes, but belong to that great world of humanity and died that others might live.’”
            Some years ago I was on my way to Washington when near Hamilton’s Crossing an accident occurred to the engine.  The conductor said it would require an hour for repairs.  It was late in the evening, the sun was sinking behind the western hills.  I knew where I saw him last, with sword grasped in hand.  There was the same ditch but the ploughshare had been there.  Fields of grain were waving with the autumn winds, a stray sunbeam rested for a moment, then faded away.  In the gathering twilight all was so calm, so still, so peaceful.  No sound was heard, save the distinct song of the reapers, gathering the golden harvest.
            The shrill whistle of the engine recalled me, “and night closed as I went.”  J.E. DART.



The Macon Daily Telegraph (Macon, GA); Saturday 19 October 1912; pg. 2 col. 3

“SPANISH SWINDLE” IS TRIED IN BRUNSWICK—Ralph Minehan Gets Letter From Far Famed Prisoner Languishing Unjustly in Old Madrid Dungeon.

            BRUNSWICK, Oct. 18.—In these days of frenzied finance it does not fall to the share of every young man to receive unsolicited an offer to share in a $300,000 fortune.  But Ralph Minehan, of the Brunswick Trading and Development company, stands to “win” $100,000.  Mr. Minehan, who is one of this city’s well-known young business men, reived [sic] the news in a letter from Madrid, which after testifying to his honesty and secrecy, urges him to defray the expenses of recovering trunk [sic] “containing” documents worth $300,000, which the Don claims are to all his property in America.
            Mr. Minehan is wondering where he gained the reputation which the letter states he bears.  He says that during his life he has “stood” for several $5 and $10 “touches,” but he never imagined the news had traveled to old Madrid.
            The letter is the first step in the game known as “the Spanish prisoner swindle.”  Unlike other letters received by people over the country from the “poor political prisoner” the missive received by Mr. Minehan does not ask him to make the trip to Spain, but requests that monetary assistance without his presence is what is wanted.  The letter is signed “Ex-Banker,” and will adorn the wall of Mr. Minehan’s den in future as the work of the most ingenious “touch artist” he has yet been brought in contact.



The Savannah Tribune (Savannah, GA); Saturday 16 November 1912; pg. 1 col. 4


            Considerable interest is being shown in the coming wedding of Mr. Samuel G. Dent of Brunswick, Ga., and Miss Eleanor L. Jones of this city, which is to take place on Thanksgiving evening at St. Stephen’s Episcopal church, this city.  The contracting persons are both very popular in their respective towns and the wedding bids fair to be one of the most brilliant affairs of the season.  Miss Jones is the eldest daughter of Capt. and Mrs. F.F. Jones, 506 Henry street, east, while Mr. Dent is a mail carrier in Brunswick, Ga., and is one of the most progressive young men of that city.



The Savannah Tribune (Savannah, GA); Saturday 7 December 1912; pg. 1 cols. 2 & 3


            The marriage at St. Stephen’s Episcopal church Thanksgiving evening of Miss Eleanor L. Jones, the elder daughter of Capt. and Mrs. F.F. Jones, to Mr. Samuel G. Dent of Brunswick, Ga., was an exceptionally beautiful event, followed by a reception at the home of the bride’s parents, 506 east Henry street.  The church was very beautifully decorated for the occasion in southern smilax and palms which made a very effective background for the yellow gowns of the bridesmaids and distinctly brought out the color scheme, yellow and green.  Special interest surrounded the wedding for the bride has been, since her debut several years ago, one of the most admired of the younger society girls.  The church was filled with guests some time before the ceremony and while they were assembling, Mr. Charles McDowell, the organist, rendered some charming numbers.  As the bride and her attendants entered the church, the bridal chorus from Lohengrin was beautifully played.  The ushers, Mr. Marion Johnson, Mr. Matthew Jones, Mr. Valdore Giles and Mr. Tattnall of Brunswick, passed up the aisle first, standing on either side of the pulpit; then the two groomsmen, Mr. John Carr and Mr. Duncan Scott, following these were the bridesmaids, Miss Anna Tucker and Miss Clinton Dingle who took their places next to the groomsmen on opposite sides of the altar, next came the maid of honor, sister of the bride.  Immediately preceding the bride came the little flower girls, strewing rose petals from their baskets of yellow roses in the path of the bride.  The bride entered with her father and was met at the altar by Mr. Dent and his best man, Dr. Charles Hoskins, of Brunswick.  Amid the gentle strains of “Oh, Promise Me,” impressively rendered by the organist, the ceremony was performed in a most solemn manner by the rector, Arch Deacon Richard Bright, at the conclusion of which Mendelssohn’s wedding march was played as recessional.
            The bride in her wedding gown of white satin charmeuse and duchess lace was a picture of exquisite beauty.  The corsage was v shaped neck and finished at the throat with rhinestones.  Over the left shoulder was laid a plastron of duchess lace and an ornament of pearls extended across the entire front, the short sleeves were of duchess lace with trimmings of pearls and rhinestones.  The train, which was round, hung from the waist and was very artistically and beautifully trimmed with handmade chiffon and satin roses, which [illegible word] a delicately tucked inset of satin charmeuse which made a beautiful finish for the train and at the top of which was a large satin bow.  The skirt was gracefully draped on one side and caught with ropes of pearls extending from side-front to the train, the other side having a large bow holding a similar drapery in place, with a panel-like effect of duchess lace just above the drapery which gave an additional touch of charm and beauty.  The bride wore a tulle veil with cap of real lace held in place by a garland of orange blossoms.  She wore a handsome lavilliere necklace of pearls and carried a bouquet of white roses, lilies of the valley and maiden hair fern.
            Miss Mildred Jones, maid-of-honor, wore a charming gown of white satin veiled in crystal net with trimmings of crystal bands and fringe.  The skirt had a crystal net tunic caught up with rosettes of chiffon and bottom of skirt was finished with a wide puffing of stain.  The bodice was v neck edged with crystal bands and the short sleeves were draped in crystal net edged with crystal fringe and bands.  She wore a crystal bandeau in her hair and carried yellow chrysanthemums tied with yellow ribbon.
            The bridesmaids’ gowns were of yellow satin charmeuse draped with yellow chiffon and shadow lace.  The bodice was of chiffon and lace with rhinestone banding.  The draperies of the skirt were held in place with ornaments of crystal and pearl.  They wore crystal bandeaux with aigrettes, and carried yellow chrysanthemums tied with yellow ribbon.
            The flower girls, little Misses Hilda Edwards and Edwina Perry, wore dainty lace dresses over yellow and carried baskets of yellow roses tied with yellow ribbon.
            The bride’s mother was gowned in a handsome taupe satin with corsage veiled with gray chiffon and yoke and sleeves of lace.
            Mrs. J.R. Jones of Philadelphia, Pa., sister-in-law of the bride, was very becomingly gowned in pink crepe-de-chene with bodice and tunic veiled in pink chiffon.  The v shaped yoke and sleeves were finished with bands of pearl and crystal fringe and front part of lace yoke was trimmed with dainty pink buttons.  The girdle was of crepe-de-chene having a black velvet bow at the back, the ends of which extended a little below the knee where the tunic of chiffon, drawn back, was held in place by another black velvet bow.
            Mrs. Sophie Moulden was exquisitely gowned in a steel gray stain veiled with gray chiffon, the bodice was elaborately trimmed with embroidered cloth of silver with collar and yoke of shadow lace.  The skirt was draped in gray chiffon and at the bottom of tunic was a handsome band of the embroidered cloth of silver and a wide fold of steel gray panne velvet finished skirt.
            The reception was largely attended, and with the beautiful decorations of the house, in which the color scheme was distinctly brought out by the yellow chrysanthemums and southern smilax, and the beautifully gowned women and well-groomed men made it a very beautiful affair.  In the parlor Mr. and Mrs. Dent stood under an arch of palms to receive congratulations.  All during the reception beautiful music was rendered in the second parlor by the Misses Alice and Helen Ellis.
            The wedding gifts were numerous and costly.  Mr. and Mrs. Dent left next morning at 4:30 o’clock for Brunswick, Ga., where they will make their future home.  The bride wore for the journey a tailored coat suit of gray broadcloth with chiffon blouse of the same shade and a becoming tailored hat.  The out-of-town guests were:  Mrs. J.R. Jones of Philadelphia, Pa., Mrs. Jones, Dr. Charles Hoskins and Mr. Tattnall of Brunswick, Ga.



The Tampa Tribune (Tampa, FL); Sunday 24 August 1913; pg. 9 col. 3

            R.L. Raffo, city electrician, left Friday for Brunswick, Ga., where he will join Mrs. Raffo, who has been there with relatives for the past two months and will see her safely started for Colorado, where she goes on the advice of physicians for the benefit of her health.



The Macon Daily Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 17 October 1913; pg. 8 col. 3

BRUNSWICK PILOTS ARE FINED OR SUSPENDED—G.A. Manoe and E.S. Tabbott Are Given Their Preference of Paying $100 or Suspension Several Months.

            BRUNSWICK, Oct. 16.—The Brunswick commissioners of pilotage held a meeting yesterday morning for the purpose of taking up charges preferred against two of the local pilots, G.A. Manoe and E.S. Tabbott.  Both of these pilots were charged with misconduct.  Evidence in their cases was heard and both of them were convicted.
            Manoe was given the option of a six months’ suspension or a fine of $100, and Tabbott was given a find of $100 or four months’ suspension, the suspension in each case to stand until the fines are paid.  It was stated by the commissioners that the charges warranted severe action and that the light fines were given more in the nature of a warning, being the first charges brought before the board as now constituted.



The Savannah Morning News; Saturday 29 November 1913; pg. 3
Transcribed by Jeff Anderson for Becky Mitchell and the Telfair County Historical Society to aid in the effort of having the Captain John L. Day Home in Lumber City, Georgia placed on the National Register of Historical Places.

JOHN H. BARRETT—After a prolonged illness, John H. Barrett, aged 53 years, died at [illegible] o’clock last night at his home, No. [illegible] East Thirty-ninth street, from diabetic gangrene.  At an Atlanta hospital last April his right leg was amputated in an effort to save his life but the poison had permeated his system and finally resulted in his death.  He was a native of Atlanta, where he was born Jan. 10, 1860.  Mr. Barrett was a well known commercial [illegible] dealer.  For twenty-five years he traveled out of Savannah, for M. Fern & Sons until they discontinued business and then for George W. Tieder[??].  Besides his wife, Mrs. Ida V. Barrett, he is survived by three daughters and three sons, as follows:  Mrs. L.J. Chedel, Mrs. J.E. Gilmore and Mrs. E.M. Aspinwall, and W.D., J.G., and Guy Barrett of Savannah.  His mother, Mrs. Frances Barrett of Savannah and three grandchildren, Ida Mae Barrett, Dorothy Ruth, and V.M. Aspinwall Jr., also survive.  Final funeral arrangements have not been made.

[Note:  An error in article; Mrs. E.M. Aspinwall, a surviving daughter, should have been Mrs. V.M. Aspinwall (Vernon Matthew Aspinwall).]



The Macon Daily Telegraph; Sunday 19 April 1914; pg. 3 col. 2


            BRUNSWICK, April 18.—General Peter W. Meldrim, of Savannah, has accepted an invitation to deliver the Memorial day address in Brunswick next Sunday, and an interesting program has been arranged for the observance of the day.  Instead of observing Monday as Memorial day, the exercises will be held Sunday afternoon.  The parade will be participated in by the band and all the military of the city.  After the exercises at the opera house, the parade will again form and continue to Oak Grove cemetery, where the usual salute will be fired over the graves of the dead Confederate soldiers.



The Macon Daily Telegraph; Sunday 19 April 1914; pg. 3 col. 2


            BRUNSWICK, April 18.—General Peter W. Meldrim, of Savannah, has accepted an invitation to deliver the Memorial day address in Brunswick next Sunday, and an interesting program has been arranged for the observance of the day.  Instead of observing Monday as Memorial day, the exercises will be held Sunday afternoon.  The parade will be participated in by the band and all the military of the city.  After the exercises at the opera house, the parade will again form and continue to Oak Grove cemetery, where the usual salute will be fired over the graves of the dead Confederate soldiers.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 19 November 1914; pg. 2 col. 6


            Jacksonville, Fla., November 18.--Mrs. Lucy C. Carnegie is reported to be seriously ill at Dungeness, Andrew Carnegie's winter home near Fernandina.  Andrew Carnegie II, her son, and other relatives reached Fernandina from New York by special train early today.  Mrs. Carnegie is the mother of Thomas Morrison Carnegie of New York, a trustee of the Carnegie Foundation.



The Atlanta Constitution; Thursday 7 January 1915; pg. 1 col. 1

SIX BELIEVE DROWNED—No Hope for Crew of Brunswick Tug.

            Brunswick, Ga., January 6—Hope for the safety of any of the six members of the crew of the tug Rambler, wrecked off Cumberland island near here Monday during a heavy sea, were abandoned tonight.
            The bodies of the two negro crew members were found on the beach today, together with portions of the clothing of the four white men.  Wreckage was strewn for two miles along the coast.
            The Rambler was wrecked after going aground and while the crew was waiting for high tide to float the vessel.
            The missing and dead include Harry Ingram, captain; Carlos U. Dart, engineer; George Bell, fireman; Charles Segui, fisherman; Henry Roberts, negro deck hand, and Dave Smith, negro cook.



The Macon Daily Telegraph; Monday 8 March 1915

Pg. 1 col. 2 & pg. 5 cols. 6 & 7

SEVENTH MAN DEAD OF SHOT WOUNDS; DEAD BEING BURIED—Ernest McDonald Latest Victim of Phillips—GUNNER TOLNAS IS BETTER—Bank Clerk Now Has Chance to Recover—DUNWODY IS NOT BURIED—Prominent Men Arrive to Attend the Funeral—MINEHAN SHOT PHILLIPS—New Feature of the Shooting at Brunswick is the Fact That Pistol Ball is Found in Body of Monroe Phillips, Fired by Young Clerk.

            BRUNSWICK, March 7,--Brunswick people began to realize this morning the awful extent of yesterday’s frightful tragedy in which seven human lives were snuffed out in as many minutes.  Terror stricken and under great excitement the awfulness of this horrible affair did not dawn upon the people of this city until hearses began to pass through public streets and avenues carrying to their last resting places those of Brunswick’s dead who lost their lives only a few hours before.
            In twenty-five homes there linger victims of the ruthless bullets and in the city hospital one other death occurred this morning, that of Ernest McDonald, 23 years of age, well-known and popular.
            WAS INNOCENT BYSTANDER—Ernest McDonald, like all of those who have preceded him into the shadows of death, was an innocent bystander.  He had emerged from a barber shop, happy because the Lord only recently had spared him from a serious attack of pneumonia.
            There was hope during the early hours of the morning that McDonald might rally and all that physicians and nurses could do was done to save him, but all in vain, and shortly before 11 o’clock this morning he passed away, leaving a young widow and two children, a boy of 5 and a girl.
            TOLNAS MAY RECOVER—Another patient at the city hospital, Gunner Tolnas, the 21-year-old bank collector, who was shot while riding his bicycle, is still alive and tonight physicians announces that there appeared to be a little improvement and some hope is now entertained for his recovery.
            The condition of A.M. May is also considered very serious.
            L.J. Leavy, the aged Confederate veteran, who received one ugly wound just under the shoulder and another in the chest, was reported to be resting easy.  Unless complications set in he will recover.
            Sigmund Levison, another of the seriously injured, shows improvement.
            COUNCILMAN IS WOUNDED—A.H. Boyle, a member of city council, received a bad wound in the chest, jumping in an auto immediately after he was shot and going to his home.  It was hours afterwards before it was known that Mr. Boyle had been wounded.  His condition is not considered serious.
            All of the other twenty or more people who were more or less injured were reported to be improving today.  The body of young Officer Deaver was interred this afternoon at his old home at Frederica.
            William A. Hackett, the aged undertaker, was buried in Oak Grove cemetery at 3 o’clock and his funeral was attended by the Knights of Pythias, the Odd Fellows and the American Mechanics.  He was a charter member of Rathbone lodge, K. of P., and as a tribute of respect to him, no hearse was used, but members of this lodge carried the casket bearing the remains from his residence to the cemetery.
            The funeral of George W. Asbell took place at 3 o’clock this afternoon, his remains being interred in Palmetto cemetery.
            The body of L.C. Padgett was forwarded to his former home, some distance from the city, for interment.
            DUNWODY’S FUNERAL NOT HELD—Pending the arrival of a brother from Colorado, arrangements for the funeral of Col. H.F. Dunwody were not completed tonight.  The interment, however, will probably be tomorrow afternoon.  Among the kinsmen who arrived today to attend Mr. Donwody’s funeral were Justice Samuel C. Atkinson, of the Georgia supreme court, and Hon. Spencer R. Atkinson, member of the house from Fulton county, uncles of the deceased; Reuben Arnold, and Hollis Randolph, of Atlanta, brothers-in-law, and others.
            The body of Monroe Phillips, instigator of the city’s terrible tragedy, will be buried here tomorrow afternoon.  It was intended to forward the body to Reid’s, near Macon, for interment, but both arrangements were changed today.
            MINEHAN SHOT PHILLIPS—The only new development in the tragedy today of interest was to fact that an examination of Phillips’ body showed that although the load of buckshot from the gun of E.C. Butts brought him to the floor in Branch’s drug store, as he was preparing to reload his gun and fire, that he also was struck by three or four .32 caliber pistol balls.  As all police officers firing at him were shooting .38 caliber pistols, it was not known at first who had fired upon him with the .32 revolver.  Ralph Minehan, a young real estate dealer, who had seen Phillips shoot down three men, had rushed to a nearby hardware store, secured a revolver, and returned to the drug store, entering by a side door, and fired upon the blood-crazed man just a few seconds before Mr. Butts sent him down with a load of buckshot.
            he real cause of the shooting, it appears, though Phillips had planned it sooner or later, arose over a telephone conversation between Col. Dunwody and Mrs. Phillips early yesterday morning.  Mr. Dunwody represented clients who had attached the proceeds from the sale of a lighter several days ago, and Mrs. Phillips called him over the phone to endeavor to settle the matter.  Mrs. Phillips later told her husband that Mr. Dunwody had insulted her by saying “You and your husband are trying to beat these people out of this money.”  This seems to have enraged him and, securing his shotgun and at least fifty shells, eh started out to murder all whom he claimed had wronged him in the past.  Among these were Albert Fendig, prominent real estate dealer and banker; A.M. Way, who was badly injured, R.E. Briesnick and others.
            Hundreds of Brunswick citizens gathered around the scene of the terrible tragedy today.  In almost every building for two blocks signs of Phillips’ shooting was in evidence, buckshot landing here and there in show windows, in door fronts, in telegraph poles, behind which many people sought safety, and other places.



The Macon Daily Telegraph; Sunday 25 April 1915; pg. 5 cols. 3 & 4

EXERCISES AT BRUNSWICK—Interesting Services Monday in Observance of Memorial Day.

            BRUNSWICK, April 24.—Interesting exercises will be held in Brunswick Monday in observing Memorial day.  The program will begin promptly at 2 o’clock, in order that it will be concluded in time to permit those who desire to attend the opening baseball game of the Georgia State league at 3:30 o’clock.
            The exercises will be held at St. Mark’s Episcopal church, where the Memorial day address will be delivered by Rev. R.E. Boykin.  The program will also include music and a short talk by Miss Maria Blain, president of the local chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy.  Following the exercises at the church the parade, participated in by the First Regiment band, the Brunswick Riflemen, the boy and girl scout organizations of the city and others, will proceed to Oak Grove cemetery, where the usual salute will be fired over the graves of the dead Confederate soldiers.



The Savannah Tribune (Chatham Co., GA); Saturday 17 June 1916; pg. 4 col. 2

            Brunswick is being well represented in the northern states these days with a large number that is already there, yet there are a few more to go.  Miss Leola Menidy, Miss Ellen Dennis, Miss Sally Ried and Mrs. Eldora Floyd will leave Friday for points in the north.

            Miss Leola Buggs is spending her vacation with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Adolphus C. Buggs Miss Buggs is one of the teachers of Coleman Institute at Gisbland, La.  She reports having had much success her first year in teaching music.  Miss Buggs is a graduate of Fisk University.

            The closing exercise of Risley school last Friday night was excellent from every point of view.  The teachers deserve much credit.  Notwithstanding the number of hours each teacher is engaged in her duties each participant displayed well his part.  Since the leaving of Prof. Whithead as principal, the work has been entirely in the hands of Miss C.I. McIntyre.  There ought to be ome [sic] request made to the board of education by the colored citizens of Brunswick in reference to our public school system, for conditions are bad.  To search the record of Risley one would find that the board has not done one thing for the colored people but remodeled and painted what was given by northern philanthropists.  There are as many colored children as white and only one school for them.  The grand jury recommends but the recommendations fail to materialize.



Frankfort Crescent News; 25 September 1916


            A petition by Mr. and Mrs. Manson Coffman for the adoption of Harry Edmond Hanson, 19-months old, child of Raymond Hanson, was granted by Judge Combs in circuit court today. The mother is dead and the father gave his consent for adoption. The child’s name was changed to Charles Clifford Coffman.



The Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA); Thursday 1 February 1917; pg. 3 col. 3


            Many friends in Augusta of both contracting parties will be interested to learn of the marriage of Miss Ruth Angier and Mr. J.R. Minehan, both of Brunswick, Ga., which occurred at Kissimmee, Fla.
            The marriage was quite a romantic and interesting one, as the bride and groom constituted two members of a touring party, which was on its way to the west coast of Florida, being chaperoned by Mr. and Mrs. G.W. Harper, but upon arrival at Kissimmee they took the marital vows, probably superinduced by the name of the town itself as well as the natural inclinations which had been manifest to their friends for some time.
            Augusta friends, especially of the bride, are quite numerous.  She is a niece of Mrs. Benjamin Duke, of the famous Duke family of tobacco manufacturers, and is well known in the East as well as this section of the country.



The Savannah Morning News; Sunday 6 June 1920; pg. 4 cols. 1-3


            Brunswick, Ga., June 5—Neither the body of E.H. Jouett of Atlanta, or Miss Marguerite Fitch of Savannah, who were drowned on St. Simon[s] Island last Sunday, has as yet been recovered, although a constant search has been kept on all of the nearby beaches for the bodies.  A reward has been offered by relatives for their recovery.  What was thought to be the body of the drowned man was picked up yesterday in a small creek off Jekyl Island by a negro fisherman, but after an investigation it developed that the body found was that of Capt. Chadwick of the ill-fated tug Fortune, wrecked off Jekyl island some three or four months ago.
            The negro fisherman was passing through the creek in his small prawn boat when he noticed the body.  He at once came to the shore and reported what he had found to Coroner Jennings, who instructed the negro to at once bring the body to the city.  It was naturally believed that the body was that of Mr. Jouett, but after it reached the city it was discovered that it was unquestionably that of one of the missing men from the tug, as some half a dozen drowned when the boat went down have never been accounted for.  Although the body had been in the water for a long time, the face was in a splendid state of preservation, but other portions of the body were badly mutilated.  But little flesh remained on the bones.  It is believed, from the condition of the body, that the head had been buried in the mud, probably since the drowning, and that it was floated by the high tides recently.
            The coroner at once notified the owners of the ill-fated tug, and the body is being held pending instruction from the company.  In the meantime every effort is being made to locate the bodies of the unfortunate couple who met with such a horrible accident on the island Sunday, when they both were drowned, the young lady losing her life in an effort to save her companion.  They had both been thrown from a small canoe, in which they, with others, had been paddling around the surf, when the boat was suddenly overturned.  Being an expert swimmer, Miss Fitch attempted to save Mr. Jouett, but the strong tide was more than she could withstand, and they both went down as other people on the beach were making every effort to reach them.



The Macon Daily Telegraph (Macon, GA); Thursday 31 March 1921; pg. 9 col. 4

MINEHAN HELD ON FEDERAL CHARGE—Brunswick Man Is Arrested For Misappropriation of Funds—WAS BANKRUPTCY RECEIVER—Reports Say That Others Will Be Implicated in Heath Case.

            BRUNSWICK, Ga., March 30.—James R. Minehan, a well known [sic] young Brunswick automobile dealer at the head of the Minehan Auto Co., one of the oldest concerns of the city, was placed under arrest today by Deputy United States Marshal J.O. Mattox, on a warrant charging misappropriation of funds in connection with the handling of the bankruptcy case of the J.W.S. Heath Motor Co., of which Mr. Minehan was the receiver.
            Mr. Minehan had just returned to Brunswick from Miami, Florida, he having completed arrangements to move to that city.  Marshal Mattox was accompanied to Brunswick by Assistant United States District Attorney W.D. Turner and special agent J.F. Shipp, of the Department of Justice, under whose direction the proceedings were brought.
            J.W.S. Heath skipped out from Brunswick just a year ago after the most sensational operation ever known in this city, leaving creditors all over the country.  The amount he got away with was estimated at upwards of $150,000.  His business was thrown into bankruptcy and Minehan was named as receiver.  Following his arrest today, rumors were afloat that other people, prominent in Brunswick, would also be arrested in connection with the case.
            Several months ago, it was rumored that there had been certain irregularities in handling the Heath estate, valued at $1000,000 [sic], and it is reported today an investigation by the Department of Justice followed, which resulted in the arrest of Minehan today.  When questioned on the subject after his arrest, he said he had nothing to say and late this afternoon Marshal Mattox carried him to Waycross, where, it is understood, he will waive a preliminary hearing, furnishing the necessary bond, and will return to this city tomorrow.



The Savannah Tribune (Chatham Co., GA); Saturday 25 June 1921; pg. 2 col. 2

            Mrs. Madison Scarlett and her daughter, Miss Annie M. Scarlett left Washington last week to spend some time with her son, Geo. Scarlett, who is practicing law in that city.  Miss Scarlett is a recent graduate of Howard University.  They will return next month.

            The engagement of Prof. S.C. Mitchell, principal of Selden Institute to Miss Ella McLeod is announced.  Their wedding will take place June 29, 9 o’clock at the Presbyterian church, Cordele, Ga.  Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell will be at home Selden Institute, Brunswick, Ga., after July 1.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Tuesday 17 May 1921; pg. 4 cols. 6 & 7

Death Attempt Futile, Still Desires to Die—Looks Like I Will Survive, to My Sorrow, Ponsell States.

            Putnam Ponsell, machinist, aged 30, of 217 Broadway, who yesterday morning made an unsuccessful attempt to commit suicide by swallowing three tablets of bichloride [sic] of mercury, still wants to die.
            “It looks like I am going to get well, much to my sorrow,” he told a reporter yesterday.
            Despondency over the failure of his wife and two small children to return and live with him is given as the cause for Ponsell’s act.  He said that his wife went to South Carolina in February, taking the children with her, to pay relatives a short visit but that she now refused to return.  Ponsell said his mind was not clear as the result of the worry over the conduct of his wife and that he did not feel responsible for his act.
            Ponsell took the bichloride of mercury tablets shortly before 11 o’clock and was sent to the Macon Hospital in a few minutes, a maid at the boarding house having discovered that he had taken the poison.  The physicians were able to pump out most of the poison.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Tuesday 12 July 1921; pg. 1 col. 5

PAIR CONFESSES TO FLORIDA MURDER—Joe Martin, of Brunswick, and Jim Lingo, of Milan, Under Arrest—CAPTURED AT BAINBRIDGE—Admit Slaying John M. Tuggle, of Chipley, Fla., in His Auto.

            BAINBRIDGE, Ga., July 11—Joe Martin, 30, of Brunswick, Ga., and Jim Lingo, alias S.F. [sic] Ponsell, 26, of Milan, Ga., today confessed to the murder of John M. Tuggle, of Chipley, Fla., near Deerland on July 4, according to a statement made by Sheriff S.W. Martin, of Decatur county, following the arrest of the pair on suspicion.
            The prisoners were taken to Jacksonville where they were turned over to Florida officials.
            The capture of the two men came as the result of a charge of stealing two shirts placed against Martin by a man residing in the same boarding house that Martin was stopping at since he arrived here from Florida a few days ago.  Martin was taken into custody and when he was brought before Sheriff Martin his description answered that sent out by Florida authorities shortly after the crime was discovered.
            Lingo was arrested while he was at work in the office of a local lumber company after officers are alleged to have searched Martin and recovered Tuggle’s gold watch.  Martin was the first to confess and alleged that Lingo perpetuated the crime, while Lingo in his confession placed the blame on Martin.
            HEAD CRUSHED BY JACK—Tuggle, on July 3, while en route in an automobile from his home in Chipley to Milton overtook Martin and Lingo walking on the highway.  He invited the men to ride with him as far as Milton.  They accepted the invitation.  Tuggle went to Milton and while returning home on the Fourth again met up with the two men.  He picked them up and while riding along he is alleged to have been slain by the two men.
            When Tuggle failed to arrive home a search was instigated and his body was found lying besides [sic] his automobile about one-half mile off the main highway.  His head was badly mutilated and a blood spattered jack nearby indicated that it has been used as a weapon.  Tuggle’s money and watch were missing as well as his extra clothes which had been in a suitcase.  Laundry marks cut from the clothes were found beside the car.
            Martin, in his confession to Sheriff Martin, stated that both the men had taken part in the robbery and murder, but claims that Lingo was the one who struck Tuggle over the head with the automobile jack.  Lingo claims that Martin struck the autoist [sic] many blows.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Thursday 8 September 1921; pg. 3 cols. 6 & 7

DEATH SENTENCE PASSED ON PAIR—Putnam Ponsell and J.V. Martin Confess Tuggle Murder—CRIME COMMITTED JULY 4—Men Arrested in Bainbridge Are Convicted in Florida.

            CRESTVIEW, Fla., Sept. 7—The death sentence was today passed by Judge Campbell in the circuit court here, on Putnam Ponsell and J.V. Martin, for the murder of John Tuggle on July 4, inst.
            Ponsell made a full confession of the crime in court yesterday, implicating MartinMartin was immediately placed on trial, Ponsell being the chief witness.  He repeatedly denied his connection with the case, as the confession indicated, claiming that the deed was done by Ponsell and that the only part he took was as an onlooker, being afraid to remonstrate on account of threats on his life by Ponsell.  The jury brought in a verdict at 5 o’clock this afternoon after being out 30 minutes.  After the verdict, Martin broke down and made a full confession, corroborating the story as told by Ponsell.
            The substance of the confession was that Ponsell and Martin met Tuggle driving toward Milton in an automobile on July 2 and were given a lift.  When Tuggle left Milton on July 4, the two met him just across the river from Milton and asked for a lift back to DeFuniak.  When a few miles from Deerland, Ponsell, who was riding in the back seat, struck Tuggle on the head with an iron bar, stunning him.  Martin then struck him two more blows with the bar.  They then drove the automobile about 50 yards from the main road, pushed the body of Tuggle out of the car, one man beating him with the bar and the other with an auto jack, until they were sure he was dead.  After robbing Tuggle of his money and clothes, the men walked to the railroad boarding a train for Bainbridge, Ga., where they were later recognized and arrested.



The Columbus Ledger (Columbus, GA) Tuesday 20 September 1921; pg. 5 cols. 2-4

GEORGE YOUNG MEN TO HANG—Penalty for Brutal Murder to Be Paid on Gallows at Crestview, Fla., Next Friday.

            Crestview, Fla., Sept. 20—Unless something unforeseen occurs, Sheriff Steele will on Friday, September 23, officiate at the execution of Jake Martin and Putnam Ponsell, convicted a bare ten days ago of the murder in July of John Tuggle, a young man of Chipley, Fla., who had befriended them a hot day in July by taking them into his car and giving them a lift.  They rode to the east bank of the Blackwater river, opposite Milton, with Tuggle, and were carried possibly twenty miles by the man and in the car of the man whom they afterwards slew.  On the way to Milton they learned from Tuggle that the latter was on the way to Milton to visit a young lady, that he expected to make a return trip within a day or two.  Then it is thought, the two conceived the idea of getting car [sic] and Tuggle’s money, and killing him.  Tuggle started back on the return trip July 5, and the two men he had formerly befriended met him again.  Whether or not he invited them to again ride with him was never known.  They did enter his car a few miles east of Milton, and at a point near Deerland, they slew him.  Spattered by the victim’s blood, the car presented too much of a telltale appearance and they would not take it.  They were arrested at Bainbridge, Ga., a few days later, charged with the offense, one of them confessed, and then they went to Jacksonville for safekeeping.  Kept there until the week before their trial they were sent to Pensacola and the day before their trial, sent here.  The jury convicted them in 27 minutes.  It was quick justice.  They were sentenced just a week ago to pay the supreme penalty on the gallows, and unless something intervenes, the two will be launched into eternity shortly after noon.  They both have admitted they were guilty.  Ponsell never denied his guilt.  In fact, he all along admitted the crime, saying he was the one who struck the first blow.  He made a written statement, admitting his guilt, but Martin, shaking like a leaf, tried to place the blame on the other man.  The jury was not long in finding that Martin was just as guilty as Ponsell and Judge Campbell sentenced them both to die.
            People here who witnessed the trial of the celebrated Blackwell case when the two brothers who were convicted several times of having murdered Bud Davis and wife, claim that Ponsell, even after admitting his crime, and calmly detailing it to the jury, showed even more bravery than did Robert Blackwell, who, even on the gallows, stood with firm step and looked the people square in the eye until the trap was sprung.  There would have been a double hanging, with white men as the principals in the execution if one of the Blackwell brothers had not died in Pensacola.  The other brother lived to expiate the crime on the gallows.  Davis and his wife were murdered for their money.  Tuggle was killed for his money and the car he owned and drove.  A singular coincidence is the assertion that relatives were the principals in both of these crimes which have blackened the criminal history of Okaloosa county.  The Blackwells were brothers, and Ponsell is an uncle of Martin.
            Sheriff Steele is taking the utmost precautions to see that the sentence of the court is carried out.  He is affording the unfortunate prisoners the utmost consideration in their last days, but it can be banked on that they will be ready to ascend the gallows next Friday.
            The trial of the two men was accomplished without the presence of a relative of the accused men.  It is the first time in local criminal history that such a feature attended any criminal case.  No mother, no father, no wife, sisters or brothers were there to intercede, to comfort, to sympathize.
            The youthful criminals had been brought up, living at different points in south and southeast Georgia.



The Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA); Saturday 24 September 1921; pg. 1 col. 2

MEN HANG TOGETHER AS 10,000 PERSONS LOOK ON—Murderers Pay Death Penalty While Crowd Boosts Collection.

            Crestview, Fla., Sept. 23—A double execution took place here today when Putnam Ponsell and Jake Martin, paid the death penalty for the murder of John Tuggle on July 4th, near this place.  The trap was sprung at 19 minutes past 12 and the men were pronounced dead in 18 minutes.
            A crowd estimated at 10,000 persons had gathered to witness the hanging which was a public one.
            Both Ponsell and Martin admitted their guilt just before the execution and a letter from the mother of John Tuggle was read to the men in which she said that she had forgiven them.
            A collection was taken up in the crowd for the benefit of the wife and two children of Ponsell and the wife and one child of Martin who are destitute and more than a thousand dollars was contributed.



Columbus Daily Enquirer (Columbus, GA); Friday 28 April 1922; pg. 1 col. 4

FIVE ARE KILLED; TRAIN HITS AUTO—Seaboard Air Line Train Strikes An Automobile Near White Oak, Ga., With Fatal Results.

            WHITE OAK, Ga., April 27—Five persons were killed and two others injured when a Sea Board Air Line train struck an automobile driven by the Rev. B.C. Prickett, of the First Methodist church of this place late today.
            The dead are:  Margaret Sarmon, 14, Pauline Sarmon, 4, Vera Cheney, 14, Evelyn Crickett [sic], 10, and Mr. Prickett, who was about fifty years old.
            The injured are Elizabeth Prickett and Mrs. Prickett, wife of the pastor.
            The party was returning from practice for a church entertainment to be given at an Epworth League meeting tomorrow night and the automobile was within 400 yards of Mr. Prickett’s home when it was struck.  He died within an hour and the other four were almost instantly killed.



Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 28 April 1922; pg. 1 col. 8

5 DIED 2 HURT IN AUTO CRASH IN CAMDEN CO.—MINISTER AND 4 CHILDREN SLAIN BY S.A.L. TRAIN—Accident Occurs On Grade Crossing At White Oak—REV. B.C. PRICKETT DEAD—Sarmon Girls, Vera Cheney, Evelyn Prickett Killed—AUTO HURLED 200 YARDS—Mrs. Prickett and Another Daughter On Injured List.

            WHITE OAK, Ga., April 21, Five persons were killed almost instantly and two are seriously injured here late this afternoon when an automobile driven by Rev. B.C. Prickett, of the First Methodist Church of this place, was struck by a fast mail train on the Seaboard Airline Railroad.
            The dead are:
            Margaret Sarmon, aged 14.
            Pauline Sarmon, aged 4.
            Vera Chaney, aged 14.
            Evelyn Prickett, aged 10.
            Rev. B.C. Prickett, aged 50.
            The injured are:
            Elizabeth Prickett, age 8.
            Mrs. B.C. Prickett.
            The accident occurred within two hundred yards of the minister’s home.  The party was returning home from practice for a church social to be given here tomorrow night, the entertainment to be in honor of members of the Epworth League from Kingsland and Folkston.
            TAKE INJURED TO JACKSONVILLE—The bodies of the minister and his daughter, his injured wife and child, were taken to Jacksonville on the train which struck their small automobile.  It was learned early tonight that little hopes are entertained for the recovery of the daughter, Elizabeth, while Mrs. Prickett may recover.
            The little Chaney girl jumped out of the automobile just before the train crashed into it, but was killed when the train dragged the machine over her body before the engineer could bring his engine to a stop.  While no funeral arrangements have yet been completed ti is probable that she will be laid to rest here tomorrow afternoon.
            The bodies of the two Sarmon children will be taken to Tallulah Falls, Ga., the home of their mother’s family, where interment will take place.
            The accident occurred at an open crossing, the automobile being hurled a distance of 200 yards.  It is believed that when the automobile was attempting to cross the railroad its engine stalled.  Before the minister could restart the stalled motor the train hove into sight and the accident resulted.



Miami Herald (Miami, FL); Friday 28 April 1922; pg. 1 col. 6

FIVE KILLED WHEN TRAIN STRIKES CAR—George Preacher, Daughter and Three Others Meet Death; Wife and Another Child Seriously Hurt.


            WHITE OAK, Ga., April 27.—Five persons were killed and two others seriously injured when a Seaboard Air Line mail train struck the automobile driven by Rev. B.C. Prickett of the First Methodist church of this place, late today.
            The dead are Margaret Sarmon, 14; Pauline Sarmon, 4; Vera Chaney, 14; Evelyn Prickett, 10, and Rev. B.C. Prickett.
            The injured:  Elizabeth Prickett, 8, and Mrs. Prickett, wife of the pastor.


            JACKSONVILLE, April 27.—Four members of the Prickett family, victims of an automobile accident at White Oak, Ga., arrived here tonight, two of them dead and two injured.  They were placed aboard a train and hurried to this city for medical attention immediately after the accident.  Rev. Prickett, however died as the train pulled away from the station.  The body of his daughter, Evelyn, was sent along too.
            Mrs. Prickett, wife of the pastor, and Elizabeth, a daughter, were taken to a local hospital, where Mrs. Prickett was said to not be seriously injured, and although the little girl was in a serious condition it was believed she would recover.



The Atlanta Constitution; Sunday 17 June 1923; pg. 1K col. 2


            Washington, June 16—The marriage of Miss Mary Louise Morgan, of Pen-Argyl, Pa., and Frank M. Scarlett, of Brunswick, Ga., took place Friday afternoon at 2 o’clock at the First Presbyterian church.  The pastor, Dr. John Britton Clark, performed the ceremony.  The only witnesses was Cranston Williams, secretary to Senator William J. Harris.  No announcement had been made of the engagement.
            Miss Morgan resided in Washington several years while in the government service, but returned to her Pennsylvania home two years ago.  Mr. Scarlett is solicitor of the city court of Brunswick and one of the prominent young attorneys of the state.  He was active in the recent gubernatorial race as a supporter of Governor Clifford Walker, and was appointed as solicitor by Governor Dorsey.
            Mr. and Mrs. Scarlett are at the Hotel Raleigh until they leave for Asheville, N.C. Saturday.  After several days in North Carolina they will go by automobile to Brunswick.



The Macon Daily Telegraph (Macon, GA); Sunday 6 July 1924; pg. 13 cols. 5-7

FORMAL EXERCISES ARE PLANNED FOR OPENING OF GLYNN HIGHWAY—Brunswick-St. Simon Road to Be Made Available, Formally, on Friday.

            BRUNSWICK, Ga., July 5.—On next Friday the people of Brunswick and Glynn County will witness the formal opening of the now completed Brunswick-St. Simon [sic] highway.  To this great festival this community has bidden all Georgia and is cordially reserving for her visitors on that day such a reception as few Georgia cities have ever undertaken to extend to fellow Georgians.
            The opening of this highway means a great deal to Brunswick and means a great deal to all of the rest of Georgia and three or four bordering states, the people of whom should make of the Sylvan Isle of St. Simon one great playhouse for their Summer diversion.
            The opening of this highway brings an actual realization to a dream that has lived in the heart of Brunswick people for more than a half century; indeed it was stated a few days ago by a pioneer citizen and one who has been a pathfinder in most of the coastal development that Gen. James Oglethorpe at one time figured seriously on building some sort of a roadway from St. Simon to Brunswick in order to find an outlet in the event that the troops of Spain forced his men to an exit.
            Generation from generation, like a hope’s desire, bequeathed from father to son, as thus, stirred the hearts and the ambition of Brunswick and Glynn County people through all of the vista of years that have flown into the past.  Always, there has seemed to be an impression among local leaders that some smiling Gent would some day [sic] come along, touch the magic lamp and bring forth wealth to construct this great highway.  But “hope long deferred, maketh the heart sick,” and finally official Brunswick, official Glynn County, and the rank and file of this citizenship highly resolved to do for themselves what they had patiently waited for years and years for someone else to do.
            The found the will to act, and let it be said to the everlasting credit of the citizens of this community, they found ready hands and willing hearts prepared to co-operate and to give to them that concrete encouragement always necessary when leaders, with a vision, point the way.
            Accordingly some three years ago the officials of the City of Brunswick and the county of Glynn, supported by an almost unanimous wish on the part of the people, made up their minds to put this tremendous development over; spontaneous support came from every civic organization, assurances, co-operation were literally poured at the feet of those who were blazing the way; public meetings were held, a campaign of education was launched, in which press and pulpit played its part, and finally the idea of a joint bond issue in an amount sufficient to construct the highway was submitted to both the county of Glynn and the City of Brunswick and when these stalwart South Georgians, who have always stood four-square to every commercial wind that blows, voted on the question, there were only a few dissenting votes, and the first real success had been achieved!
            SETTLE HIGHWAY ROUTE—With the bonds sold, at a time when such securities were bringing good prices, the active work was soon under way.  With the co-operation of the Georgia Highway Department two or three surveys were made and then same considerable discussion as to the route to be followed; the first site starting the road several miles from the city, but after another survey and careful thought this plan was changed and the highway starts at a point within Brunswick’s city limits.
            Very naturally a people whose hearts had been so long centered on one object would find almost adoration for the finished product once it stood reveled to them.  That in short is the attitude of the average citizen of Glynn County today.
            They look upon this highway as unquestionably the most picturesque one in this section; picturesque because it is unique in its individuality.  It is a highway that first traverses the marshes from whence Sidney Lanier found the inspiration for his sweetest song:  then in a majestic sweep it crosses the various estuaries and rivers over bridges of wood and steel.  It is a highway lined on either side by imposing palms that give comfort to the journey while interspersed between the stately relics of the coast is “row after row” of sea myrtle, with its sweet ozone intermingled with that from old ocean, fills one with an odor of sweet perfume.  In short it is a roadway that, like the stars, dwells apart, and is in a class all by itself
            After this fairy land journey through marshes, over winding streams and rivers one finds oneself on St. Simon Island, an isle rich in historic lore, an island almost enchanting in its native loveliness, to which has recently been added winding surface roads that carry one through almost holy ground in Georgia; ground baptized by the blood of Oglethorpe’s continentals as they, under his magic leadership, drove the last remnant of Spanish rule from this hemisphere as Wolfe had done with the French on the dizzy heights of Abraham.
            The tourist will pass through the famous battle ground of Bloody Marsh and not a furlong’s distance away is the scene where once stood the famous oak under whose sheltering boughs the immortal John Wesley expounded the initial theories from which was evolved the great Methodist Church.  At Frederica, just off the line of the highway, is that historical fort, built by the willing hands of the troops of Oglethorpe and which stands today a great monument not only to their craftiness in building, but that patriotism which drove the Castilian hordes back to Spain.
            Finally the tourist we have been picturing finishes his journey still traveling on surface roads, that take him to Ocean Pier, and later will take him to Long Island and East Beach and here he beholds a plan that nature has fashioned for a Summer resort sufficiently large to make it a playhouse for three or four Southern States.  Unlike most spots of this character, St. Simon is literally interspersed with the most beautiful shade trees and groves of mighty oaks, while on the ocean side a beach stretching for many miles and a surf [sic] constantly wishing it, bids a welcome to those who would take a dip in the briny deep.
            First and last the Brunswick-St. Simon highway is a thing of beauty, to its winding courses there is pinned a people’s hope that not only Georgia people, but those from Alabama, Tennessee and the Carolinas will take advantage of the opportunity and come to St. Simons island [sic] and make of it such a resort as Atlantic City is to Pennsylvania, New York, Delaware and other states.
            FEAT OF ENGINEERING—It is no ordinary highway that has been constructed:  in fact engineers have pronounced it the work of modern engineering, and again Brunswick scores, because a native son, Fernando J. Torras was the engineer in charge of every piece of the work and he personally saw practically every yard of sand and gravel pumped from the bottom of the river by a gigantic suction dredge, he watched day by day the construction of the two large draw bridges and the half-dozen trestles made necessary in the building of the highway, and to this young Brunswickian, successful in many other large engineering feats is due great credit for the magnificent piece of work he has superintended.
            Being built jointly by the city and county, a representative of each was at the head of the building of the highway.  Mayor Malcolm B. McKinnon, representing the city, and County Commissioner E.L. Stephens, representing the county, composed the St. Simon Highway Commission and have devoted much of their time to the work, while A.O. Townsend, acting as clerk of the commission, has also labored in season and out for the success of the undertaking.
            The program to be rendered on next Friday, at the formal opening exercises, will be brief, except for an historical pagent [sic] to be staged in the afternoon.  The procession, in which will be a number floats, will form in the city at 10 o’clock and proceed to the island, where, at the end of the island, a large gate will be swung, and will be opened by a pioneer resident of the island, through which the parade will pass onto the island.  The highway will be christened by little Miss Catherine McKinnon, daughter of Mayor and Mrs. W.B. McKinnon attended by fifteen prominent young Brunswick girls.  Following these exercises there will be several short addresses, after which an adjournment will be taken for dinner and a drive over the island.
            In the afternoon the Brunswick Woman’s Club, always leaders in civic and educational advancement, will present an historic pageant depicting accurately the early history of St. Simon and Brunswick.  The pageant will have nine episodes containing twenty-two different scenes, arranged by a committee from the club, who spent a great deal of time and research compiling authentic details and every scene shown will be absolutely accurate.  The costumes committee, through the courtesy of Senator Wm. J. Harris, has furnished valuable information from the Congressional Library, and the costumes are also true to the various periods shown.
            The site selected for the staging of the pageant is perfect, being across the drawbridge over Frederica River on Cascoigne [sic] Bluff.  Under a huge grove of majestic moss-hung oaks, sheltered from the July sun, the throngs of visitors will view the pageant in the great out-of-doors.
            The pageant will open with a scene in the Creek Indian camp, showing among the tepees and the warriors returning from a hunt and executing an Indian dance.  It will also show an Indian trading scene when the Cherokee tribe from upper Georgia came to trade flint arrow heads for dried leaves and herbs.
            The second episode is in 1569, three years after the founding of St. Augustine, and shows the coming of the Friars of the Order of St. Francis, together with Spanish officers and soldiers and an Indian interpreter.  Through this interpreter friendly relations are established between the Friars and the Indians.  A crude church is built and the Friars teach the natives to read, write and count as well as arts and crafts.  In 1597 [or 1697, print is hard to read] some trouble developed between the Friars and the Indians, which resulted in the massacre of Father Velascola and all his associates.
            The next scene shows the debtor’s prison in England, about 1730.  Conditions were so horrible in these prisons at this time that Parliament sent a committee headed by Oglethorpe, to investigate.  Oglethorpe was so impressed that he decided to ask King George II to grant him a colony in America and allow him to bring the prisoners from the debtors prison to settle the new country.  The next scene shows the court of King George II on June 9, 1732, and the king gives to Oglethorpe and twenty-one trustees the charter of the colony of Georgia.
            The next episode shows the founding of Frederica February 18, 1736.  Oglethorpe accompanied by his secretary, Charles Wesley, soldiers, settlers, surveyors, etc., begin the construction of Fort Oglethorpe.  The second scene shows Charles Wesley preaching under the oak trees at Frederica and his brother, John Wesley, leading the singing.  One of Wesley’s famous hymns, O, for a Thousand Tongues to Sing, will be sung during this scene.
            BATTLE OF BLOODY MARSH—The battle of Blood Mash [sic], which was fought March 11, 1743 [the battle was actually fought 18 July 1742], turning the tide of English supremacy in America is next.  Lieutenant Sutherland enters with the English soldiers and Indians; Lieutenant MacKay with his Scotch Highlanders (from Darien) and the Spanish soldiers, under Don Miguel Bucarell.  While the Spanish soldiers are at supper, MacKay gives the signal of attack, by raising a Highland cap on end of a stick [sic], which results in the killing, wounding and capturing of the Spaniards.
            The next scene shows the colonial council in Savannah, May 8, 1771, when a map of Brunswick is drawn, the streets and squares named and George McIntosh, a surveyor, is sent to Brunswick to survey the city.
            The next episode presents five distinguished visitors who have lived on St. Simons.  The first is William Bartram, who visited Frederica in March 1774 and was the guest of James SpauldingBartram was sent to America by Dr. Fothergill of London, “to explore the vegetable kingdom for the discovery of rare and useful productions of nature.”  He found a rare species of the camellia family, which he named Gordonia Franklinia (now known as the Lost Gordonia).  This is the only plant of the kind ever discovered in its natural habitat.  Bartram gathered seed and carried them to other parts of America and to England.  From these seed have been grown a number of plants.
            The second distinguished personage is Commodore John Barry, who visited St. Simons in 1794 to select lumber for the building of the United States “Constitution” familiarly known as “Old Ironsides.”  This lumber was loaded at Gascoingne’s Bluff, where the pageant will be held.
            Nancy Hart, the pioneer woman, moved to Brunswick after the revolutionary war [sic].  Her husband, Benjamin Hart, died here and his will was filed in the local court.
            In 1804 Aaron Burr, vice president [sic] of the United States, following his duel with Alexander Hamilton, sought refuge and solitude on St. Simon at the home of his friend, Major Pierce Butler, where he spent a month.
            In 1839 Fannie Kemble, noted English actress, married Pierce Butler, and for a few years lived on St. Simon.  In letters written to friends in Boston she described the horrors of slavery as she saw it.  Through Henry Ward Beecher and his sister, Harriet Beecher Stowe, (author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin) these letters were published in book form and circulated throughout England.  The letters so influenced different member of parliament that they refused to recognize the Confederate State [sic] of America.
            The next episode shows a garden party at King’s Retreat, the home of Thomas Butler King.  At this time social life on the island was at its height.  The guests danced the Virginia reel.  In the distance the servants can be heard singing their plantation melodies and they are called to sing for the party.  A messenger arrives in great haste with news that Sumter has been fired upon and the men are summoned to war.  The men leave and the women begin to make a Confederate flag.  The next scene shows the return of a few of the men after the war, wounded and ragged.
            The last scene in the pageant shows Sidney Lanier in 1878 and a few verses of his famous Marshes of Glynn are recited, after which a grand ensemble will bring the pageant to a dramatic and colorful close.  The natural beauty of the setting, the bright and elaborate costumes of the various periods and appropriate music will make this one of the most beautiful and interesting pageants ever presented in the South.



The Macon Daily Telegraph (Macon, GA); Saturday 12 July 1924; pg. 1 col. 5

BIG CROWD AT ROAD OPENING IN BRUNSWICK—Between 12,000 and 15,000 People Attend Ceremonies—CELEBRATION IS IMPOSING—Notables Address Throngs That Come to Jollification—OPEN ST. SIMON [SIC] HIGHWAY—Dream of Years Is Realized as Official Ceremony Held.


            Cost, $400,000.
            Length of project, 4.1 miles.
            Length of bridge, one mile.
            Span of drawbridges, 208 feet each.
            Work on highway started May 10, 1923.
            Highway opened to traffic June 26, 1924.
            Total steel in bridges, 210 tons.
            Height of bridges (low water) 20 feet.
            Total amount of fill in road, 986,000 cubic yards.
            Total amount creosote piling, 62,200 feet.
            Total amount of creosote timber, 599,000 feet.
            Total amount of concrete, 1,600 cubic yards.
            Spans designed by State Highway Department.
            Engineer in charge of highway, F.J. Torras.
            Contractors on fill work, Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Company.
            On bridge and steel spans, Virginia Bridge and Iron Company.
            On trestles and foundation, Savannah Foundation Company.
            Gravel surfacing, Brunswick-St. Simon Highway Commission.
            The expense of the entire project was borne equally by the City of Brunswick and the county of Glynn.

            BRUNSWICK, Ga., July 11.—A crowd estimated at between 12,000 and 15,000 people attended the opening of the Brunswick-St. Simon highway today, which proved to be the most notable event of the kind in Brunswick’s history.
            The parade, which preceded the ceremonies, was the largest ever seen in this city.  When little Miss Catherine McKinnon, daughter of Mayor and Mrs. McKinnon, was christening the road on Frederica River, the end of the automobile motorcade and parade rested in Brunswick, five miles distant, and it was three hours thereafter that all cars reached the island.
            The christening ceremonies were imposing.  After the Key to St. Simon had been handed to Governor Walker by Miss Felicite Gould, great granddaughter of the original settlers of the island, the little sponsor broke a bottle of “something” and the bridge was officially christened.  The speaking, scheduled to begin at 11 o’clock, was delayed somewhat, but it was practically all over before the end of the long motorcade arrived at the island.
            HEAR ADDRESSES—Among the speakers were United States Senators Harris and George, Governor Walker, Clark Howell, Representative Copeland, of Lowndes County, Dr. J.W. Simmons, of this city, and several others.
            This afternoon the women of Brunswick put on what was pronounced by hundreds of visitors as the greatest pageant ever staged in the South, when 600 people took part.  It was a historical pageant, depicting accurately the early life of Brunswick and St. Simon.  It was witnessed by a huge throng.
            EVENT SIGNIFICANT—Brunswickians agreed tonight that the biggest event of its kind in the city’s history was the celebration today.  The opening of the handsome, picturesque road to St. Simon Island, connecting the mainland at Brunswick with the great separated from time immemorial by a span of just four miles, across the marshes of Glynn, was pointed to as markedly significant of the progress this section is making.
            Brunswick invited, and Brunswick expected, hundreds of visitors but the number exceeded practically all expectations, and during the entire day there was nothing but a jam of hundreds of handsomely decorated automobiles every inch of the entire distance from Brunswick to the island.
            The day’s festivities opened promptly at 10 o’clock this morning with the longest and most imposing parade in the city’s history.  Dozens of handsomely arranged floats, headed by a military band, rested on St. Simon Island, while the rear end of the parade made up of regular motorcade of decorated automobiles, occupied streets in Brunswick, unable to proceed because of the congestion.  From the time the parade moved until the final cars reached the island three and a half hours elapsed, and even at that the program of speaking was over before hundreds of people could reach the island.
            B.F. Mann, master of ceremonies, first introduced Dr. J.W. Simmons, who in a short but eloquent talk, welcomed the visitors to Brunswick.  The response was made by Hon. John N. Holder, chairman of the State Highway Department, who complimented Brunswick and Glynn County on the magnificent piece of work they had accomplished in building his great highway.
            HOWELL IS HEARD—F.E. Twitty, director of the Dixie Highway Association, then introduced Clark Howell, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, who made a beautiful talk, in which he paid tribute to the people of this county in complimenting

Pg. 3 cols. 3-5

[continued from page 1] them on the completion of a highway leading to what he thought would eventually be the greatest playground of the South.

            Sen. Walter George was the next orator, and for half an hour he told the large assembly just what he thought Brunswick had done for the entire State in building this magnificent highway.  He said he had heard of it, had read about it and had pictured it, but he was absolutely surprised when he rode over it today.  He said not only should all of Georgia appreciate it, but that it meant much for adjoining states and, for that matter, the entire South.
            Senator George was followed by Sen. W.J. Harris, who like the other orators paid Brunswick a great compliment for what she had accomplished.  He said it took an energetic enthusiastic citizenry to plan and perfect such a highway as Brunswick has built to St. Simon and that is was [sic] truly a gift to the people of Georgia.  While the senator, who came unexpectedly, was not scheduled for an address, he made a most pleasing one.  He had long ago been extended an invitation, but feared he would be unable to attend up to the last moment.
            The highway was accepted on the part of the State of Georgia by Governor Walker, who in an eloquent address of an hour told the people just what Brunswick, St. Simon and Glynn County had done for the remainder of the State and he said he knew that all of Georgia appreciates it to the fullest.
            GLYNN PAID FOR IT—The Governor pointed out the fact that no state or federal funds were available for the construction of the road, therefore Glynn County had to stand for the entire expense, “but you have not only built a highway, you have built a monument.”  The Governor said Brunswick had claimed that the highway would make St. Simon the playground of Georgia, and he added that it would not only e the playground of this State, but of two or three others.  He briefly told of some of the other great work done by Brunswick and Glynn County is road building and said he doubted seriously if there was a county in the entire State that had kept apace with Glynn.
            Following the Governor’s address the meeting adjourned, and under the dozens of beautiful moss covered oaks where improvised tables had been erected, Brunswick fed her guests.  There were hundreds of them, but arrangements had been made for just such a throng, and a genuine old-fashioned fish dinner was served.
            The guests were then given until 3:30 o’clock to drive over the island, and hundreds of cars visited many points of interest, including Frederica, Bloody Marsh, Long Island, St. Simon’s Pier and dozens of other beautiful and historical spots.
            By 3:30 o’clock, at which hour the historical pageant was scheduled, the crowd had reached such proportion that it appeared almost impossible to handle it.  Again a continuous line of cars stretched every yard of the distance of five miles from Brunswick to the island, and when the great pageant got under way there were many hundreds who could not view it, while thousands looked on.  The general concensus [sic] of opinion is that the pageant, which was sponsored by the Women’s Clubs, was the most spectacular ever staged in Georgia.  More than 500 people, all in costumes, participated and the early life of St. Simon and Brunswick was accurately depicted.  The first episode dated back to the early days of the island.  It pictured the peaceful Indian village, with the warriors returning from a hunt and engaging in a dance.  Next the Spanish missionaries in 1568, arriving at the island.  Friars of the order of St Francis entered the Indian village.  They raised the cross.  The timid Indians flee and hide behind the large island trees.
            An interpreter assures them that the priests are friends and a monk preaches Christianity to them.  They establish a mission.
            The next episode shifts to England and shows the interior of a debtor’s prison which General Oglethorpe visits.  Horrified by the conditions he evolves a plan to take these men from their misery to the new world.
            OTHER EPISODES—And then, episode by episode, the pageant depicts the battle of Bloody Marsh, the laying out of the City of Brunswick, a survey of the streets, the distinguished visitors who have lived or stopped on the Island, including Commodore Barry, who was shown landing at the Island to select timber for the United States frigate, Constitution.  Nancy Hart, the famous pioneer woman, who moved to Brunswick after the Civil War [sic], was depicted, as was Aaron Burr, who fled the island after killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel [sic].  A great deal more of the early life of the island was pictured and the pageant ended with a last feature picturing Sidney Lanier as he wrote his Marshes of Glynn under a little oak tree which still stands in Brunswick
            In the crowd that participated in the parade and assembled on the Island to witness the pageant, it is believed that practically every city in Georgia was represented.
            The Legislative party coming down to attend included Senators Carroll Garlick, R.E. Hamby, C.S. Arnow, Dr. SpenceRepresentatives B.F. Mann, Burwell Atkinson, Miss Bessie Kempton, W.T. Ison, Strickland, Copeland, W.M. Sapp, James Dixon, Charles Mullis, Lawrence Camp, L.L. Griner, R.H. Bandy.
            Among the prominent visitors were:  Senators George and Harris, Governor Walker, Peter S. Twitty, John N. Holder, Adjutant General Cox, Charles Bowen, Major Sultan, Hal M. Stanley, and a dozen members of the Governor’s staff.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Tuesday 27 March 1928; pg. 6 col. 2


            Mr. and Mrs. James S. Raffo, of Brunswick, Ga., announce the marriage of their daughter, Miss Cynthia Duggan, of Memphis, Tenn., and St. Simons Island, which was solemnized Saturday afternoon at the First Baptist pastorium, Rev. O.P. Gilbert performing the ceremony.  Miss Lottie Johnson, of Darien, was maid of honor, and Mr. Harry Arnold, of Brunswick, was best man.
            The bride was attractive in a dainty spring model of Alice blue flat crepe with gray accessories.
            The young couple left immediately after the ceremony for Savannah, where they will spend a few days, and upon their return will be at Ture’s lodge on St. Simons Island.



The Amarillo Globe (Amarillo, Texas); Friday 21 December 1928; pg. 2 col. 1

            At Brunswick, Georgia, Walter Rawlins, in prison, saw his wife whose complaint had jailed him for wife-beating.  He seized a carving knife, dashed from the prison, overtook his wife, stabbed her several times.  His excuse is “I loved my wife so, that I would rather see her dead than with somebody else.”



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Sunday 22 March 1931; Pg. 3 col. 3


            STERLING, Ga., March 21 (AP)—J.T. Young, storekeeper, was shot through the arm and side last night as he stepped out of the back door after closing his place of business.  Chief Godwin, of the county police, took Young to Brunswick for medical attention.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 4 September 1931; Pg. 15 col. 4


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., Sept. 3 (AP) – L.O. Godwin, Glynn county chief of police, today caused the arrest of W.T. Spell, his son, Dan Spell, and Earl Lucas, local federal prohibition officers, on charges of assault and battery and using profane language in the presence of women.
            Chief Godwin said he swore out the warrants for the three men investigating a report that F.L. Perry, resident of St Simons Island, was badly beaten by the officers during a fight on the island Saturday, in the course of which the officers used profane language.
            The prohibition officers were out of the city when they warrants were issued but were arrested upon their return and the trio posted bond for their appearance at the next session of city court.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Wednesday 25 May 1932; pg. 8 col. 2


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., May 24 (AP)—Bunnell Wright, alias J.B. Connor, 48, was shot and killed today and Ed L. Fader, 51, was arrested and charged with the slaying, Fader claimed self-defense.
            Wright died without making a statement. Officers said they found 20 gallons of whiskey in his car, parked near one driven by Fader. J.B. Boyd and a Negro, Charlie Lang, in the Fader car, were held as witnesses.



Tampa Morning Tribune (Tampa, FL); Saturday 12 November 1932; Pg. 18 col. 3


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., Nov. 11.—(AP)—A man listed by officers as S.I. Sharpe and his two sons, whose names were given as W.H. Sharpe and David Sharpe, were exonerated by a coroner’s jury today of charges of murder in the death of William Turner, local filling station operator, but the father was held by state authorities to serve out a sentence on a Walton county chain gang.  The men pleaded self-defense in the shooting of Turner.
            Sharpe was arrested in Jacksonville, Fla.  County Chief of Police L.O. Godwin said he escaped from the Walton county gang where he was serving a sentence for killing T.C. Brooks.



The Richmond Times Dispatch (Richmond, VA); Sunday 27 January 1935

Pg. 1 cols. 6 & 7


            WASHINGTON, Jan. 26—(AP)—The marriage of Jane Cooke, 20-year-old society girl of Chevy Chase, Md., to George S. Scarlett the family chauffeur, was disclosed tonight a few hours after the mother swore out a warrant for the chauffeur’s arrest on a charge of stealing her jewelry.
            The mother, Mrs. Howard deWalden Cooke, reported to police that when she awoke this morning she found Jane, another daughter, Anna, 22, Scarlett two of the family cars, two dogs and some of the family liquor all missing.
            The mother’s fears that the girls may have been abducted were displaced when a telegram signed “Jane and Nan” arrived early tonight saying they had “decided to go South” and that “everything was O.K.) [sic].
            Mrs. Cooke went to the police station at Bethesda, Md., however, and obtained a warrant for Scarlett’s arrest on a charge that he had made off with $5,000 worth of jewelry.
            A few hours afterward it was revealed that Jane and Scarlett had been married Friday afternoon by the Rev. John C. Ball of the Metropolitan Baptist Church, Washington.

            WINSTON-SALEM, N.C., Jan. 26—(AP)—The marriage of Jane Cooke, 20-year-old Chevy Chase, Md., girl, to her mother’s chauffeur, George Scarlett, was disclosed here tonight by her sister, Anna, 22.
            Scarlett’s father is a retired railroad detective.



The Cleveland Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH); Monday 28 January 1935

Pg. 4 col. 1

ELOPERS ON WAY TO ‘FACE MUSIC’—Chauffeur, Socialite-Bride Face Blessing and Theft Charge.

            WASHINGTON, Jan. 27.—(AP)—A paternal blessing and a maternal charge of theft tonight awaited the former Jane Cooke, 20, society girl, and George S. Scarlett, her chauffeur-husband, on their return to the Cooke home in near-by Chevy Chase, Md.
            The couple, who eloped and were married here Friday and then set off for Scarlett’s home in Winston Salem, N.C., accompanied by Jane’s elder sister, Anna, were reported on their way back.
            The parents of the girls, Mr. and Mrs. Howard De Walden Cooke, refused to discuss the affair, but Jane’s aunt, Mrs. John J. Madigan, Jr., said she knew the father was ready to bestow his blessing on the couple.
            “Mr. Cooke has said many times that Mr. Scarlett is a fine young man,” Mrs. Madigan said.  “He is a college graduate and was engaged as a companion for Mr. Cooke.  He comes from one of our best southern families.”


            Mrs. Cooke found her two daughters, Scarlett, two dogs and two family automobiles missing when she awoke yesterday.  She told police she feared her daughters had been abducted.
            Later, when she received a telegram from the girls saying they were safe, her fear of an abduction vanished, but she went to a police station and swore out a warrant charging Scarlett with the theft of $5,000 worth of jewelry.
            Mrs. Madigan said the girls had talked with her by telephone from Winston-Salem and had denied that any of their mother’s jewelry was taken.
            “The only jewelry they took was their own,” Mrs. Madigan said.  “The dogs was theirs and even the cars were registered in their name.”
            Mrs. Madigan said she believed the trio might come to her home in Washington on their return.  Scarlett’s father at Winston-Salem advised the young couple to return to Mrs. Cooke and “face the music.”



Richmond Times-Dispatch (Richmond, VA); Tuesday 5 February 1935; pg. 3 col. 5


            ROCKVILLE, MD., Feb. 4—(AP)—George S. Scarlett, Chevy Chase chauffeur who eloped with his employer’s daughter, posted $1,000 bail today for his appearance in court on his mother-in-law’s charge that he stole $5,000 worth of her jewelry.
            As Scarlett made arrangements for his bond in the States attorney’s office, his bride, the former Jane Cooke, 20, and her father, Howard de Walden Cooke, were with him.
            The father, according to all appearances, had welcomed him into the family, but Mrs. Cooke, cloistered in her home, was still adamant about pressing criminal charge against the youth.



The Albuquerque Journal (Albuquerque, New Mexico); Friday 8 February 1935; pg. 2 col. 5

CHAUFFEUR ELOPER IS LIBERATED—Judge Says Theft Charge Is Only Family Affair

            ROCKVILLE, Md., Feb. 7 (AP)—George Scarlett, the chauffeur who eloped with the daughter of the family he worked for, faced his socially prominent mother-in-law’s charge of theft in Police Court Thursday and a few moments later walked out a free man.
            After listening to Mrs. Howard de Walden Cooke of fashionable Chevy Chase, accuse Scarlett of running away with both her 20-year-old daughter, Jane, and $5000 worth of her jewels, Police Judge Donald A. de Lashmutt dismissed the warrant, saying:
            “This case is evidently a family affair.  The veracity of the prosecuting witness, who charges her son-in-law with the theft of her jewelry, is equal to the denial of the defendant.”
            The judge pointed out that neither the bride’s father, who is reported to have welcomed the erstwhile chauffeur into the family, nor her elder sister, Anna, was willing to appear against Scarlett or to corroborate the mother’s story.
            The story of the marriage of the couple, as disclosed, was that they slipped off to Washington and were married two weeks ago after Scarlett was given 30 cents and some time off by Mrs. Cooke to get lunch.  This was a reward, according to testimony, for his extra work of shoveling snow in the Cooke back yard.



The Seattle Daily Times (Seattle, WA); Friday 8 February 1935; pg. 1 col. 3


            WASHINGTON, Friday, Feb. 8.—(AP)—George S. Scarlett chauffeur who eloped with Jane Cooke, daughter of a socially prominent family of Chevy Chase, Md., today had only the wedding ring of a vanished bride.
            He was freed in Police Court in Rockville, Md., yesterday on a charge brought by Mrs. Howard de Walden Cooke, his mother-in-law, that he had stolen $5,000 worth of her jewelry.
            When Scarlett returned to the home of the bride’s aunt in Washington, where they had been staying, he found a note.  The wedding ring fell out.  The bride wrote merely that she was going away.



The Cleveland Plain-Dealer (Cleveland, OH); Sunday 10 February 1935; pg. 28 cols. 5 & 6


            WASHINGTON, Feb. 9.—(AP)—A case of “act in haste and repent at leisure” was how the “disillusioned” Mrs. Jane Cooke Scarlett, 20, described her recent elopement with the family chauffeur when she called on an attorney to discuss an annulment or divorce.
            The society bride of two weeks remained in hiding today after she disappeared Thursday while her husband, George S. Scarlett III, 21, was being cleared in Police Court, of charges that he made off with $5,000 worth of jewelry belonging to his mother-in-law, Mrs. Howard De Walden Cooke of Chevy Chase, Md.
            The bride left a note containing the wedding ring Scarlett had given her.  Another message to an aunt declared she “would never return” to Washington.
            Mrs. Scarlett, however, called on Attorney Alvin Newmyer yesterday afternoon.  She explained she had been too hasty in her elopement with Scarlett and wished to terminate the marriage, either by annulment or divorce.
            Newmyer said today he had accepted the case and probably would arrange a conference in a few days between the couple and members of their families.
            Mrs. Scarlett, the attorney said, is not stopping with her family or relatives, although she probably is in communication with them.  Earlier friends expressed a belief she might be visiting an aunt at Belfast, Me.



The San Diego Union (San Diego, CA); Sunday 10 February 1935; pg. 6 col. 3


            WASHINGTON, Feb. 9 (I.N.S.)—The brief romance of pretty, 19-year-old Jane Cook [sic], Chevy Chase debutante, and her father’s handsome young chauffeur, George S. Scarlett that blazed with their elopement and was interrupted by Scarlett’s arrest on a larceny charge, is nearing the rocks.  Jane, who vanished two days ago after a magistrate had dismissed the charge against Scarlett, is in or near Washington.  She is going to sue for annulment of her hasty marriage to the chauffeur and Scarlett will not oppose the action.  Jane decided, according to her friends, that the Cook family and the Scarlett family never would mix.  Hence the suit for annulment.



The Richmond Times-Dispatch (Richmond, VA); Tuesday 12 February 1935; pg. 3 col. 5


            WASHINGTON, Feb. 11—(AP)—A reconciliation plea of George S. Scarlett, chauffeur who eloped with his employer’s daughter, was rejected today by his bride, the former Jane Cooke of Chevy Chase, Md.
            Alvin Newmyer, attorney for the girl, acted as her spokesman in turning down a proposal by Scarlett that they make a new effort to make their marriage a success.
            Newmyer said his 20-year-old client was determined to terminate the marriage, either by annulment or divorce.



The Times Picayune (New Orleans, LA); 20 February 1935; pg. 19 col. 4

Pg. 19 col.

(By The Associated Press)

            Washington, Feb. 19.—George S. Scarlett, chauffeur who eloped with his employer’s daughter, will contest the annulment suit brought by his bride, the former Jane Cooke, 20 years old, of Chevy Chase, Md.
            Claude A. Thompson, Scarlett’s attorney, said today the allegations made in the suit would be denied to “keep the record clear.”
            Mrs. Scarlett said she married the chauffeur only after he had threatened to kill her, and that he had told her he had a well-paying job in the South, while in actuality he expected her family to support him.



The Albuquerque Journal (Albuquerque, New Mexico); Sunday 6 October 1935; pg. 10 Magazine Section

[Photos of the family with whole page article—ALH]

A Love-Lorn Chauffeur’s $100,00 Bill for Steering a Debbie to the Altar—The Elopement Ended in a Cell—for Him—and Seclusion—for Her; Now He Cries “Persecution” While His Bride Says:  “He’s Unchivalrous!”

            Glamorous and romantic Jane Cooke, the “Little Miss Muffet” of the Chevy Chase, Md., debutante set, after all these months has blasted her “upstairs and downstairs” romance with her “Admirable Crichton” chauffeur-lover, George Stanton Scarlette 3rd, by coming right out in public and saying that she is through with George because “it was unchivalrous of him” to bring a $100,000 damage suit against her mother.  George is suing Mrs. Howard de Walden Cooke, Washington, D.C., social arbiter, for false arrest.
            Just like the characters in Sir James Barrie’s inspired play, Jane—she’s the daughter of the fabulously wealthy Cookes reared and educated in the cloistered confines of Holy Cross Convent and only lately introduced to society—fell head over heels in love with the attractive and personable Scarlett.  He’s the handsome son of railroad detective, and he had entered the Cooke household as a servant.  Pretty Jane eloped with him to Washington, where they were married in true Lochinvar last January, with Jane’s approving sister, Anne, acting as bridesmaid.
            Everyone was thrilled over the story-book elopement.  Howard de Walden Cooke, 78-year-old father of the 19-year-old runaway bride, beamed on the romantic pair.  Jane’s condescending aunt, the socially prominent Mrs. John Madigan, nodded approval and wished the newlyweds happiness.  But as to Mrs. Cooke, Jane’s mother—
            “He’s a fugitive and I want him arrested!” she telephoned police in Savannah, Ga., where the newlyweds with sister Anne chaperoning, stopped for the night.  “He carried away diamonds I gave to him to take to the jewelers, and he has both the family cars and two of the family pet dogs.”
            So, on the strength of a warrant taken out in Rockville, Md., George was torn from the side of his bride and kept in jail in Savannah several days.  He waived extradition and was taken to Rockville for a hearing.  Jane’s father frowned on the whole unsavory business.  He really liked his 20-year-old chauffeur son-in-law, and his daughter Jane was his pet and he wanted her to be happy.  Besides, Papa Cooke had observed his younger daughter’s conduct on horseback and in the drawing room, and trusted her judgment.  Papa didn’t bother about warrants.
            Finally, after he had spent eighteen hideous days in the several hoosegows, Scarlette was exonerated of the charge of theft.  It appears that either Mrs. Cooke relented or that very essential factor, evidence of guilt, was lacking.  At any rate, George was liberated, but there were more thorns in his path.
            Jane was missing.  He was frantic until he learned that his bride had gone to the home of her aunt, Mrs. John Madigan, in Belfast, Maine.  What messages passed between them, what pleas and deelings[?], invitations and “regrets,” none may know—for, of course, the principals in the furloughed romance didn’t tell.  All anyone really could know was this.  Jane and her handsome chauffeur-bridegroom WEREN’T living together.
            It may be inferred that young George fretted, chafed and—remembered.  Finally he did something Crichton, in the play, would have never dreamed of doing.  He consulted a lawyer and announced that he was going to sue his mama-in-law for $100,00 damages, or approximately $5,550 an hour for every hour he’d spent in jail.
            The suit was filed, and by filing it, George just blasted himself right out of the marriage picture, if he hadn’t done so before.  He was no longer the “Admirable Crichton” in the eyes of the Cooke family or those of the Chevy Chase set who might, in time, have been willing to accept him as the son-in-law of Howard de Walden Cooke.  When Mrs. Cooke was served with the papers in the damage suit she called him an “intriguing adventurer,” and announced at the same time that her daughter Jane would prosecute and annulment suit against her chauffeur-husband on the ground that he’d become very dramatic and induced the girl to marry him by dire prophecies as to what would happen if she didn’t.
            “My love for him is dead,” Jane declared.  “He can go back to his family.  I have decided that the Cooke family and the Scarlett family can never mix.”
            And she filed her annulment suit, still pending at this writing.  Thus ended another attempt of “upstairs and downstairs” to meet on common romantic ground in accordance with Sir James M. Barrie’s theme of the servant who fell in love with the millionaire’s daughter.
            It was in the summer of 1934 when the wealthy Howard de Walden Cooke, retired businessman, took young Scarlette, who was then 20, into his household as chauffeur and valet.  Everyone in the Cooke household was happy.  Scarlette was handsome, pleasing in his manners and willingly helpful.  He became the all-around handy man and valet to Mr. Cooke, and was unfailingly courteous and obliging to Mrs. Cooke and her two lovely daughters, Anne, 20, and Jane, 19.
            “We do not look upon George as a hired hand,Mr. Cooke boated whenever he had the chance to speak of his admirable chauffeur.  “He is like one of the household.  We think the world and all of him and trust him implicitly.
            Of course, he had no idea that Scarlette’s advent into the family circle would culminate in a romance with one of his own daughters.  Thus, it made little difference to the Cookes whether or not he was the scion of a prominent North Carolina family, as a good many people supposed, or just merely the son of a humble, hard-working southern railway detective.
            Scarlette was handsome.  That couldn’t be denied him.  And he had excelled in athletics when he was a student at Winston-Salem High School.  In his conversations with members of the Cooke family, George let it be known that he had left a good job with the railroad in Winston-Salem, and could return to the job whenever he wanted to.
            The lovely Cooke girls, Anne and Jane, were educated at such fashionable schools as Holy Cross Convent and National Cathedral School.  They were allowed to have a few friends, but never were they allowed to have engagements with boys.  Jane was a sort of “Little Miss Muffett” to her friends because of the restricted life she led.  They were fun-loving girls, though, and got a tremendous kick out of it when the handsome chauffeur drove them to visit their aunt, Mrs. Madigan, who lives in Washington.  Mrs. Madigan, it appears, was more lenient and romantic than her sister, Mrs. Cooke, and allowed the girls a bit more latitude on their visits.
            It was while the girls were visiting their aunt in Washington that it was discovered that Jane had suddenly developed an interest in something.  That something, it later developed, was the handsome, stalwart chauffeur who had made himself such a valuable part of the family retinue.
            Then came the day when Jane and George eloped.  All Chevy Chase thrilled to the romantic affair.  Sister Anne, who knew all along about the budding love of her sister and the chauffeur, acted as stage manager for the elopement, saw the wedding through and accompanied the newlyweds to Brunswick, Ga.  There she suddenly came face to face with the realization that two is company and three is a crowd.  So she returned home.
            Anne, by the way, was herself married the other day to Captain Thomas Hay Nixon, Washington Army officer, divorced form his first wife, Annette Pauline Nixon.  It was a surprise wedding.  The couple went to Belfast, Maine, to have the ceremony performed.  But to return to Jane’s elopement.
            Jane’s mother stormed when she tot a telegram from her daughters in Charlotte, N.C.  The wire read:
            “Decided to go South.  Everything is all right.  Please do not worry.  Love Jane and Anne.
            Jane and her chauffeur-husband were having a lovely time as long as George’s $38 and Jane’s $20 lasted.  They were making a toast to their “Dutch Treat” honeymoon, in Savannah, at the moment the sheriff arrived with the warrant for Scarlette’s arrest.
            Jane remained in Savannah only a short time after her bridegroom was torn from her.  When she arrived at her home in Chevy Chase she found her mother in an unforgiving mood, but her aunt, Mrs. Madigan, received Jane with open arms and with the announcement that she would entertain the young couple at her home until such time as her sister would relent.
            Forgiveness, it seems, hovered elusively in the background for some weeks, or even months.  Then its shy apparition fled; finally Scarlette drove it away for good by announcing that he would sue his mother-in-law for damages.
            “It is the most unchivalrous thing for him to do,” snapped his disillusioned heiress bride.  “I could forgive anything but that.  I’m through with him.  He can go back home.
            On Scarlette’s side, it’s obvious that 18 days in jail plus the loss of a lovely bud you’ve just made your bride is rather tough.  Sentimental person still may speculate whether Jane would have changed her mind some day and the romance would have ended in true Barrie fashion had the love-lorn chauffeur not sent to his mama-in-law a $100,000 bill for steering her debbie daughter into marriage.



The Columbus Enquirer (Columbus, GA); Saturday 19 October 1935; Pg. 3 cols. 4 & 5


            Brunswick, Ga., Oct. 18—(AP)—The loss of a truck carry a cargo of whiskey valued at $2,500 near Brunswick while en route to Savannah from Jacksonville was reported to Chief L.O. Godwin of the Glynn county police, last night by S.O. Sasser, of Savannah.
            Chief Godwin stated that Sasser informed him the truck was driven by a negro [sic]] employee, while Sasser himself followed the cargo in another automobile.  The police chief stated that Sasser stopped in Brunswick and instructed the negro driver to continue the trip to Savannah.
            After leaving Brunswick following a brief visit with relatives, Sasser, according to Chief Godwin, resumed his trip to Savannah expecting to overtake the liquor-laden truck en route.  After reaching a point near Darien, Chief Godwin stated, Sasser was unable to locate the truck and returned to Brunswick where he notified Chief Godwin of its disappearance.
            Later during the night, Chief Godwin accompanied by Sasser, conducted a search and discovered the truck had turned off the Savannah-Brunswick road at a point the other side of Darien and had traveled the county road to the Jesup road where the officer and Sasser lost trail.
            Sasser informed Chief Godwin according to the officer, that he believed hijackers had seized the truck and forced the negro to depart from his route to Savannah.



The Albuquerque Journal (Albuquerque, New Mexico); Sunday 5 July 1936; pg. 10 Magazine Section

Another Marital Cropper for Chevy Chase’s Fox-Hunting Debs—After Stage-Managing Her Younger Sister’s Elopement with the Family Chauffeur, Dashing Anne Has Troubles of Her Own.

[Photos of the family with whole page article—ALH]

            The socially-minded, precise dowagers and debbies of aristocratic Chevy Chase, Maryland, are all a-dither.  Telephones are ringing, conferences are buzzing, hunting activities are almost suspended.  Perplexity rules the drawing-rooms and the riding clubs.
            Each member of the “horsey” set is worried about a stupendous problem that faces every swanky hostess in the exclusive Washington, D.C., suburb.
            Is blueblooded Anne Cooke Nixon a wife, or is she not?  Shall she be received as the wife of Captain Thomas Hay Nixon of the Ordnance Bureau, United States Army, or shall she be ignored?  So run the everlasting queries.  Up to the present, animated lingual activity hasn’t solved the dowagers’ and debbies’ awful dilemma.
            The basis for all the excitement is a ruling handed down by a Pennsylvania Court the other day—a ruling that makes the marriage of socially prominent Anne to dashing Captain Nixon void, in that State at least.
            The army officer’s second wife, Annette Finneron Cooke, ex-“George White Scandals” girl, instigated the complaint that placed Mrs. Nixon, 3rd—and Chevy Chase hostesses—in such an unhappy spot.  The showgirl asked the court to set aside Nixon’s divorce from her—and her request was granted!
            And this seriously complicated matters for fox-hunting Anne, for two children have already been born to her union with Captain Nixon!  While the decision stands, the children will legally be without names, in Pennsylvania at any rate.
            And the austere, correct Mrs. Howard de Walden Cooke, Anne’s wealthy mother—what will she do now?  Last time Mrs. Cooke went into action, when her younger daughter Jane was embroiled in a marital mix-up, the results were emphatic.  Sparks, remarks and bits of broken hearts flew all over the Maryland landscape.
            The blueblooded matron has had her hands full with the marital peccadilloes—and “croppers”—of her two attractive equestrienne daughters, during the past year.  And this in spite of her many precautions that Anne and her younger sister, Jane, should marry well and take their rightful place in society.
            It’s all been quite a blow to Mrs. Cooke, for she had sent her fox-hunting debbie daughters to fashionable and exclusive schools; their comings and goings were carefully supervised, even drastically restricted, for fear of improper associations, and unchaperoned “dates” were completely out.
            And maybe that’s why 19-year-old Jane eloped with the handsome, nearest[?] hand George Stuanton Scarlett, shortly after he had been hired by her late father to act as a chauffeur-valet and handy-man!
            Apparently Scarlett’s “handiness” wasn’t confined to just small jobs about the garage.  In a short time he won his way into the confidence of the family to such an extent that Cooke said to friends “We do not look upon George as a hired hand.  He is like one of the household.  We think the world of him and trust him implicitly.
            The fun-loving, carefully watched girls got a tremendous kick out of going for rides in the Cooke limousine with George, and in paying visits “below stairs” to the servants’ quarters, where they were wont to smoke a hurried cigarette while the chauffeur kept his eye peeled for strict Mama Cooke.
            Jane and George began to pay a lot of attention to one another.  Before long the watchful eye of the society dowager noted the “love in bloom” and bundled Jane off on a trip south.  But absence made the young hearts grow fonder.  Endearing letters passed between George and Jane.
            Some time later, when the younger Cooke sister returned, George proposed.  The happy couple told Anne of their plans for an elopement.  Anne agreed it was a swell idea—so good, that she proceeded to “stage manage” the romantic runaway.
            With the family car, the family jewels, two pedigreed dogs, $38 belonging to Scarlett and $20 to Jane, the trio drove to Washington, where the ceremony was performed.  It was so much fun, Anne decided to accompany the youngsters on their honeymoon.
            Within a short time the horse-minded Chevy Chasers heard of the “upstairs and downstairs” elopement.  Everyone was thrilled—that is, except irate Mrs. Cooke.  She sent out a police alarm for her missing daughters and possessions!
            A few days later, in Savannah, Georgia, the Cooke care was completely demolished at a railway crossing.  The occupants escaped unhurt, but the well bred dogs, annoyed at the irregular proceedings, disappeared.
            Outraged Mrs. Cooke swore out a warrant for Scarlett’s arrest.  “He is a fugitive and I want him arrested,” strongly declared the mother.  She accused the chauffeur of absconding with the family jewels.
            Jane returned tearfully to Chevy Chase while George remained behind Savannah bars.  Upon his return, the young husband was exonerated of the theft charges.  Meanwhile, his bride was missing.  She had been sent off to an aunt in Maine.
            The runaway romance blew up when George filed a $100,000 damage suit against his stern mother-in-law.  Jane indignantly announced:  “It’s the most unchivalrous thing for him to do.  I’m through with him.  He can go back home.”  Mrs. Cooke agreed, labeling the chauffeur “an intriguing adventurer.”  Jane filed an annulment suit, which was dismissed, and immediately after, filed suit for a limited divorce, which was granted not long ago.
            So the Cooke household—and Chevy Chase—settled down to nothing more exciting than the usual run of parties and punts afield.  But not for long.
            Sister Anne, who knew a lot about elopements, decided to stage one for herself!  Her choice for a husband was dashing, worldly-wise Captain Thomas Hay Nixon, a handsome army man who had already been married twice.  His fist wife had been a beauty from Georgia, and his second lovely Annette Finnaron, a “Scandals” girl of some years back.
            During her vacation in Maine, pretty Anne and the romantic Captain were married.  Just four days had elapsed since he had received his divorce form showgirl Annette.
            But Captain Nixon seemed to have forgotten something and Wife No. 2 was extremely annoyed.  According to Annette, Nixon hadn’t told her of the divorce; she declared that knowledge of the split-up first reached her when she read of his third jump into the matrimonial swim with Anne.
            Annette didn’t mind not being invited to the Captain’s third marriage, but she did object strenuously to not having been invited to her divorce.  Having had court experience before, when she had charged the jaunty officer with inadequate maintenance and, on another occasion with cruelty, the showgirl decided that everything wasn’t “according to Hoyle”—or legal procedure.  So she proceeded to petition that Nixon’s Gettysburg, Pennsylvania divorce be declared invalid, even though this would invalidate his ensuing marriage to Anne!
            Annette asked for dismissal of the divorce on grounds that the Captain was not genuinely a legal resident of the Quaker state.  It was the same plea that has knocked out so many Reno divorces of late—and it worked!  In a twenty-nine page opinion, presiding judge declared the divorce invalid.  The justice held that residence is a “physical fact” and that more possessions in a home (Nixon’s mother’s house) was not proof of residence.
            The handsome officer, and Anne, were stunned by the decisions.  “I have always considered Gettysburg my home,” the Captain said, “for since I have been in the army I have had to move around too much to establish permanent residence elsewhere.
            And the next thing you know, Annette Finnaron Nixon filed suit for absolute divorce on grounds of cruelty—and named Anne Cooke Nixon as correspondent!  Then followed a merry game of hide-and-seek, as blueblooded Anne sought to evade process servers.  Perhaps she felt like the fox she had so often pursued.  Finally, she accepted the papers.
            But to make the muddle more mixed-up than ever, along came twins!  Their birth was all that was needed to make the socialites forget their teas and horses.
            Dear, oh, dear—this was so terribly, terribly interesting!  Why—what was lovely Anne going to do?  And the highly correct Mrs. Cooke—how would she establish the legality of her daughter’s marriage and the parentage of her tiny grandchildren?
            Plainly worried, Anne still clings to the belief that everything will come out all right.  “It is all a terrible mistake!” she cries.
            Meanwhile, Chevy-Chasers have stopped chasing the fox and are waiting for Annette Finnaron Nixon’s divorce trial to come up.  And swanky mothers with pretty daughters of their own aren’t letting them out of their sight!



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Thursday 4 March 1937; Pg. 10 col. 5


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., March 3 (AP)—Glynn County Police Chief L.O. Godwin said he identified the body of a man found in a burned bed in a tourist camp cottage here today as Percy Strickland, about 40, of Daytona Beach, Fla.
            The identification was made from letters in the man’s pocket.
            Investigators advanced the theory Strickland died when the mattress on the bed caught fire during the night.



The San Diego Union (San Diego, CA); Monday 7 February 1938; Pg. 1 col. 6


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., Feb. 6 (AP)—Dr. Charles H. Lee, 71, rector of historic Christ church on St. Simon’s island [sic], was slain by a mysterious sniper while preparing a sermon in the rectory study.
            “We have few clues,” Chief L.O. Godwin said.
            Dr. Lee, native of Virginia, had ben rector of the little Episcopal church on moss-hung St. Simon’s island 11 years.
            The paper found in his hand read, “What so ever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name Lord, Jesus.”  It was based on the words of St. Paul.
            J.D. Baldwin, coroner, who investigated the death of the distinguished rector, a second cousin of Gen. Robert E. Lee, said he was unable to assign any motive.
            G.C. Durand, head master of Sea Island school and one of those called to the rector’s house for assistance after the shooting, asserted Dr. Lee had been disturbed over what he described as vice conditions.



The Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA); Monday 7 February 1938; Pg. 1 col. 1 & pg. 2 cols. 4 & 5

EPISCOPAL CHURCH RECTOR IS KILLED BY MYSTERY SHOT—Sniper Sends Bullet from Darkness into Study as Pastor is Preparing Sermon—TWO SLUGS FOUND IN RECTORY WALLS—Officers Find No motive for Slaying But Friend Advances Vice Racket Theory

(The Associated Press)

            St Simons Island, Ga., Feb. 6.—A bullet from the dark killed Dr. Charles H. Lee, 71-year-old rector of historic Christ Church, as he sat preparing a sermon in his rectory last night.
            The text on the paper found clutched in his hand read, “What so ever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of Lord Jesus.”  It was based on the words of St. Paul.
            Coroner J.D. Baldwin, who investigated the death of the distinguished rector, a second cousin of General Robert E. Lee, said he was unable to assign any motive for this incident.
            “I don’t expect that the jury will have any recommendation for several days,” said Baldwin.  “All I can say now is that Dr. Lee died of gunshot wounds.”


            Dr. Lee’s wife found her husband sitting upright in their living room shortly before midnight with a bullet through his temple.  She said it was apparently the second of two fired into the rectory through a window within a span of half an hour.
            Explaining both she and Dr. Lee suffered slightly from deafness, Mrs. Lee told a coroner’s jury they previously heard an explosion they attributed to the backfiring of a motor car.  They did not notice that a bullet smashed through the glass of the window.
            Then Mrs. Lee retired, and a second bullet, apparently fired from the same position outside the house, struck her husband.  Hearing the second shot, she said, she returned to the living room to find her husband dying.


            St. Simons is one of six islands off the South Georgia coast.  A causeway connects it with the mainland and Sea Island, a resort developed by the late Howard Coffin.  It is heavily wooded, thinly populated and laced with thickets and marshes.  The rectory is 200 yards from any other building.
            G.C. Durand, head master of Sea Island school, one of those called to the rector’s house for assistance just after the shooting, asserted Dr. Lee had been disturbed over what he described as vice conditions in Glynn county of which the island is a part.
            Durand said Mrs. Lee quoted her husband recently as saying “some great tragedy will have to occur before Glynn county will have law and order.”
            “This,” added Durand, “looks like the tragedy.  There are many dives being operated on the island which Dr. Lee, myself and others have been moving to have cleaned out.”


            Dr. E.H. Egbert, a physician summoned to Dr. Lee, said the bullet struck in the right temple, came out of the left ear and ranged through the walls of two rooms.
            “I don’t believe he ever knew what hit him,” said the physician.
            Officers said two .38-caliber slugs were found in the house, one of lead and the other copper-jacketed.  The bullet holes were a scant six inches apart both in the outside screen and the window pane.
            Dr. Lee was sitting on a davenport on the far side of the room and was facing the window.
            Dr. Egbert, who had been Dr. Lee’s physician for many years, said Mrs. Lee at first thought her husband had suffered a stroke.
            “I can’t imagine why anyone would want to kill him,” he said, “unless he found out someone was not living straight.  He was very outspoken to individuals and insisted that everyone around him live right.”


            Police Chief L.O. Godwin reported late today no motive had been established and no arrest was imminent.
            Early today, he said, a servant was questioned but had provided a satisfactory account of his whereabouts.
            Friends of the Episcopal rector declared he was retiring in public.  He had never campaigned from the pulpit, but was most outspoken in private.
            Even as the coroner’s jury and police continued the search for clues, a lay leader held a simple prayer service at the church to keep unbroken the chain of Sabbath messages begun there by John Wesley, the founder of Methodism.


            Christ Church is the main Protestant church on the island.  Many members of its congregation have been the nation’s notables vacationing on this moss coastal island.
            Calvin Coolidge attended services at the church in 1929 when he was president of the United States.  Mrs. Herbert Hoover has been there.  Industrialist Henry Ford has traveled from his Georgia plantation to hear Dr. Lee preach.
            Last month some thousand Methodists from all three branches of the American church pilgrimaged from Savannah to Christ Church, surrounded by the Wesley oaks under which Wesley is said to have delivered most of his American sermons.  Dr. Lee, a native of Charlestown, was director of the church for 11 years.
            Previously he was pastor at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church at Macon for more than 15 years.
            Survivors include three daughters, Mrs. Dwight Day, Portsmouth, N.H.; Miss Lucy Cartis Lee, Cooperstown, N.Y., and Mrs. Ralph Skylstead, Long Beach, Cal., and a sister, Miss Eliza Lee, Gloucester, Va.
            Funeral services will be delayed pending the arrival of Mrs. Day from New Hampshire.


            Mrs. Lee was confined to her room after the tragedy and four members of the coroner’s jury took her testimony at the bedside.
            She said that after hearing the second shot and still unaware of what it was, she opened the window and looked out.  “Except for an automobile going toward the pier I saw nothing,” she said.
            From physical evidence, officers said they had determined the shots probably were fired by a person standing at the corner of the rectory garage.  The living room is at the rear of the building and a large thicket is behind the house.
            Chief Godwin saying he found no clues, asserted, “The weapon was apparently a revolver because we found no ejected shells.”  The coroners’ [sic] jury was recessed tonight until Tuesday for further study of the case.
            Lee was a tall, powerfully built man, standing more than six feet two.  He weighed 250 pounds.  Mrs. Lee said he was educated at Hampden Sydney college in Virginia and at the Virginia Theological Seminary.
            He entered the ministry in 1893 and served at Leeds parish, Virginia, Greenville, Ohio, and Jackson, Tenn., before going to Macon.  He taught school in Brunswick near here before entering the ministry.
            John and Charles Wesley, before the founding of Methodism, served as the first rectors of Episcopal Christ Church.  Charles Wesley had been employed to come to Georgia as secretary to England’s General James E. Oglethorpe, who established the first colony in Georgia.
            When Oglethorpe established his colony he set up Fort Frederica on St. Simons as a buffer state between English Carolina and Spanish Florida.
            St. Simon’s Island, its trees hung with Spanish moss, has an area of about 19,000 acres.  It has a population of approximately 1000.  Most of the full-time residents are engaged in fishing or the naval stores industry or are connected with resort establishments.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Wednesday 9 February 1938; Pg. 1 cols. 2 & 3 & pg. 2 col. 8


[Photo of Church with caption:  HISTORIC CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH on St. Simons Island near Brunswick, Ga., is without a rector following the assassination of Dr. Charles H. Lee, 71, as he prepared his Sunday sermon in his home nearby.  The assassin fired through a window.]

            ST SIMONS ISLAND, Ga., Feb. 8. (AP)—Law enforcement agents of this coastal island continued investigation of “slender clues” today in the assassination of Dr. Charles H. Lee as several hundred persons attended burial services for the slain rector in the yard of Christ church.
            An inquest into the killing of the 71-year-old Episcopal churchman has been arranged for tomorrow in Glynn county’s waterfront casino by Coroner J.D. Baldwin, who has promised to “get at the bottom” of the slaying if it is necessary to “call every man and woman” on the island.
            Funeral services for Dr. Lee, who was killed by a shot from the outside darkness through a window of the rectory Saturday night as he prepared his Sabbath sermon, were conducted by the Rt. Rev. Middleton S. Barnwell of Savannah, bishop of the Georgia diocese of the Episcopal church.
            While other county officers watched the crowd attending the burial, Police Chief L.O. Godwin was absent on an undisclosed mission.  Chairman of Glynn county commissioners, R.A. Gould, said Godwin was in complete charge of the case, working “quietly on slender clues,” but that special investigators would be called into the case.
            “They are not yet on the ground so far as I know,” Gould said.  “We are leaving no stone unturned to solve the crime.  We are convinced, however, there is no vice ring on the island or in Glynn county.”
            Friends of the slain churchman had advanced the theory that he may have been murdered by someone with a dislike for his outspoken comments on vice and wrongdoing on the island.
            Dr. Lee’s widow and his daughters, Mrs. Dwight Day of Portsmouth, N.H., Miss Lucy Cartis Lee of Cooperstown, N.Y., and Mrs. Ralph Skylstead of Long Beach, Calif., sat with drawn faces beneath tall oak trees as the last rites were intoned.
            Commissioner Gould, an honorary pallbearer, said after the service the next development in the case was expected at tomorrow’s mass inquest, called by Coroner Baldwin, who said he was subpoenaing “many, many persons” to appear at the inquiry in an attempt to uncover the motive for the slaying.  Baldwin predicted “several arrests” in the interim.
            Rewards of $1,000 have been offered for a solution of the slaying, more than half the total having been raised by parishioners of Dr. Lee, a native of Charlestown, W. Va., who had served the island church for 11 years.
            The flower-decked casket was placed in a grave not more than 50 feet from the church.  The only departure from the solemn ritual was the singing of two Negro spirituals by a group of island Negroes.
            So far the only clues in possession of investigators are two .38-caliber bullets, one of which killed the rector shortly after a first shot had missed him, and reproductions of footprints found in the mud outside the study.



The Columbus Enquirer (Columbus, GA); Friday 25 February 1938; Pg. 16 cols. 5 & 6

PROBERS FAIL TO BREAK LEE SLAYING CASE—Officers Adopt Policy of Watchful Waiting For Clues

            BRUNSWICK, Ga., Feb. 24—(AP)—Glynn county police are waiting for some “slip of the lip” to lead them to a solution of the mysterious slaying of the Rev. Charles H. Lee, 71-year-old rector of famed Christ church on St. Simons Island, who was killed early this month by a bullet fired through a window of his living room.
            After 18 days of fruitless search for the assassin.  County Police Chief L.O. Godwin said his investigation had reached the stage of “watchful waiting.”  He expressed confidence, however, that the case would not be placed in the file of unsolved crimes.
            “Our greatest hope,” Godwin said, “is that through a slip of the lip someone will drop information which will prove valuable in our investigation.
            Chief Godwin added that he did not expect “an early arrest.”
            Meanwhile, as investigators continued the slow process of elimination of possible motives, a coroner’s jury was held intact awaiting call from Coroner J.D. Baldwin to resume its inquiry.
            Friends of the rector and members of the family were questioned at two sessions of the jury shortly after the slaying.
            Coroner Baldwin has forwarded to the federal bureau of investigation at Washington the bullet which ended the clergyman’s life, for examination by ballistics experts.
            “We have never definitely established the type of gun from which the bullet was fired,” the coroner said, “and I do not intend reconvening the jury until that information is received from Washington.”
            Another bullet of a different type also was fired through the rectory but did not strike Dr. Lee.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Monday 13 June 1938; Pg. 10 col. 8


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., June 12—County Police Chief L.O. Godwin is hunting for a man who set fire to two cabins at Jenkins Tourist camp at Dock Junction Thursday night and again Saturday morning, believing he intended to lure attendants to the scene so he could rob the cash register.
            This belief is based on the fact that Saturday morning when the second fire was discovered an employee saw a white man tampering with the cash box at the filling station.  Securing a pistol, he fired several shots at the marauder who escaped.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Monday 17 October 1938; Pg. 1 col. 6 & pg. 2 col. 1

CHURCH KEPT APART FROM LEE WRANGLE—Bishop Barnwell Declines to Be Drawn Into Controversy Over Murder

            SAVANNAH, Oct. 15—Bishop Middleton S. Barnwell of the Episcopal diocese of Georgia today refused to allow Glynn county officials to drag his church into controversy over investigation of the murder of Dr. Charles H. Lee, St. Simons Island rector.
            R.A. Gould, chairman of Glynn commissioners, stated yesterday in Brunswick that the Georgia diocese had shown no interest in probing the fatal shooting of its Christ church clergyman last February.  He revealed that two private detectives have been employed on the case by the county within the last two months.
            Confronted with Mr. Gould’s declaration, Bishop Barnwell appeared astonished at the attempt to draw the church organization into a criminal investigation and said he thought it best to refrain from any comment.
            Dr. Lee was mysteriously slain in his lonely island home late Saturday night, Feb. 5, as he sat making notes on his next day’s sermon.  The assassin stood somewhere in the darkness of the tree-gloomed yard, and pierced the 78-year-old minster’s temple with one of two bullets fired through a screen and window.


            Bishop Barnwell said he was notified of the death as he was preparing his own sermon at a Cordele hotel, but did not learn there had been a murder until the following day at service.  He immediately excused himself and hurried to St. Simons.
            The case has been extremely baffling because of the small amount of real evidence available.  Numerous people milled about the rectorate on the morning following the crime, destroying any footprints or other clues which might have been found.
            The two bullets remain the significant points to work from, but only the lead one, which struck the aged prelate, has been sent to Washington for expert ballistics tests, County Police Chief L.O. Godwin has said that he is holding the second bullet, a copper clad one, until further evidence, such as the gun, is found.
            Analysis of the fatal bullet showed it to be from a .38 caliber revolver closely resembling the Smith and Wesson type.  Without testing the other bullet, it cannot definitely be proved that both came from the same gun.


            The shots were fired nearly half an hour apart according to police who said that Dr. and Mrs. Lee mistook the first discharge for an automobile backfire.  Mrs. Lee was in the room with her husband at this time, but had gone upstairs to bed when the minister was killed.
            Persons who saw the bullet holes in the screen, scarcely an inch apart, expressed amazement that a gunman could achieve such marksmanship unless he fired twice in rapid succession.
            This incredulity is strengthened by the fact that the first shot passed within six inches of Dr. Lee’s forehead (indicated by holes in the wall) and should have caused an impression other than a car’s backfire.  Weakness of the half-hour theory also is shown by many’s [sic] supposition that Dr. and Mrs. Lee actually did hear a car backfire at the time the latter thought the first shot was fired.
            Mr. Gould and Chief Godwin have said that the county authorities have not called on the state for investigation aid.  Gov. E.D. Rivers has noted on two occasions that he would be glad to step in if requested, the state being unable legally to enter such matters otherwise.
            Glynn County Coroner J.D. Baldwin continues to hold investigating jury sessions at frequent intervals and often has gone to his own expense to ferret out additional information.



The Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York); Sunday 30 October 1938; pg. 7A col. 1


            Brunswick, Ga., Oct. 29 (UP)—George Cleyborn, Negro held for the murder of the Rev. Dr. Charles H. Lee, 71, tonight repudiated his confession which had resulted in the arrest of three other men.
            Cleyborn had stated that he and another Negro, Willie Green, had been hired for $150 by Henry J. and W.H. Cofer, resort operators on St. Simons Island, to kill the aged cleric because of his outspoken attacks against vice conditions on the island.
            George Cowart, attorney representing the accused Negro, took Solicitor W. Ben Gibbs to the Wayne County jail at Jesup late today and Cleyborn changed his story.
            The Negro said that he made the confession because he was “scared” and that he was not involved in the killing.
            Authorities said the murder charges against the Cofer brothers and the Negroes would hold, but that a new investigation would be made at once.



The Syracuse Herald (Syracuse, New York); Monday 23 January 1939; pg. 17 col. 5


            Brunswick, Ga., Jan. 23 (AP)—George Cleyborn, 25-year-old Negro, faced life imprisonment today for the midnight assassination of Dr. Charles H. Lee, aged Episcopal rector.
            A Glynn County Superior Court jury convicted the tall Negro of first degree murder yesterday, with a recommendation of mercy.  During the four-day trial he denied any knowledge of the minister’s slaying.
            W.H. Cofer and H.J. Cofer, white brothers also indicted on murder charges, probably will not go on trial until the May term of court.  The two resort operators and the Negro were charged with shooting the 71-year-old rector through a window while he was preparing a sermon in the rectory of Christ Church on St. Simons Island last Feb. 5.
            Defense attorneys said they would file a motion for a new trial.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Friday 3 March 1939; Pg. 5 col. 1

OUSTER OF CHIEF SOUGHT BY JURY—Glynn Body Charges County Police Head With Neglect of Duty

(Telegraph’s Georgia News Service)

            BRUNSWICK March 2—Dismissal of County Police Chief L.O. Godwin and dismissal or discipline of County Officer J.C. Coleman are among the recommendations made by the Glynn county grand jury in their general presentments submitted to the Glynn superior court Tuesday afternoon.
            Various county matters are discussed in the presentments, and many recommendations made, among them being the Georgia law which requires counties having less than 30,000 population, the tax commissioners, sheriffs and constables shall each pay over from time to time the county taxes to the proper officers, as required by law, as soon as $5,000 has been collected, be enforced in this county.
            The county police chief is charged with “flagrant” lack of performance of his duty and of conduct unbecoming an officer by the grand jury.
            The body also recommended that since the present clerk of county commissioners is ill and unable to perform his duties, that he be given an indefinite leave of absence with appropriate pay, and a competent successor be employed to assume these duties and that a person be secured with executive ability.



The Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA); Saturday 18 March 1939; Pg. 8 col. 5

GODWIN HEARING HAS NO TALKERS—Glynn Chief Hit by Jury.  Doesn’t Know Charges

            BRUNSWICK March 17 (AP)—When no one submitted evidence against him, a public hearing called on charges against County Police Chief L.O. Godwin was adjourned today.
            The hearing was called by the county commissioners at the request of Godwin after the grand jury, in recommendations, called for his immediate dismissal “for lack of duty and acts unbecoming an officer.”
            No charges were specified.



Oakland Tribune (Oakland, California); Wednesday 28 May 1941; pg. 25D col. 5

MARRIAGE IS SET FOR SATURDAY—Miss D’Arcy Dieckmann To Wed John Landon At Simple Ceremony—by Suzette

            Miss D’Arcy Frederica Dieckmann of Berkeley telephoned to friends, Monday afternoon, telling them of her engagement to John Edwin Landon, San Francisco attorney.  Miss Dieckmann is the daughter of the late Frederic T. Dieckmann and of Mrs. Dieckmann of Berkeley.
            The wedding ceremony, which will be read by the Reverend Laurence Cross, pastor of the Northbrae Community Church in the presence of the two families, at 1 o’clock Saturday afternoon, will be simple in appointment.  The bride will be [missing].


            Miss Dieckmann, a member of one of the older families in Bay society, is a granddaughter of the late Dr. and Mrs. Daniel Hopps of Piedmont and of the late Joseph Henry Dieckmann at one time United States consul-general to Mexico.  She is a niece of the Misses Marie and Anita Dieckmann of Oakland.
            Landon is a son of Col. Edwin Landon, U.S.A. retired, a former professor of political science at the University of California, now residing at Monterey.


            The future bridegroom, a graduate of the University of California school of jurisprudence, is practicing law in San Francisco.  The home of the young couple will be established in Berkeley.
            George MacQueen Landon of Detroit is a brother of the benedict-elect, and Mrs. Charles Vincent Litton, of Redwood City, his sister.  Litton will serve as best man for his brother-in-law.
            Miss Dieckmann is a student of art and attended the California College of Arts and Crafts.  She is a graduate of Miss Horton’s.



The Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA); Thursday 18 December 1941; pg. 1A col. 4


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., Dec. 17 (AP)—The assistant chief of Glynn county police and the operator of a roadside tavern were killed and another county policeman seriously wounded near here late today in a gun battle, County Police Chief L.O. Goodwin reported.
            Assistant Chief Anton Krauss was killed by T.L. (Nub) Turner, operator of the tavern, Godwin said.  Policeman J.C. Coleman was wounded by Turner, the chief said, and then killed Turner.
            Godwin said the officers were called to the tavern, known as “Nub’s Place,” to investigate a report two truck drivers there were drunk.
            The chief said Turner came up to the officers, started an argument, then pulled his pistol and shot KraussColeman, the chief continued, turned around to see what happened, and Turner shot him.  Coleman thereupon shot and killed Turner, Godwin declared.



The Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA); Monday 3 February 1947; pg. 1 col. 3


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., Feb. 2 (AP)—Glynn county Police Chief R.B. Henderson told today of shooting and wounding an ex-convict and arresting his shapely blonde companion after a gun battle in a rented cottage on fashionable St. Simon’s [sic] island.
            Chief Henderson identified the wounded man as Buddy Wilson, 29, alias Erwin M. Enzer, and his companion as Mrs. Ruby Cullifer, 24, of Brunswick.
            The police officer said Mrs. Cullifer told a story of having been doped by Wilson, brought to the cottage and held there as a prisoner.
            He said he was holding Wilson on a larceny charge, while Mrs. Cullifer was released under a $500 bond on a similar charge and turned over to Fernandina, Fla., police officers for questioning in connection with the removal of a safe containing a quantity of jewelry from a furniture store in that city.
            Chief Henderson said Mrs. Cullifer and Wilson rented the cottage January 18 and had been living there since.
            Yesterday, Henderson continued, Mrs. Cullifer’s husband, Dan Cullifer, swore out a larceny warrant against the pair, charging theft of a $3,600 diamond ring.



The Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA); Saturday 12 July 1947; pg. 1 col. 1

5 CONVICTS DIE TRYING TO ESCAPE—8 Others Wounded At State Prison Camp; Had Refused to Work

            BRUNSWICK, Ga., July 11—(AP)—Five Negro convicts were shot to death with shotguns and rifles and eight others wounded, two critically, today when they made an attempt to scale a 12-foot wire fence enclosing their prison camp near here.

                (Editor’s note:  The United Press reported early today that one of the convicts wounded near Brunswick had died in a hospital, bringing to six the number slain.)

            Warden W.G. Worthy said five prison guards and other officers who had been called to the camp to quell a disturbance, opened fire on 27 convicts as they raced toward the fence.
            One of the Negroes, shot as he climbed the fence, toppled dead on the other side.  When the shooting ended, five negroes [sic] lay dead and eight wounded.  Fourteen prisoners came back with their hands up and surrendered, the warden said.
            NONE HAD FIREARMS—None of the Negroes was armed with knives or firearms, the warden said, but several carried short iron bars and sticks.
            The warden and County Chief of Police Russell B. Henderson said the escape was “incited” by Willie Bell, who attacked the warden and attempted to disarm him.  Bell was shot in the leg.
            Of the eight Negroes taken to a Brunswick hospital, two were released to jail after first aid treatment.  The six others remained in the hospital under guard.
            The camp is an all Negro prison and has about 75 inmates.
            Major C.A. Williams, head of the state department of prisons, tonight sent two investigators her(e) from Atlanta, 300 miles northward.
            The warden gave his account of the shooting.
            REFUSED TO WORK—A group of new prisoners joined the camp yesterday, and were sent out today to work on the Jesup highway.  The new prisoners refused to work and were brought back to the camp about 4 p.m.   They wouldn’t get out of the trucks when ordered and Warden Worthy called county police.
            Chief Henderson talked to the prisoners and told them to do what the warden ordered, “and cut out that foolishness.”
            The Negroes got out of the trucks and were lined up in the prison enclosure.  When the police chief finished talking to them, they broke and ran to the barracks, and dove under the building which sits about two feet off the ground.



The Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA); Friday 31 October 1947; pg. 1 col. 1


            BRUNSWICK, Ga., Oct. 30 (AP)—Stories by convict camp guards of alleged rebellion by Negro prisoners before eight were shot to death at the Glynn county camp last July 11 were given a federal jury today.
            County police officers called to the camp before the shooting supported testimony of guards concerning refusal of 37 Negroes to obey orders of Warden N.G. Worthy and resume work on a ditch cleaning job.
            County Chief of Police Russell Henderson testified that the alleged ringleader, Willie Bell, made a “lunge” for the warden before the latter fired at Bell’s legs.
            Henderson said other convict guards opened fire when the prisoners started running.  He said he and two county policemen did not fire their guns.



The Columbus Enquirer (Columbus, GA); Thursday 24 June 1948; pg. 4 cols. 2-3

TOP O’ THE MORN By W.C. Tucker

(This is the fourth of a series of articles on Jekyll Island State Park.)

AN OLD CEMETERY—We told yesterday of a jeep trip with Governor Thompson at the wheel.

            One point of interest was a long-abandoned cemetery. It was a small one, though, containing only a few graves. One was for a baby, Herman Brinkman, born Dec. 2, 1898 and died June 4, 1899. George Hervey, born in England, and Hector Deliyannis, born in Smyrna, were drowned at Jekyll march 21, 1912. There was the grave of Joseph du Bignon, who died April 27, 1852, and the grave of Marie Felicite Riffault, who died April 8, 1852. Mrs. Amelia du Bignon died May 4, 1850. The du Bignons dated back to the latter part of the 16th century when royalists fleeing the revolution in France came into possession of Jekyll. This group which included Christopher Poulan du Bignon took possession in 1792 but they immediately lost title to the island when the ship taking the deeds to France for recording was pursued by an enemy vessel and the deeds were thrown overboard, along with other ship’s papers, to prevent their capture. Later the claim of du Bignon and his friends had to be reestablished by law.

OWNED BY FAMILY—The royalists soon fell to quarreling among themselves and a duel was fought in which one of the du Bignons was killed. This ended the noble partnership and the Island seems to have become the exclusive property of the du Bignon family in 1800.
            In 1859 Jekyll became the subject of international controversy when the yacht Wanderer, last slave ship to land in America, deposited 300 slaves on the island.
            Christopher du Bignon died in 1825 and the Island was bequeathed to his son, Henry Charles. One of the latter’s numerous descendants is H.F. du Bignon, now clerk of the Glynn County Superior Court and who had the job of handing out the checks to the individual owners when the state bought Jekyll. Another descendant, Fleming G. du Bignon, was president of the Georgia Senate in 1890 and lived in Atlanta for many years.
            The du Bignon family owned Jekyll for nearly a century and concerned themselves principally with growing their famous Sea Island cotton. In 1887 John E. du Bignon sold the island to a group of New York millionaires, headed by the original J.P. Morgan and George F. Baker. The millionaires owned the island for 61 years and during their regime an estimated fifty million dollars was spent on developments. Virtually all of these became the property of the State when Georgia acquired the island through condemnation and purchase on October 8, 1947.

CONTROVERSY NOT NEW—Jimmy Jones, publicity director of the Department of Parks, is our authority for the statement that the type of controversy that attended the State’s acquisition of the Island from a group of New York millionaires for $675,000 is nothing new to Jekyll.
            “For more than a century the huge island of nearly 11,000 acres was the pawn in a terrific international chess game between Spain and England with France sitting in as an occasional kibitzer through private owners,” said Mr. Jones. “Incidentally, one of these, old Christopher P. du Bignon, earned himself a modest niche as one of the unsung heroes of the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain.”
            Mr. Jones was on Jekyll last week and gave us plenty of historical data.
            In the early spring of 1814, so the story goes, three British men o’war hove to off Jekyll. They were part of a squadron that had participated in the attack on Washington which resulted in the burning of the White House and were on their way to support British General Packenham in his siege of New Orleans. The squadron’s commander, a Captain Ross lowered a boat and sent a party shoreward with terms for the surrender of the Island.
            But the party never landed. Monsieur du Bignon hurriedly assembled a defense unit made up of his sons, relatives and slaves and they showered the boat with gunfire, sticks, stones and French invective. The British returned later and carried off some slaves and some of the du Bignon silver but in the ensuing scuffle, Captain Ross was killed and the ships turned tail and sailed away. Meanwhile, General Andrew Jackson had fought and won the Battle of New Orleans which ended British rule in America for all time.

MANY TRAGEDIES—“The death of Captain Ross was only one of the many tragedies which attended the surge of history about Jekyll’s wooded shores and inlets,” said Mr. Jones. “During the latter part of the 17th century the Island was the hideout of William Teach (alias Blackbeard) and other notorious pirates who sallied boldly forth from the sheltered harbor of Jekyll River to prey on the treasure laden galleons plying the Spanish main. Legend has it that Blackbeard buried much of his fabulous treasure on the Island and then boasted as he lay dying: ‘Only me and the devil hisself [sic] knows where it’s buried and we won’t tell.’”
            “Evidently Blackie was right, for several treasure hunting parties have visited the island in recent years and no one has yet reported finding a doubloon.
            “During the Indian uprising against Spain in 1597 the Island was the scene of a bloody massacre. A small group of Spanish priests who had established a mission there was wipe out, excepting one Father D’Avila who was spared for some reason unknown to history. Then in 1603, the Spaniards fitted out a punitive expedition and returned to slaughter the Indians.”
            The island was under the flag of Spain until the English came in 1733 to found the colony of Georgia. General James Oglethorpe, who led the expedition, immediately took a fancy to Jekyll. The Spanish were ousted and Oglethorpe set up residence on the Island and lived there until his retirement in 1743. The ruins of a small fort built by Oglethorpe to house the island’s garrison exists today in a remarkable state of preservation.
            After Oglethorpe’s retirement, the island seems to have returned to the Indians who originally owned it. But King George III reclaimed it for England in 1768 on the bassis [sic] of Sir Francis Drake’s visit to the island in 1587 while engaged in an expedition against Spanish shipping.
            King George, in turn, awarded it as a gift to a friend, Clement Martin, who was ousted from ownership during the Revolution. Following Martin’s death, the island was sold at auction, in 1784 to one Richard Leake, a merchant, for the sum of 500 pounds.
            Next to own the island was a group of Royalists fleeing the Revolution in France.

(The Jekyll Island series will be continued tomorrow.)





Home            Contact         Site Map
 Copyright ©GlynnGen.com All Rights Reserved
Material on this site is one of kind, having been published here for the first time ever. This data was compiled by Amy Hedrick
  for the GlynnGen website to be used for your personal use and it is not to be reproduced in any manner on other websites or electronic media,
  nor is it to be printed in any resource books or materials. Thank you!

Want to make a contribution?

Donate via PayPal: